Gross energy (kcal)

Gross energy, obtained by the total combustion in an calorimeter (usually adiabatic), expressed in kilocalories per kg. 1 kcal = 0.0041855 MJ.

Values

Feed Perimeter As fed SD Range On DM SD Range Unit Other SD Range Unit Count Count Count
Alfalfa protein concentrate 4830 130 4620-4900 5240 130 4830-5240 kcal/kg - 7 13
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 16-18% dry matter 4000 120 3780-4140 4410 120 4150-4540 kcal/kg - 8 19
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 17-19% dry matter 4000 110 3780-4140 4420 110 4150-4530 kcal/kg - 12 22
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 19-22% dry matter 4020 4430 60 4340-4530 kcal/kg - 1 7
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 22-25% dry matter 4060 4490 90 4350-4560 kcal/kg - 1 5
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein < 16% dry matter 4020 4400 80 4290-4490 kcal/kg - 1 5
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein > 25% dry matter 4130 4560 4560-4610 kcal/kg - 2
Apple pomace, dried 4220 250 4640 260 4590-5210 kcal/kg - 5
Bakery byproduct 4140 4100-4280 4570 kcal/kg - 3
Bananas, immature, dried 3650 4050 4000-4540 kcal/kg - 1 2
Barley 3820 70 3490-4090 4380 50 4200-4590 kcal/kg - 108 334
Barley distillers grains, dried 4600 220 4550-4830 5040 200 4420-5210 kcal/kg - 9 12
Barley distillers grains, whisky production, fresh 1250 1250-1300 5100 kcal/kg - 2
Barley rootlets, dried 3940 160 3910-4380 4390 130 4140-4680 kcal/kg - 7 13
Beet pulp, dried 3630 160 3210-3900 4080 170 3540-4320 kcal/kg - 27 36
Beet pulp, pressed 990 4080 kcal/kg - 1 1
Biscuit byproduct 4480 4910 kcal/kg - 1 1
Black soldier fly larvae, fat < 20%, dried 4720 4550-5490 5190 4890-5830 kcal/kg - 4 4
Black soldier fly larvae, fat > 20%, dried 5610 540 5190-6210 6150 430 5690-7030 kcal/kg - 6 6
Blood meal 5380 500 4610-5750 5760 470 4240-6230 kcal/kg - 20 23
Brewers grains, dried 4410 370 3910-4830 4850 350 4230-5000 kcal/kg - 5 7
Brewers yeast, dried 4400 3860-4660 4740 4320-4870 kcal/kg - 3 3
Buckwheat hulls 4080 4630 kcal/kg -
Camelina oil meal, oil > 5% 4790 280 4560-4800 5250 290 4570-5300 kcal/kg - 4 7
Carob pod meal 3570 4180 kcal/kg - 1
Cassava, starch 66-70% 3510 110 3340-3920 4000 100 3770-4350 kcal/kg - 22 50
Cassava, starch 70-74% 3550 100 3420-3920 4060 90 3770-4350 kcal/kg - 18 46
Cereal offal, crude fibre 5-14% 3990 4500 kcal/kg -
Cereal offal, crude fibre > 14% 4050 4510 kcal/kg -
Chickpea, kabuli type 4080 120 3940-4470 4670 100 4360-4870 kcal/kg - 6 15
Chicory pulp, dehydrated 3640 4120 kcal/kg -
Citrus pulp, dried 3790 100 3600-3970 4190 90 3970-4420 kcal/kg - 18 21
Citrus pulp, fresh 780 4390 3520-4700 kcal/kg - 1 2
Cocoa hulls 3990 190 3780-4040 4490 170 4180-4720 kcal/kg - 3 7
Cocoa meal, oil < 5% 3760 4260 kcal/kg - 1 1
Cod liver oil 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Common bean 3860 4350 kcal/kg - 1 1
Common vetch 3850 4410 4280-4800 kcal/kg - 1 3
Copra meal, oil 5-20% 4420 400 3940-5130 4830 430 4320-5810 kcal/kg - 18 23
