Parameters

Name Unit Unit Definition
Dry matter % -

Dry matter, difference between the total weight and the moisture content. It is usually obtained by oven-drying, though there are methods specific to particular products, such as silages, fats, and molasses.

Crude protein % -

Crude protein, calculated as N x 6.25, where N is the nitrogen obtained by mineralisation through the Kjeldahl or Dumas methods.

Crude fibre % -

Crude fibre, also known as Weende cellulose, is the insoluble residue of an acid hydrolysis followed by an alkaline one. This residue contains true cellulose and insoluble lignin. It is also used to assess hair, hoof or feather residues in animal byproducts.

Crude fat % -

Crude fat, extracted by diethyl ether, petroleum ether or hexane, usually without prior hydrolysis.

Crude fat, hydrolysis % -

Crude fat, extracted by diethyl ether, petroleum ether or hexane, with prior HCl hydrolysis. This method is recommended for animal products/byproduct, gluten, potato pulp, distillery and brewery byproducts, yeast, dairy products and bakery/biscuits byproducts.

Ash % -

Ash (mineral matter) remaining after incineration. Organic matter is calculated as 100 - ash.

Insoluble ash % -

Insoluble ash, residue after incineration and treatment with cholorhydric acid. Sometimes considered as silica.

NDF % -

Neutral detergent fibre, fraction of the cell walls according to Van Soest, considered to be roughly equivalent to the sum of hemicellulose, true cellulose and lignin.

ADF % -

Acid Detergent Fiber, fraction of the cell walls according to Van Soest, considered to be roughly equivalent to the sum of true cellulose and lignin. ADF is generally higher than crude fibre.

Lignin % -

Lignin, usually obtained by the Van Soest method. Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) is composed of both soluble and insoluble lignins.

Water insoluble cell walls % -

Water insoluble cell walls, according to the Carré method, used as a predictor for the metabolizable energy of poultry feeds. This method is described in the AFNOR norm NFV 18-111.

Starch % -

Starch, generally measured by polarimetry. Depending on the method, the obtained starch value include actual starch but possibly other carbohydrate compounds.

Total sugars % -

Total sugars, usually obtained by ethanol extraction, but other methods are used depending on the product.

Lactose % -

Lactose, a disaccharide sugar found in milk.

Gross energy (kcal) kcal/kg -

Gross energy, obtained by the total combustion in an calorimeter (usually adiabatic), expressed in kilocalories per kg. 1 kcal = 0.0041855 MJ.

Gross energy (MJ) MJ/kg -

Gross energy, obtained by the total combustion in an calorimeter (usually adiabatic), expressed in megajoules per kg. 1 MJ = 238.92 kcal.

Calcium g/kg -

Calcium (Ca), a major mineral.

Phosphorus g/kg -

Phosphorus (P), a major mineral.

Phytate phosphorus g/kg % P

Phytate phosphorus is the organic phosphorus bound in the form of phytic acid in plants. It is poorly available to animals unless freed by a phytase enzyme.

Magnesium g/kg -

Magnesium (Mg), a major mineral.

Potassium g/kg -

Potassium (K), a major mineral.

Sodium g/kg -

Sodium (Na), a major mineral.

Chlorine g/kg -

Chlorine (Cl), a major mineral. It expressed as an element, and not as sodium chloride (NaCl).

Sulfur g/kg -

Sulfur (S), a major mineral. Alternative spelling: sulphur.

Dietary cation-anion difference mEq/kg -

Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is the difference between the Na and K cations and the Cl and S anions: DCAD = Na+ + K+ -  Cl- - S2-. DCDA is used to balance the acid-alkaline status in ruminants.

Electrolyte balance mEq/kg -

Electrolytical balance (EB) is the difference between the Na and K cations and the S anion: Na+ + K+ - Cl-. The EB is used to balance the electrolyte status in ruminants.

Manganese mg/kg -

Manganese (Mn), a trace element.

Zinc mg/kg -

Zinc (Zn), a trace element.

Copper mg/kg -

Copper (Cu), a trace element.

