Whey permeate

Dried byproduct of ultrafiltration of whey, consisting of low-molecular weight compounds, particularly lactose and minerals. It also includes non-protein nitrogen compounds and vitamins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 97.7 100 % - 0.9 95.5 -99.1 43 1.3
Crude protein 5.6 5.8 % - 2.4 2.3 -13.1 45 2.5 2.4 -13.6 44
Crude fibre 0 0 % -
Crude fat 1.3 1.4 % - 1.2 0.08 -3.8 9 1.2 0.08 -4 10
Ash 8.5 8.7 % - 1.2 7.2 -13.1 43 1.2 7.4 -13.4 43
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.5 % -
NDF 0 0 % -
ADF 0 0 % -
Lignin 0 0 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 0 0 % -
Starch 0 0 % -
Starch, enzymatic method 0 0 % -
Total sugars 84.5 86.5 % - 1
Lactose 84.5 86.5 % - 2.4 78.7 -88.3 25 2.3 80.6 -90.6 24
Gross energy (kcal) 3640 3730 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 15.3 15.6 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 6.7 6.8 g/kg - 4 2 -19.6 37 4.1 2 -20.5 36
Phosphorus 6.8 6.9 g/kg - 2 3 -12.9 40 2 3 -13.1 39
Phytate phosphorus 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.1 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 27.2 27.8 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 6.32 6.47 g/kg - 0.96 3.17 -7.7 24 0.99 3.2 -7.85 23
Chlorine 16 16.4 g/kg - 2.1 11.9 -20.3 29 2.1 12.2 -20.8 29
Sulfur 4.7 4.8 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 225 231 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 521 533 mEq/kg -
Manganese 3 3 mg/kg -
Zinc 4 4 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 2 2 mg/kg -
Iron 9 9 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0.5 0.5 g/kg 3.9 % FA 1
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 1.3 1.3 g/kg 9 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 3.3 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 1.4 1.4 g/kg 10.8 % FA 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.7 3.8 g/kg 29.3 % FA 1
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 2.7 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 1.6 1.7 g/kg 12.8 % FA 1
C18:1 oleic acid 2.8 2.8 g/kg 21.7 % FA 1
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 4 % FA 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 1 % FA 1
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA 1
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 1.1 % FA 1
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA 1
Fatty acids 1.3 1.3 g/kg 95 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.05 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.07 1.1 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 7 7 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 69 71 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -62 -64 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.037 0.038 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2710 2780 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1840 1890 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1890 1940 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.4 11.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.7 7.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.9 8.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 92.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 87 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.06 1.08 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.12 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 6 6 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 69 71 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -63 -64 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.04 1.06 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 9 9 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 71 73 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -64 -66 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.09 1.11 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.09 1.11 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.12 1.14 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.11 1.14 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 3 3 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 34 34 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 80 82 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2820 2890 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 12.1 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 12.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 94 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 91 %
N digestibility ruminants - 64.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 95 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 0 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 90 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 10 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.05 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 63.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.6 5.8 g/kg 83 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.7 3.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1084 1110 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1219 1248 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 76 77 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -70 -72 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 6.1 6.3 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.9 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 82.2 84.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.52 3.61 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.8 1.85 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.7 1.74 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.31 1.34 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 5 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 6 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.7 7.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 140 143 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -13 -14 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3550 3630 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3470 3550 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2960 3030 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3550 3630 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3460 3550 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2920 2990 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.8 15.2 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.5 14.9 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.5 14.9 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.2 14.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 12.4 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 12.3 12.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.8 15.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.5 14.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.5 14.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 14.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12.1 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12.2 12.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 97.3 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 97.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 98.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 98.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 95 %
N digestibility adult pig - 95 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 81 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 88 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 6.1 6.2 g/kg 90 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 6.1 6.2 g/kg 90 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1890 1930 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1890 1930 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.9 8.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.9 8.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.9 8.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.9 8.1 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 5.8 5.9 g/kg 85 % P
Available P broiler 5.8 5.9 g/kg 85 % P
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3320 3400 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3270 3350 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.9 14.2 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.9 14.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.7 14 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 91 %
N digestibility rabbit - 50.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1700 1740 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.1 7.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 46.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 72 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.2 4.3 g/kg 7.5 g/16g N
Threonine 2.8 2.9 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Methionine 0.7 0.7 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Cystine 1 1 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 1.7 1.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.8 0.8 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 2.7 2.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Valine 2.5 2.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Leucine 3.8 3.9 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 1.3 1.3 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N
Tyrosine 0.4 0.4 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.7 1.7 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N
Histidine 1.1 1.1 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N
Arginine 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N
Alanine 2.2 2.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 4.7 4.8 g/kg 8.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 7.5 7.6 g/kg 13.3 g/16g N
Glycine 1 1 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N
Serine 1.9 2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Proline 2 2.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 3.8 g/kg 89 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.4 g/kg 85 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 92 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 0.9 g/kg 88 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.5 g/kg 89 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.7 g/kg 87 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.4 g/kg 88 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.2 g/kg 87 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.6 g/kg 91 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.2 g/kg 90 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.3 g/kg 90 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.5 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1 g/kg 91 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.8 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 1.9 g/kg 84 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.3 g/kg 89 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7 g/kg 91 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.8 g/kg 75 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.6 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 1.8 g/kg 87 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4 g/kg 94 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.5 g/kg 88 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.7 g/kg 97 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 0.9 g/kg 86 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.6 g/kg 90 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.7 g/kg 90 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.5 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.3 g/kg 90 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.5 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.2 g/kg 90 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.3 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.5 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1 g/kg 89 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.8 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.1 g/kg 93 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.3 g/kg 89 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.6 6.7 g/kg 88 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 0.9 g/kg 90 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.7 g/kg 88 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.8 g/kg 86 %
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