Copra meal, oil < 5% 4060 250 3880-4630 4480 250 4310-5060 kcal/kg - 10 12
Copra oil 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Corn gluten feed 3930 110 3780-4350 4470 90 4320-4730 kcal/kg - 20 33
Corn gluten meal 5000 210 4790-5400 5500 150 5230-5940 kcal/kg - 31 36
Cottonseed hulls 4400 4840 kcal/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre 15-20% 4750 140 4350-4950 5120 110 4780-5220 kcal/kg - 14 15
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre < 15% 4820 280 4460-5400 5230 280 4840-5840 kcal/kg - 34 35
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre 15-20% 4380 180 4210-4790 4860 180 4670-5160 kcal/kg - 9 10
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 15% 4430 240 3930-4820 4890 250 4380-5310 kcal/kg - 39 45
Cottonseed, whole 5230 5680 5400-5880 kcal/kg - 3
Cottonseed, whole, extruded 5230 5680 kcal/kg -
Cowpea seed 3910 270 3720-4120 4350 270 4140-4970 kcal/kg - 9 12
DL-methionine 5640 5670 kcal/kg -
Faba bean, coloured flowers 3880 110 3670-4000 4480 70 3970-4570 kcal/kg - 64 78
Faba bean, coloured flowers, extruded 3880 4480 kcal/kg -
Faba bean, white flowers 3850 90 3690-3980 4470 50 4350-4530 kcal/kg - 23 24
Feather meal 5170 240 4900-6070 5630 200 5330-6420 kcal/kg - 22 26
Fish meal, protein 62% 4440 230 4260-4810 4820 220 4660-5460 kcal/kg - 17 24
Fish meal, protein 65% 4510 210 4370-4970 4890 210 4670-5460 kcal/kg - 19 26
Fish meal, protein 70% 4710 290 4240-4970 5100 300 4370-5560 kcal/kg - 10 17
Fish oil, anchovy 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, capelin 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, herring 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, menhaden 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, rockfish 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, salmon 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish oil, sardine 9380 9380 kcal/kg -
Fish solubles, condensed, defatted 5430 5250-5660 5630 5360-6010 kcal/kg - 2 2
Fish solubles, condensed, fat 5850 6130 kcal/kg - 1 1
Fodder beet, raw 650 130 610-810 4000 kcal/kg - 10
Grape pomace, dried 4120 4520 4470-5010 kcal/kg - 1 3
Grape pulp, dried 4000 4440 kcal/kg -
Grape seeds 4780 5190 kcal/kg - 1
Grapeseed oil meal 4130 4670 kcal/kg -
Grass, dehydrated 4010 200 3670-4150 4460 170 3820-4600 kcal/kg - 12 32
Groundnut meal, oil 5-20% 4770 410 4500-5400 5190 420 4520-6190 kcal/kg - 6 12
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 9% 4320 4840 kcal/kg - 1
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 9% 4310 200 3950-4740 4830 200 4390-5180 kcal/kg - 25 30
Jatropha oil meal, oil < 5%, dehulled, detoxified 4040 220 3490-4490 4370 170 4060-4690 kcal/kg - 27 27
L-lysine HCl 4780 4810 kcal/kg -
L-threonine 4120 4140 kcal/kg -
L-tryptophan 6510 6530 kcal/kg -
L-valine 5830 5920 kcal/kg -
Lard 9380 9370-9550 9380 kcal/kg - 4
Lentils 3890 3610-3940 4400 3970-4510 kcal/kg - 2 3
Linseed meal, oil < 5% 4080 4650 kcal/kg -
Linseed meal, oil > 5% 4540 450 4180-5160 4980 480 4460-5850 kcal/kg - 9 15