Iron mg/kg -

Iron (Fe), a trace element.

Selenium mg/kg -

Selenium (Se), a trace element.

Cobalt mg/kg -

Cobalt (Co), a trace element.

Molybdenum mg/kg -

Molybdenum (Mo), a trace element.

Iodine mg/kg -

Iodine (I), a trace element.

C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids g/kg % FA

Sum of fatty acids C6+C8+C10.

C12:0 lauric acid g/kg % FA

Lauric acid C12:0, a saturated fatty acid.

C14:0 myristic acid g/kg % FA

Myristic acid C14:0, a saturated fatty acid.

C16:0 palmitic acid g/kg % FA

Palmitic acid C16:0, a saturated fatty acid.

C16:1 palmitoleic acid g/kg % FA

Palmitoleic acid C16:1, a monounsaturated omega-7 fatty acid.

C18:0 stearic acid g/kg % FA

Stearic acid C18:0, a saturated fatty acid.

C18:1 oleic acid g/kg % FA

Oleic acid C18:1, a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid.

C18:2 linoleic acid g/kg % FA

Linoleic acid C18:2, a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.

C18:3 linolenic acid g/kg % FA

Linolenic acid C18:3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid. α-linolenic acid (ALA) is an omega-3 fatty acid, common in many plant oils. γ-linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid.

C18:4 stearidonic acid g/kg % FA

Stearidonic acid C18:4, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid.

C20:0 arachidic acid g/kg % FA

Arachidic acid C20:0, a saturated fatty acid.

C20:1 eicosenoic acid g/kg % FA

Eicosenoic acid C20:1, a monounsaturated fatty acid that exists in three different forms: 9-eicosenoic acid (gadoleic acid), an omega-11 fatty acid common in fish oils, 11-eicosenoic acid (gondoic acid), an omega-9 fatty acid characteristic of jojoba oil, and 13-eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), an omega-7 fatty acid.

C20:4 arachidonic acid g/kg % FA

Arachidonic acid C20:4, a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.

C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid g/kg % FA

Eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Other name: timnodonic acid.

C22:0 behenic acid g/kg % FA

Behenic acid C22:0, a saturated fatty acid. Synonym: docosanoic acid.

C22:1 erucic acid g/kg % FA

Erucic acid C22:1, a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid.

C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid g/kg % FA

Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) C22:5, a polyunsaturated fatty acid. All-cis-4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic acid (osbond acid) is an omega-6 fatty acid. All-cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (clupanodonic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid g/kg % FA

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) C22:6, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. Other name: cervonic acid.

C24:0 lignoceric acid g/kg % FA

Lignoceric acid C24:0, a saturated fatty acid.

Fatty acids g/kg % fat

Total fatty acids.

Vitamin A 1000 IU/kg -

Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal and retinoic acid. The carotenes α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene and the xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin function as provitamin A in herbivores and omnivore animals that possess the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase. Vitamin A is found in numerous animal products whereas provitamins A are found in plants.

Vitamin D 1000 IU/kg -

Vitamin D (D2 ergocalciferol and D3 cholecalciferol), is a fat-soluble organic compound (secosteroid) responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects. It is found in fungi, in plants (for vitamin D2) and animals (for vitamin D3).

Vitamin E mg/kg -

Vitamin E refers to a group of fat-soluble organic compounds with antioxidant properties. γ-tocopherol and α-tocopherol are the most common forms. Vitamin E is found in a wide range of plant products.

Vitamin K mg/kg -

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble organic compounds required by animals for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation. Vitamin K includes two natural forms: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, found in plant) and vitamin K2 (menaquin, produced by microbial synthesis).

Vitamin B1 thiamin mg/kg -

Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine or thiamin, is a water-soluble organic compound needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Vitamin B2 riboflavin mg/kg -

Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is a water-soluble organic compound that functions as a coenzyme. It is found in numerous plant and animal products.

