Dietary cation-anion difference

Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is the difference between the Na and K cations and the Cl and S anions: DCAD = Na+ + K+ -  Cl- - S2-. DCDA is used to balance the acid-alkaline status in ruminants.

Values

Feed Perimeter As fed SD Range On DM SD Range Unit Other SD Range Unit Count Count Count
Alfalfa protein concentrate -431 -467 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 16-18% dry matter 110 121 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 17-19% dry matter 302 333 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 19-22% dry matter 313 344 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 22-25% dry matter 92 101 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein < 16% dry matter 193 212 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein > 25% dry matter 318 352 mEq/kg -
Apple pomace, dried -157 -172 mEq/kg -
Bakery byproduct 203 224 mEq/kg -
Barley 21 24 mEq/kg -
Barley distillers grains, dried -6 -7 mEq/kg -
Barley rootlets, dried 8 9 mEq/kg -
Beet pulp, dried -25 -28 mEq/kg -
Beet pulp, pressed 27 112 mEq/kg -
Brewers grains, dried -37 -41 mEq/kg -
Brewers yeast, dried 235 253 mEq/kg -
Calcium carbonate -21 -21 mEq/kg -
Camelina oil meal, oil > 5% -115 -126 mEq/kg -
Carob pod meal -16 -18 mEq/kg -
Cassava, starch 66-70% 65 74 mEq/kg -
Cassava, starch 70-74% 67 77 mEq/kg -
Cereal offal, crude fibre 5-14% 237 267 mEq/kg -
Cereal offal, crude fibre > 14% 71 79 mEq/kg -
Chickpea, kabuli type 113 130 mEq/kg -
Citrus pulp, dried 190 211 mEq/kg -
Citrus pulp, fresh 12 70 mEq/kg -
Copra meal, oil 5-20% 135 148 mEq/kg -
Copra meal, oil < 5% 201 222 mEq/kg -
Corn gluten feed 247 281 mEq/kg -
Corn gluten meal -323 -356 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed hulls 69 76 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre 15-20% 151 163 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre < 15% 228 247 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre 15-20% 185 205 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 15% 169 187 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed, whole 141 153 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed, whole, extruded 141 153 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, coloured flowers 95 110 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, coloured flowers, extruded 95 110 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, white flowers 137 159 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 62% -260 -282 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 65% -243 -264 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 70% -173 -188 mEq/kg -
Fish solubles, condensed, defatted 20 21 mEq/kg -
Grape pomace, dried 233 256 mEq/kg -
Grass, dehydrated 396 441 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil 5-20% 94 102 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 9% 112 125 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 9% 138 155 mEq/kg -
Linseed meal, oil > 5% 53 58 mEq/kg -
Linseed, whole 43 47 mEq/kg -
Linseed, whole, extruded 43 47 mEq/kg -
Liquid potato feed 146 832 mEq/kg -
Lupin, blue 97 107 mEq/kg -
Lupin, white 106 120 mEq/kg -
Lupin, white, extruded 106 120 mEq/kg -
Maize -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize bran 59 65 mEq/kg -
Maize distillers grains and solubles, oil < 6 %, dried 183 207 mEq/kg -
Maize distillers grains with solubles, ethanol production, dried -65 -73 mEq/kg -
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 14-30% 214 236 mEq/kg -
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 5-14% 110 123 mEq/kg -
Maize flour, crude fibre 2-10% 64 73 mEq/kg -
Maize germ meal, oil < 5% -68 -78 mEq/kg -
Maize germs -123 -129 mEq/kg -
Maize, extruded -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize, flaked -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize, high moisture 2 3 mEq/kg -
Milk powder, skimmed 121 128 mEq/kg -
Milk powder, whole 181 188 mEq/kg -
Molasses, beet 840 1113 mEq/kg -
Molasses, sugarcane 225 311 mEq/kg -
Oat groats -6 -7 mEq/kg -
Oats -1 -1 mEq/kg -
Oats, flaked -1 -1 mEq/kg -
Palm kernel meal, oil 5-20% -13 -14 mEq/kg -
Pea 110 126 mEq/kg -
Pea, extruded 110 126 mEq/kg -
Potato protein concentrate -144 -157 mEq/kg -
Potato pulp, dried 171 197 mEq/kg -
Potato tuber, dried 417 468 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed meal, oil 5-20% -188 -205 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed meal, oil < 5% -153 -172 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed, whole -24 -26 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed, whole, extruded -24 -26 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 64 72 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 113 126 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 20% 73 80 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 143 159 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 238 266 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre > 20% 56 62 mEq/kg -
Rice hulls -13 -15 mEq/kg -
Rice, broken 26 30 mEq/kg -
Rice, brown 333 376 mEq/kg -
Rye 22 25 mEq/kg -
Seashells, ground 159 160 mEq/kg -
Sesame meal, oil > 5% -78 -83 mEq/kg -
Sorghum 31 35 mEq/kg -
Soybean hulls 239 269 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil 5-20% 267 286 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil 280 318 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, extruded 280 318 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, formaldehyde-treated 280 318 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 50% protein + oil 260 295 mEq/kg -
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 60-70% 259 278 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, extruded 283 316 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, toasted 266 300 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, toasted, flaked and expanded 269 296 mEq/kg -
Sunflower hulls 11 12 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, dehulled 77 85 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, non dehulled 89 100 mEq/kg -
Sunflower seed, whole 59 63 mEq/kg -
Sweet potato, dried 224 254 mEq/kg -
Tomato pulp, dehydrated 59 63 mEq/kg -
Triticale 23 27 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 30 % 402 644 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 40% -618 -907 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 48% -270 -382 mEq/kg -
Wheat bran 165 190 mEq/kg -
Wheat distillers grains, starch < 7%, dried 95 104 mEq/kg -
Wheat distillers grains, starch > 7%, dried 181 197 mEq/kg -
Wheat feed flour 35 40 mEq/kg -
Wheat gluten feed, type 20% starch 337 370 mEq/kg -
Wheat gluten feed, type 30% starch 121 137 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings (average) 138 157 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch 20-30% 123 139 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch < 20% 107 121 mEq/kg -
Wheat straw 70 77 mEq/kg -
Wheat, durum -4 -4 mEq/kg -
Wheat, soft -16 -18 mEq/kg -
Whey powder, acid 20 20 mEq/kg -
Whey powder, sweet 85 88 mEq/kg -
Whey, dehydrated, with added fat 4-15% 112 117 mEq/kg -