Buckwheat hulls

Hulls of buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum esculentum L.). This is a byproduct of the processing of buckwheat for milling or other purposes.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88 100 % - 1 84.6 -94.2 211 1.6
Crude protein 6.2 7.1 % - 2.2 2.7 -13.2 229 2.5 3 -15 219
Crude fibre 42.9 48.7 % - 5.4 28.3 -53.2 218 6.1 32.3 -60.5 208
Crude fat 0.9 1 % - 0.4 0.4 -1.7 10 0.5 0.5 -1.9 10
Ash 2.3 2.6 % - 0.5 1.6 -5.8 204 0.5 1.8 -6.7 194
Insoluble ash 0.3 0.4 % -
NDF 72.8 82.7 % - 7.4 59 -79.4 9 8.4 66.4 -92.6 10
ADF 57 64.7 % - 7.4 46.1 -67.7 9 8.3 51.8 -75.2 10
Lignin 24.8 28.2 % - 2.3 22.3 -28.4 9 2.6 24.9 -33.3 10
Water insoluble cell walls 78.3 89 % - 1 1
Starch 2.6 3 % - 1.8 0.8 -6.7 16 2 0.9 -7.5 16
Starch, enzymatic method 0.5 0.6 % - 1
Total sugars 0.9 1 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 4080 4630 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 17.1 19.4 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.9 2.2 g/kg - 0.7 0.6 -2.9 7 0.7 -3.2 4
Phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg - 1.5 0.6 -5 7
Phytate phosphorus 1.8 2 g/kg 91 % P 89-92 2
Magnesium 3.8 4.3 g/kg -
Potassium 5.6 6.4 g/kg - 4.9 -6.4 3 5.5 -7.2 3
Sodium 0.2 0.23 g/kg - 0.1 -0.4 3 0.11 -0.47 3
Chlorine 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.6 -1 3 0.7 -1.1 3
Electrolyte balance 132 150 mEq/kg -
Manganese 52 59 mg/kg -
Zinc 36 41 mg/kg -
Copper 8 9 mg/kg -
Iron 53 60 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 1.7 % FA 1.6-1.7 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 3 % FA 2.7-3.2 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 11.7 % FA 11.6-11.8 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 3.4 % FA 3.4-3.4 2
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 3.4 % FA 2.5-4.2 2
C18:1 oleic acid 1.1 1.2 g/kg 15.2 % FA 14.6-15.8 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 1.2 1.4 g/kg 17 % FA 13-20.9 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 3.6 % FA 3.4-3.8 2
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 5.2 % FA 5-5.3 2
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 6 % FA 5.8-6.2 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0-0 2
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 8.4 % FA 7-9.7 2
Fatty acids 0.7 0.8 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.46 0.53 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.36 0.41 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 11 13 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 49 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -34 -38 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.531 0.603 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1410 1600 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 820 930 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 630 720 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 3.4 3.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2.6 3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 43.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 41.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 61 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 24 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.49 0.55 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.38 0.44 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 10 11 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 49 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -33 -38 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.42 0.48 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.31 0.36 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 13 15 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 50 57 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -37 -42 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.45 0.52 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.45 0.52 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.35 0.4 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.35 0.4 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 12 14 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 32 37 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 45 51 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1410 1600 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 45 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 43.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 36 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 45 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 25 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 53.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.3 1.4 g/kg 65 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.1 1.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.3 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 454 516 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 382 435 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 10 11 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -18 -20 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 2.8 3.2 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 26 29.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1.17 1.33 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.32 0.36 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.28 0.32 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.2 0.23 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0 0 Mcal/kg -
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 3.2 3.7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 80 91 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -3 -3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1190 1350 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1100 1250 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 520 590 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1460 1660 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1300 1480 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 630 710 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 5 5.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 4.6 5.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 2.2 2.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 6.1 6.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 5.5 6.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 2.6 3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 29.2 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 35.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 34.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 41.1 %
N digestibility growing pig - 21.4 %
N digestibility adult pig - 46.9 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.6 0.7 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 470 540 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 460 530 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 2 2.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 1.9 2.2 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.5 0.6 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.5 0.6 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 46.3 %
Energy digestibility horse - 45 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.57 0.65 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 9 10 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 830 950 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 800 910 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.5 4 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.4 3.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 20.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 40.7 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1990 2260 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 48.8 %
N digestibility salmonids - 75.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1 1
Threonine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 1 1
Methionine 1.8 2.1 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1 1
Cystine 0.3 0.4 g/kg 0.5 g/16g N 1 1
Methionine + cystine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.4 0.4 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N 1
Isoleucine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 1 1
Valine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1
Leucine 5.2 5.9 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N 1 1
Phenylalanine 2.7 3.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1
Tyrosine 1.1 1.3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Histidine 2.4 2.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 1
Arginine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 1 1
Alanine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 1
Aspartic acid 6.7 7.6 g/kg 10.7 g/16g N 1 1
Glutamic acid 8.3 9.4 g/kg 13.3 g/16g N 1 1
Glycine 4.7 5.3 g/kg 7.5 g/16g N 1 1
Serine 3.6 4 g/kg 5.7 g/16g N 1 1
Proline 2.6 3 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 42 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 46 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.4 g/kg 66 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.1 0.1 g/kg 37 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 61 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.2 g/kg 48 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 60 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 55 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 61 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 65 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 60 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 64 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 57 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 73 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 50 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 57 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.5 g/kg 69 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.8 g/kg 33 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 52 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 53 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.6 g/kg 57 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 53 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.2 g/kg 57 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 66 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 58 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 64 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 60 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 60 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 64 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 54 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.5 g/kg 61 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 59 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 64 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 60 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 58 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 64 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 53 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 59 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 62 %
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