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine mg/kg -

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of water-soluble organic compounds that serve as coenzymes in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The main form of vitamin B6 is pyridoxin. Vitamin B6 is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Vitamin B12 µg/kg -

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble organic compound that functions as a coenzyme in the synthesis of myelin and in the formation of red blood cells. It is found in certain animal products and it is also produced by bacterial fermentation synthesis.

Niacin mg/kg -

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid and vitamin PP, is an organic compound that functions as a precursor of a coenzyme involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex. It is found in a wide range of animal and plant products.

Pantothenic acid mg/kg -

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble organic compound required to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Folic acid mg/kg -

Folic acid, also known as folate and vitamin B6, is a water-soluble organic compound that is precursor of a coenzyme involved in the synthesis of nucleic bases. Folic acid is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Biotin mg/kg -

Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R, is a water-soluble organic compound that functions as a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis. Biotin is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Vitamin C mg/kg -

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble organic compound acting as a reducing agent donating electrons to various enzymatic and a few non-enzymatic reactions. It is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Choline mg/kg -

Choline is an organic compound, constitutive of lecithin, and precursor of acetylcholine. Choline and its metabolites are needed for the structural integrity of cell membranes, for signaling roles and for synthesis pathways. Choline is found in a wide range of plant and animal products.

Xanthophylls mg/kg -

Xanthophylls are a family of yellow carotenoid pigments found in egg yolk, animal tissues and plants.

Viscosity, real applied - mL/g

Real applied viscosity (RAV) is measured by viscosimetry on an aqueous extract (Carré et al., 1994). RAV (mL/g) = Log(RV) / C, where RV = viscosity (extract) / viscosity (buffer) and C = concentration (g/ml) of the material in the final extract. Unlike potential applied viscosity, there is no extraction with 80% ethanol, in order to keep the endogenous enzymes active. Real applied viscosity values are not additive.

Phytase activity IU/kg -

Phytase activity in a sample. 1 unit is defined by the release of 1 µmol per minute of inorganic phosphorus from a solution of sodium phytate, at a known temperature and pH (Eeckhout and De Paepe, 1994).

UFL Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Lait (Forage Unit for lactation) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFL (per kg) = Net Energy for lactation (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

UFV Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Viande (Forage Unit for meat production) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFV (per kg) = Net Energy for meat production (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

PDIA Systali g/kg -

PDIA, protein digestible in the small intestine supplied by rumen-undegraded dietary protein, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

PDI Systali g/kg -

PDI, protein digestible in the small intestine according to the INRA Systali system (2017). PDI = PDIA + PDI supplied by microbial protein from rumen-fermented organic matter. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Rumen protein balance Systali g/kg -

Difference between intake protein and protein in the duodenum, not including the NH3 fraction of the latter, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Fill Unit ruminants Systali per kg -

Fill unit for ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

ME ruminants Systali (kcal) kcal/kg -

Metabolisable energy, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in kcal/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) kcal/kg -

Net energy for lactation (NEL), ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in kcal/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) kcal/kg -

Net Energy for meat production, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in kcal/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

ME ruminants Systali (MJ) MJ/kg -

Metabolisable energy, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in MJ/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) MJ/kg -

Net energy for lactation (NEL), ruminants according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in MJ/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) MJ/kg -

Net Energy for meat production, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017), expressed in MJ/kg. Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

OM digestibility ruminants Systali - %

Organic matter digestibility, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - %

Energy digestibility, ruminants, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

N degradability ruminants Systali - %

Effective nitrogen degradability in the rumen, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Starch degradability ruminants Systali - %

Effective starch degradability in the rumen, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

DM degradability ruminants Systali - %

Effective dry matter degradability in the rumen, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Lysine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible lysine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Threonine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible threonine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Methionine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible methionine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Isoleucine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible isoleucine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Valine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible valine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Leucine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible leucine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible phenylalanine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Histidine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible histidine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Arginine ruminants Systali - % PDI

Truly digestible arginine in the small intestine of the dairy cow, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 2 (DM intake in % liveweight).

UFL FL1 Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Lait (Forage Unit for lactation) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFL (in g/kg) = Net Energy for lactation (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 1 (DM intake in % liveweight).