Linseed, whole 5930 220 5780-6530 6450 230 6210-7020 kcal/kg - 8 9
Linseed, whole, extruded 5930 6450 kcal/kg -
Liquid potato feed 710 480-770 4020 kcal/kg - 2
Lupin, blue 4380 190 3970-4490 4850 180 4280-4980 kcal/kg - 11 21
Lupin, white 4460 180 4270-4700 5060 60 4870-5130 kcal/kg - 23 29
Lupin, white, extruded 4460 5060 kcal/kg -
Maize 3840 70 3730-4280 4450 60 4310-4810 kcal/kg - 100 304
Maize bran 4140 380 3670-4840 4560 390 4130-5680 kcal/kg - 20 21
Maize bran, starch production 3910 4480 kcal/kg -
Maize distillers grains and solubles, oil < 6 %, dried 4050 4590 340 4570-5500 kcal/kg - 9
Maize distillers grains with solubles, ethanol production, dried 4630 240 4160-5150 5170 260 4770-5700 kcal/kg - 37 42
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 14-30% 4870 380 4460-5930 5350 390 5020-6340 kcal/kg - 9 9
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 5-14% 4140 4630 310 4300-5240 kcal/kg - 9
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil <5% 3860 4340 kcal/kg -
Maize flour, crude fibre 2-10% 4120 200 4000-4690 4710 200 4560-5280 kcal/kg - 11 12
Maize flour, crude fibre < 2% 3900 4460 kcal/kg - 1
Maize germ meal, oil 5-20% 4860 5020 4990-5130 kcal/kg - 1 3
Maize germ meal, oil < 5% 4060 4630 kcal/kg -
Maize germs 6580 6910 kcal/kg - 1 1
Maize starch 3690 4180 80 3950-4270 kcal/kg - 10
Maize, extruded 3840 4450 kcal/kg -
Maize, flaked 3840 4450 kcal/kg -
Maize, high moisture 2970 4440 kcal/kg -
Mealworm larvae, dried 6380 430 5530-7460 6730 450 5540-7740 kcal/kg - 3 19
Methionine Hydroxy Analog MHA 4990 5670 kcal/kg -
Milk powder, skimmed 4140 100 4070-4350 4370 80 4330-4550 kcal/kg - 3 5
Milk powder, whole 5310 5540 kcal/kg -
Millet, pearl 4090 220 3600-4530 4560 230 4070-5080 kcal/kg - 21 21
Millet, proso 4180 40 4100-4190 4610 30 4520-4620 kcal/kg - 7 7
Molasses, beet 2790 130 2630-3190 3690 120 3520-3970 kcal/kg - 9 10
Molasses, sugarcane 2570 130 2510-2840 3550 140 3510-3940 kcal/kg - 7 8
Mustard bran 4280 4790 kcal/kg -
Oat groats 3850 4500 kcal/kg -
Oat hulls 3990 4420 4360-4440 kcal/kg - 1 2
Oats 4070 90 3840-4220 4650 60 4420-4750 kcal/kg - 48 88
Oats, flaked 4070 4650 kcal/kg -
Olive oil cake, with pits, oil < 5% 3980 4460 kcal/kg -
Olive oil cake, with pits, oil > 5% 4300 4890 kcal/kg - 1 1
Olive pulp, oil < 10% 3880 4380 kcal/kg -
Olive pulp, oil > 10% 4750 6060 kcal/kg -
Palm kernel meal, oil 5-20% 4350 490 3770-5480 4750 530 2990-6070 kcal/kg - 29 36
Palm kernel meal, oil < 5% 4090 400 3340-4570 4510 430 3670-5130 kcal/kg - 11 12
Palm oil 9370 9380 9370-9740 kcal/kg - 4
Pea 3810 70 3700-4060 4370 50 4150-4540 kcal/kg - 88 178
Pea protein concentrate 5060 5440 kcal/kg -
Pea, extruded 3810 4370 kcal/kg -
Potato protein concentrate 4870 5310 kcal/kg -
Potato pulp, dried 3670 4220 kcal/kg - 1
Potato tuber, dried 3620 100 3330-3810 4060 70 3890-4160 kcal/kg - 3 17
Poultry fat 9380 9380 9260-9510 kcal/kg - 1 3
Processed animal proteins, pig 4300 4530 kcal/kg -
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein 45-60% 5360 720 4300-7030 5840 760 4490-7200 kcal/kg - 15 23