UFV FL1 Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Viande (Forage Unit for meat production) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFV (in g/kg) = Net Energy for meat production (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 1 (DM intake in % liveweight).

PDIA FL1 Systali g/kg -

PDIA, protein digestible in the small intestine supplied by rumen-undegraded dietary protein, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 1 (DM intake in % liveweight).

PDI FL1 Systali g/kg -

PDI, protein digestible in the small intestine according to the INRA Systali system (2017). PDI = PDIA + PDI supplied by microbial protein from rumen-fermented organic matter. Calculated for a feeding level = 1 (DM intake in % liveweight).

Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali g/kg -

Difference between intake protein and protein in the duodenum, not including the NH3 fraction of the latter, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 1 (DM intake in % liveweight).

UFL FL4 Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Viande (Forage Unit for meat production) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFV (in g/kg) = Net Energy for meat production (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 4 (DM intake in % liveweight) and a percentage of concentrates in the diet of 40%.

UFV FL4 Systali per kg -

Unité Fourragère Viande (Forage Unit for meat production) according to the INRA Systali system (2017). UFV (in g/kg) = Net Energy for meat production (in kcal/kg) / 1760. Calculated for a feeding level = 4 (DM intake in % liveweight) and a percentage of concentrates in the diet of 40%.

PDIA FL4 Systali g/kg -

PDIA, protein digestible in the small intestine supplied by rumen-undegraded dietary protein, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 4 (DM intake in % liveweight) and a percentage of concentrates in the diet of 40%.

PDI FL4 Systali g/kg -

PDI, protein digestible in the small intestine according to the INRA Systali system (2017). PDI = PDIA + PDI supplied by microbial protein from rumen-fermented organic matter. Calculated for a feeding level = 4 (DM intake in % liveweight) and a percentage of concentrates in the diet of 40%.

Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali g/kg -

Difference between intake protein and protein in the duodenum, not including the NH3 fraction of the latter, according to the INRA Systali system (2017). Calculated for a feeding level = 4 (DM intake in % liveweight) and a percentage of concentrates in the diet of 40%.

UFL INRA 2007 per kg -

Unité Fourragère Lait (Forage Unit for lactation) according to INRA 2007. UFL (in g/kg) = Net Energy for lactation (in kcal/kg) / 1760.

UFV INRA 2007 per kg -

Unité Fourragère Viande (Forage Unit for meat production) according to INRA 2007. UFV (in g/kg) = Net Energy for meat production (in kcal/kg) / 1820.

PDIA INRA 2007 g/kg -

PDIA, protein digestible in the small intestine supplied by rumen-undegraded dietary protein, according to INRA 2007. 

PDIN INRA 2007 g/kg -

PDIN, protein digestible in the small intestine according to INRA 2007. PDIE = PDIA + PDI supplied by microbial protein from rumen-degraded dietary protein. PDIN values are no longer provided in the INRA Systali system.

PDIE INRA 2007 g/kg -

PDIE, protein digestible in the small intestine according to INRA 2007. PDIE = PDIA + PDI supplied by microbial protein from rumen-fermented organic matter. PDIE has been renamed PDI in the INRA Systali system (2017).

ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) kcal/kg -

Metabolisable energy, ruminants, according to INRA 2007, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses.

ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) MJ/kg -

Metabolisable energy, ruminants, according to INRA 2007, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses.

OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - %

Organic matter digestibility, ruminants, according to INRA 2007.

Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - %

Energy digestibility, ruminants, according to INRA 2007.

N digestibility ruminants - %

Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants, according to INRA 2007.

N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - %

Nitrogen digestibility, intestinal true, ruminants

NDF digestibility ruminants - %

NDF digestibility, ruminants.

N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - %

Effective degradability of nitrogen in the rumen. ED (%) = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)). a (%): immediately degradable fraction; b (%): potentially degradable fraction; c (h-1): hourly degradation rate; k (h-1): hourly disappearance rate. Calculated with k=0.06 h-1.

Immediately degradable N (a) - %

Immediately degradable nitrogen fraction in the rumen (a), expressed in %.

Potentially degradable N (b) - %

Potentially degradable nitrogen fraction in the rumen (b), expressed in %.

Degradation rate of particles N (c) - h-1

Degradation rate of particles for nitrogen in the rumen (c), expressed per hour (h-1).

Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - %

Effective degradability of starch in the rumen. ED (%) = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)). a (%): immediately degradable fraction; b (%): potentially degradable fraction; c (h-1): hourly degradation rate; k (h-1): hourly disappearance rate. Calculated with k=0.06 h-1.

Immediately degradable starch (a) - %

Immediately degradable starch fraction in the rumen (a), expressed in %.

Potentially degradable starch (b) - %

Potentially degradable starch fraction in the rumen (b), expressed in %.

Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - h-1

Degradation rate of particles for starch in the rumen (c), expressed per hour (h-1).

DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - %

Effective degradability of dry matter in the rumen. ED (%) = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)). a (%): immediately degradable fraction; b (%): potentially degradable fraction; c (h-1): hourly degradation rate; k (h-1): hourly disappearance rate. Calculated with k=0.06 h-1.

Immediately degradable DM (a) - %

Immediately degradable dry matter fraction in the rumen (a), expressed in %.

Potentially degradable DM (b) - %

Potentially degradable dry matter fraction in the rumen (b), expressed in %.

Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - h-1

Degradation rate of particles for dry matter in the rumen (c), expressed per hour (h-1).

Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - %

Fatty acids digestibility, ruminants.

Absorbable P ruminants g/kg % P

Absorbable phosphorus for ruminants (g/kg) and absorbability coefficient (%).

Absorbable Ca ruminants g/kg % Ca

Absorbable calcium for ruminants (g/kg) and absorbability coefficient (%).

Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible lysine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible threonine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible methionine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible isoleucine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible valine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible leucine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible phenylalanine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible histidine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - % PDIE

Truly digestible arginine in the small intestine of the dairy cow according to INRA 2007.

RBV Ca ruminants - %

Biological relative value of calcium for ruminants. Reference 100%: calcium carbonate.

RBV Co ruminants - %

Biological relative value of cobalt for ruminants. Reference 100%: cobalt sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV Cu ruminants - %

Biological relative value of copper for ruminants. Reference 100%: copper sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV I ruminants - %

Biological relative value of iodine for ruminants. Reference 100%: potassium or sodium iodide.

RBV Mg ruminants - %

Biological relative value of magnesium for ruminants. Reference 100%: magnesium oxide (reagent grade).

RBV Mn ruminants - %

Biological relative value of manganese for ruminants. Reference 100%: manganese sulfate monohydrate.

RBV Mo ruminants - %

Biological relative value of molybdène for ruminants. Reference 100%: sodium molybdate dihydrate.

RBV P ruminants - %

Biological relative value of phosphorus for ruminants. Reference 100%: dicalcium phosphate.

RBV Se ruminants - %

Biological relative value of selenium for ruminants. Reference 100%: sodium selenite.

RBV Zn ruminants - %

Biological relative value of zinc for ruminants. Reference 100%: zinc sulfate heptahydrate.

DE growing pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Digestible energy, growing pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME growing pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Metabolizable energy, N-corrected, growing pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for tne N balance.

NE growing pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Net energy, growing pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the metabolizable energy and the energy lost in heat during the metabolization process.

DE adult pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Digestible energy, adult pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME adult pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Metabolizable energy, N-corrected, growing pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for the N balance.

NE adult pig (kcal) kcal/kg -

Net energy, adult pig, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the metabolizable energy and the energy lost in heat during metabolization process.

DE growing pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Digestible energy, growing pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME growing pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Metabolizable energy, N-corrected, growing pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for a N balance of 0.

NE growing pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Net energy, growing pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the metabolizable energy and the energy lost in heat during the metabolization process.

DE adult pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Digestible energy, adult pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME adult pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Metabolizable energy, N-corrected, growing pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for the N balance.