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein 60-70% 5150 440 5140-5400 5510 450 5430-6630 kcal/kg - 4 6
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein > 70% 5340 5710 kcal/kg - 1 1
Rapeseed meal, oil 5-20% 4700 340 3940-5150 5140 350 4420-5800 kcal/kg - 14 18
Rapeseed meal, oil < 5% 4110 150 4030-4650 4620 160 4350-5010 kcal/kg - 43 56
Rapeseed oil 9370 9280-11260 9380 9280-9500 kcal/kg - 4 2
Rapeseed, whole 6410 190 6040-6800 6940 190 6520-7310 kcal/kg - 14 14
Rapeseed, whole, extruded 6410 6940 kcal/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 3650 270 3540-4590 4110 300 3800-5040 kcal/kg - 11 14
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 3780 4210 4130-4310 kcal/kg - 1 2
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 20% 3710 220 3520-4190 4050 200 3920-4690 kcal/kg - 30 32
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 4300 620 3140-5680 4770 680 3400-6360 kcal/kg - 20 23
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 4680 470 3880-5490 5220 510 4450-6110 kcal/kg - 17 20
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre > 20% 3890 280 3700-4550 4250 290 3940-4880 kcal/kg - 13 14
Rice hulls 3690 300 3280-3970 4030 300 3520-4320 kcal/kg - 6 7
Rice shorts, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 5% 4000 4560 kcal/kg -
Rice shorts, oil > 5%, crude fibre < 5% 4380 4310-4950 4880 kcal/kg - 3
Rice, broken 3780 380 3630-4620 4320 420 4020-5280 kcal/kg - 10 11
Rice, brown 3860 400 3690-4690 4360 430 4220-5330 kcal/kg - 6 6
Rice, paddy 3720 150 3580-3880 4230 130 4090-4400 kcal/kg - 5 6
Rye 3720 60 3670-3850 4290 kcal/kg - 5
Sesame meal, oil > 5% 4640 250 4180-5110 4980 240 4470-5250 kcal/kg - 9 11
Sheanut oil meal, oil > 5% 5240 190 5630 170 5460-5810 kcal/kg - 5
Shrimp meal 3480 3260-4330 3810 3480-4690 kcal/kg - 2 2
Sorghum 3930 140 3740-4230 4470 80 4290-4680 kcal/kg - 41 67
Soybean hulls 3850 90 3630-4130 4340 90 4190-4470 kcal/kg - 7 10
Soybean meal, oil 5-20% 4700 140 4410-4850 5050 110 4830-5130 kcal/kg - 4 6
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 46% protein + oil 4090 140 4060-4330 4660 150 4250-4980 kcal/kg - 10 15
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil 4140 140 3790-4640 4710 150 4060-5390 kcal/kg - 67 131
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, extruded 4140 4710 kcal/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, formaldehyde-treated 4140 140 3790-4640 4710 150 4060-5390 kcal/kg - 67 131
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 50% protein + oil 4150 80 4060-4570 4720 80 4590-4980 kcal/kg - 19 20
Soybean molasses 1860 3240 kcal/kg -
Soybean oil 9360 90 9320-9600 9380 80 9360-9610 kcal/kg - 9 10
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 50-60% 4410 4400-4500 4760 4520-4850 kcal/kg - 3 3
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 60-70% 4590 270 4240-5280 4920 280 4510-5630 kcal/kg - 14 14
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 70-90% 4880 5260 kcal/kg -
Soybean, whole, extruded 4980 160 4890-5660 5570 130 5520-6020 kcal/kg - 19 23