NE adult pig (MJ) MJ/kg -

Net energy, adult pig, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the metabolizable energy and the energy lost in heat during metabolization process.

Energy digestibility growing pig - %

Energy digestibility, growing pig.

Energy digestibility adult pig - %

Energy digestibility, adult pig.

OM digestibility growing pig - %

Organic matter digestibility, growing pig.

OM digestibility adult pig - %

Organic matter digestibility, adult pig.

N digestibility growing pig - %

Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig.

N digestibility adult pig - %

Nitrogen digestibility, adult pig.

N digestibility ileal standardised pig - %

Nitrogen digestibility, ileal standardised, growing pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Crude fat digestibility pig - %

Crude fat digestibility, growing pig.

Digestible P pig (no phytase) g/kg %

Digestible phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus digestibility (%), growing pig, without phytase

Digestible P pig (with phytase) g/kg %

Digestible phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus digestibility (%) for pigs, with an active phytase

RBV Ca pig - %

Biological relative value of calcium for pigs. Reference 100%: calcium carbonate.

RBV Cu pig - %

Biological relative value of copper for pigs. Reference 100%: copper sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV Fe pig - %

Biological relative value of iron for pigs. Reference 100%: ferrous sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV I pig - %

Biological relative value of iodine for pigs. Reference 100%: potassium or sodium iodide.

RBV Mn pig - %

Biological relative value of manganese for pigs. Reference 100%: manganese sulfate monohydrate.

RBV Na pig - %

Biological relative value of sodium for pigs. Reference 100%: sodium chloride.

RBV P pig - %

Biological relative value of phosphorus for pigs. Reference 100%: monosodium phosphate hydrate.

RBV Se pig - %

Biological relative value of selenium for pigs. Reference 100%: sodium selenite.

RBV Zn pig - %

Biological relative value of zinc for pigs. Reference 100%: zinc sulfate heptahydrate.

AMEn cockerel (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn cockerel, ground (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, applicable to ground feeds, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn cockerel, pelleted (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, applicable to pelleted feeds, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn broiler (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn broiler, ground (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, applicable to ground feeds, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn broiler, pelleted (kcal) kcal/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, applicable to pelleted feed, expressed in kcal/kg.

AMEn cockerel (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, expressed in MJ/kg.

AMEn cockerel, ground (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, applicable to ground feeds, expressed in MJ/kg.

AMEn cockerel, pelleted (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels, applicable to pelleted feeds, expressed in MJ/kg.

AMEn broiler (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, expressed in MJ/kg.

AMEn broiler, ground (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, applicable to ground feeds, expressed in MJ/kg.

AMEn broiler, pelleted (MJ) MJ/kg -

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers, applicable to pelleted feeds, expressed in MJ/kg.

Available P cockerel g/kg % P

Available phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus availability (%) for cockerels.

Available P broiler g/kg % P

Available phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus availability (%) for broilers.

RBV Ca poultry - %

Biological relative value of calcium for poultry. Reference 100%: calcium carbonate.

RBV Ca broilers - %

Biological relative value of calcium for broilers. Reference 100%: calcium carbonate.

RBV Ca laying hens - %

Biological relative value of calcium for laying hens. Reference 100%: calcium carbonate.

RBV Cu poultry - %

Biological relative value of copper for poultry. Reference 100%: copper sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV Fe poultry - %

Biological relative value of iron for poultry. Reference 100%: ferrous sulfate heptahydrate.

RBV I poultry - %

Biological relative value of iodine for poultry. Reference 100%: potassium or sodium iodide.

RBV Mn poultry - %

Biological relative value of manganese for poultry. Reference 100%: manganese sulfate monohydrate.

RBV Na poultry - %

Biological relative value of sodium for poultry. Reference 100%: sodium chloride.

RBV P poultry - %

Biological relative value of phosphorus for poultry. Reference 100%: monosodium phosphate hydrate.

RBV Se poultry - %

Biological relative value of selenium for poultry. Reference 100%: sodium selenite.

RBV Zn poultry - %

Biological relative value of zinc for poultry. Reference 100%: zinc sulfate heptahydrate.

OM digestibility horse - %

Organic matter digestibility, horse.

Energy digestibility horse - %

Energy digestibility, horse.

Horse Forage Unit per kg -

Horse Forage Unit. It is calculated as the net energy of the feed divided by the net energy of barley, estimated at 2250 kcal/kg DM (9.42 MJ/kg DM).

Digestible crude protein horse g/kg -

Digestible crude protein for the horse (DCPH), calculated from the digestible crude protein (DCP) corrected for the fraction of crude protein which does not supply amino acids in horses. DCPH = DCP x k where k is specific to a feed group.

DE rabbit (kcal) kcal/kg -

Digestible energy for the rabbit, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME rabbit (kcal) kcal/kg -

Metabolisable energy for the rabbit, corrected for a 0 nitrogen balance, expressed in kcal/kg.

DE rabbit (MJ) MJ/kg -

Digestible energy for the rabbit, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

ME rabbit (MJ) MJ/kg -

Metabolisable energy for the rabbit, corrected for a 0 nitrogen balance, expressed in MJ/kg.

Energy digestibility rabbit - %

Energy digestibility for the rabbit.

N digestibility rabbit - %

Nitrogen digestibility for the rabbit.

DE salmonids (kcal) kcal/kg -

Digestible energy, salmonids, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE salmonids, extruded (kcal) kcal/kg -

Digestible energy, salmonids, for extruded feeds, expressed in kcal/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE salmonids (MJ) MJ/kg -

Digestible energy, salmonids, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE salmonids, extruded (MJ) MJ/kg -

Digestible energy, salmonids, for extruded feeds, expressed in MJ/kg. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

Energy digestibility, salmonids - %

Energy digestibility, salmonids.

Energy digestibility salmonids, extruded - %

Energy digestibility, salmonids, for extruded feeds.

N digestibility salmonids - %

Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids.

N digestibility salmonids, extruded - %

Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids, for extruded feeds.

Digestible P salmonids g/kg %

Digestible phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus digestibility (%) for salmonids.

Digestible P salmonids, extruded g/kg %

Digestible phosphorus (g/kg) and phosphorus digestibility (%) for salmonids and extruded feeds.

Lysine g/kg g/16g N

Lysine, an amino acid. It is the first limiting amino acid for pigs and the second one after sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) for poultry. Lysine is with methionine the first or second limiting amino acid in ruminants.

Threonine g/kg g/16g N

Threonine, an amino acid. It is the second limiting amino acid after lysine for pigs and the third one after sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) and lysine for poultry.

Methionine g/kg g/16g N

Methionine, a sulfur amino acid. It is an essential and limiting amino acid for pigs (as the sum methionine + cystine), poultry and ruminants.

Cystine g/kg g/16g N

Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine. The sum methionine + cystine is the second limiting amino acid in pigs.

Methionine + cystine g/kg g/16g N

Sum of the sulfur amino acids methionine and cystine. The sum is essential and limiting in pigs.

Tryptophan g/kg g/16g N

Tryptophan, a amino acid. Tryptophan is a essential and limiting amino acid in pigs and poultry, and is an essential amino acid in ruminants.

Isoleucine g/kg g/16g N

Isoleucine, a branched amino acid. Isoleucine is essential and can be limiting in ruminants and is essential in pigs and poultry (though usually not limiting).

Valine g/kg g/16g N

Valine, a branched amino acid. Valine is usually the 5th limiting amino acid after tryptophan for pigs and the 4th one after threonine for broilers. It can also be limiting in ruminants.

Leucine g/kg g/16g N

Leucine, a branched amino acid. It is essential (but usually not limiting) in poultry and can be limiting in ruminants.

Phenylalanine g/kg g/16g N

Phenylalanine, an amino acid. The sum phenylalanine + tyrosine is limiting in pigs.

Tyrosine g/kg g/16g N

Tyrosine, an amino acid. The sum phenylalanine + tyrosine is limiting in pigs.