Soybean, whole, flaked 5020 5520 kcal/kg -
Soybean, whole, toasted 5020 170 4650-5480 5670 160 5120-5870 kcal/kg - 23 28
Soybean, whole, toasted, flaked and expanded 5160 5690 kcal/kg -
Sunflower hulls 4340 170 4250-4530 4780 170 4670-5230 kcal/kg - 7 8
Sunflower meal, oil 5-20%, dehulled 4690 5000 220 4710-5270 kcal/kg - 5
Sunflower meal, oil 5-20%, non dehulled 4900 230 4770-5060 5310 230 4820-5450 kcal/kg - 8 12
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, dehulled 4190 130 4020-4870 4630 140 4500-5200 kcal/kg - 21 37
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, non dehulled 4120 130 4110-4430 4630 130 4250-4920 kcal/kg - 20 35
Sunflower oil 9310 9380 kcal/kg - 1
Sunflower seed, whole 6360 280 5890-6880 6850 290 6340-7160 kcal/kg - 6 7
Sweet potato, dried 3670 250 3560-4260 4150 270 3660-4520 kcal/kg - 4 8
Tallow 9380 90 9170-9440 9380 80 9270-9490 kcal/kg - 8 9
Tomato pulp, dehydrated 4810 5180 4750-5330 kcal/kg - 1 4
Triticale 3750 80 3660-3990 4320 60 4220-4480 kcal/kg - 32 70
Urea 2520 2530 kcal/kg -
Vinasse, different origins 3160 4660 kcal/kg -
Vinasse, from the production of glutamic acid 3390 4850 kcal/kg - 1 1
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 30 % 2610 4190 4180-4380 kcal/kg - 2
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 40% 3080 4520 kcal/kg - 1 1
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 48% 3290 4660 kcal/kg -
Wheat bran 3930 80 3680-4150 4520 70 4310-4660 kcal/kg - 32 69
Wheat bran from starch production 3950 4510 kcal/kg -
Wheat bran, durum 3990 4610 kcal/kg -
Wheat distillers grains, starch < 7%, dried 4480 4910 100 4780-5150 kcal/kg - 15
Wheat distillers grains, starch > 7%, dried 4420 120 4420-4640 4810 kcal/kg - 5
Wheat feed flour 3960 210 3830-4110 4510 230 3870-4980 kcal/kg - 3 16
Wheat feed flour, durum 3960 4550 kcal/kg -
Wheat flour "Gruau D", durum 3960 4580 kcal/kg -
Wheat gluten 5110 4790-5440 5450 5110-5820 kcal/kg - 3 4
Wheat gluten feed, type 20% starch 4110 4520 kcal/kg -
Wheat gluten feed, type 30% starch 4030 3880-4080 4550 4480-4560 kcal/kg - 3 4
Wheat middlings (average) 4020 90 3870-4290 4580 80 4410-4840 kcal/kg - 20 39
Wheat middlings, durum 4010 4600 kcal/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch 20-30% 4060 90 3870-4290 4610 80 4410-4840 kcal/kg - 17 33
Wheat middlings, starch 30-40% 4030 90 3870-4290 4590 80 4410-4840 kcal/kg - 14 33
Wheat middlings, starch < 20% 4050 100 3870-4290 4590 80 4410-4840 kcal/kg - 14 30
Wheat middlings, starch > 40% 4020 90 3870-4290 4570 80 4410-4840 kcal/kg - 14 30
Wheat straw 3970 240 3310-4150 4410 200 3650-4490 kcal/kg - 6 20
Wheat, durum 3880 4420 kcal/kg - 1
Wheat, soft 3790 80 3610-4210 4360 70 3970-4660 kcal/kg - 121 404
Whey permeate 3650 3740 kcal/kg -
Whey powder, acid 3570 3680 120 3460-3760 kcal/kg - 7
Whey powder, sweet 3660 160 3210-4330 3780 160 3420-3870 kcal/kg - 6 6
Whey, dehydrated, with added fat 4-15% 4150 3820-4190 4330 3940-4430 kcal/kg - 2 2
Whey, dried, with added fat 15-30% 4630 4810 kcal/kg -