Phenylalanine + tyrosine g/kg g/16g N

Sum of the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The sum phenylalanine + tyrosine is limiting in pigs.

Histidine g/kg g/16g N

Histidine, an amino acid. Histidine is an essential amino acid in pigs, poultry and ruminants, but usually not a limiting one.

Arginine g/kg g/16g N

Arginine, an amino acid. Arginine is an essential amino acid in pigs, poultry and ruminants, and can be limiting in poultry and ruminants.

Alanine g/kg g/16g N

Alanine, a non-essential amino acid.

Aspartic acid g/kg g/16g N

Aspartic acid, a non-essential amino acid.

Glutamic acid g/kg g/16g N

Glutamic acid, a non-essential amino acid.

Glycine g/kg g/16g N

Glycine, an amino acid. Glycine is essential for ruminants but not limiting.

Serine g/kg g/16g N

Serine, a non-essential amino acid.

Proline g/kg g/16g N

Proline, a non-essential amino acid.

Lysine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible lysine (g/kg) and lysine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Threonine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible threonine (g/kg) and threonine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Methionine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible methionine (g/kg) and methionine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Cystine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible cystine (g/kg) and cystine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible methionine + cystine (g/kg) and methionine + cystine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible tryptophan (g/kg) and tryptophan digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible isoleucine (g/kg) and isoleucine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Valine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible valine (g/kg) and valine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Leucine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible leucine (g/kg) and leucine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible phenylalanine (g/kg) and phenylalanine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible tyrosine (g/kg) and tyrosine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible phenylananine + tyrosine (g/kg) and phenylananine + tyrosine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Histidine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible histidine (g/kg) and histidine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Arginine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible arginine (g/kg) and arginine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Alanine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible alanine (g/kg) and alanine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible aspartic acid (g/kg) and aspartic acid digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible acid glutamic (g/kg) and acid glutamic digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Glycine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible glycine (g/kg) and glycine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Serine, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible serine (g/kg) and serine digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Proline, ileal standardised, pig g/kg %

Digestible proline (g/kg) and proline digestibility (%), ileal standardised, pig. This digestibility is measured at the ileum and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible lysine (g/kg) and lysine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible threonine (g/kg) and threonine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible methionine (g/kg) and methionine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible cystine (g/kg) and cystine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible methionine + cystine (g/kg) and methionine + cystine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible tryptophan (g/kg) and tryptophan digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible isoleucine (g/kg) and isoleucine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Valine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible valine (g/kg) and valine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible leucine (g/kg) and leucine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible phenylalanine (g/kg) and phenylalanine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible tyrosine (g/kg) and tyrosine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible phenylalanine + tyrosine (g/kg) and phenylalanine + tyrosine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible histidine (g/kg) and histidine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible arginine (g/kg) and arginine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible alanine (g/kg) and alanine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible aspartic acid (g/kg) and aspartic acid digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible glutamic acid (g/kg) and glutamic acid digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible glycine (g/kg) and glycine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Serine, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible serine (g/kg) and serine digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Proline, ileal standardized, poultry g/kg %

Digestible proline (g/kg) and proline digestibility (%), ileal standardized, poultry. This digestibility was measured at ileal level and corrected for endogenous losses of nitrogen.

Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) MJ/kg -

Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) expressed in MJ per kg of product.

Phosphorus consumption g P/kg -

Phosphorus consumption expressed in g of phosphorus per kg of product.

Climate change (ILCD) g CO2eq/kg -

Greenhouse gas emissions expressed in gramme of carbon dioxide-equivalent per kg of product

Acidification (ILCD) mol H+eq/kg -

Acidification expressed in terms of moles of H+ released by kg of product.

Eutrophication (CML baseline) g PO4---eq/kg -

Eutrophication (CML baseline) expressed in g of PO43- equivalent per kg of product. Source: CML 2002.

Land competition (CML non baseline) m²yr/kg -

Land competition (CML non baseline) expressed in m² per year per kg of product.