Dietary cation-anion difference

Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is the difference between the Na and K cations and the Cl and S anions: DCAD = Na+ + K+ -  Cl- - S2-. DCDA is used to balance the acid-alkaline status in ruminants.

Values

Feed Perimeter As fed SD Range On DM SD Range Unit Other SD Range Unit Count Count Count
Alfalfa protein concentrate -431 -467 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 16-18% dry matter 113 125 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 17-19% dry matter 302 333 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 19-22% dry matter 313 345 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein 22-25% dry matter 111 123 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein < 16% dry matter 195 214 mEq/kg -
Alfalfa, dehydrated, protein > 25% dry matter 318 352 mEq/kg -
Ammonium ferric citrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Apple pomace, dried -160 -176 mEq/kg -
Bakery byproduct 213 235 mEq/kg -
Bananas, immature, dried 519 576 mEq/kg -
Barley 19 21 mEq/kg -
Barley distillers grains, dried -6 -7 mEq/kg -
Barley distillers grains, whisky production, fresh -75 -303 mEq/kg -
Barley rootlets, dried 2 2 mEq/kg -
Beet pulp, dried -25 -28 mEq/kg -
Beet pulp, pressed 32 133 mEq/kg -
Biscuit byproduct 215 236 mEq/kg -
Blood meal -324 -347 mEq/kg -
Brewers grains, dried -36 -40 mEq/kg -
Brewers yeast, dried 232 250 mEq/kg -
Ca Al Fe phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium carbonate -21 -21 mEq/kg -
Calcium chloride anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium chloride dihydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium iodate anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium iodate hexahydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium iodide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium magnesium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium selenite 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium sulfate anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Calcium sulfate dihydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Camelina oil meal, oil > 5% -115 -126 mEq/kg -
Canola meal, oil < 5% -150 -166 mEq/kg -
Carob pod meal -16 -18 mEq/kg -
Cassava, starch 66-70% 63 72 mEq/kg -
Cassava, starch 70-74% 65 74 mEq/kg -
Cereal offal, crude fibre 5-14% 239 269 mEq/kg -
Cereal offal, crude fibre > 14% 71 79 mEq/kg -
Chickpea, kabuli type 112 128 mEq/kg -
Chicory pulp, dehydrated 154 174 mEq/kg -
Citrus pulp, dried 191 211 mEq/kg -
Citrus pulp, fresh 12 70 mEq/kg -
Cobalt carbonate FG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Cobalt glucoheptonate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Cobalt oxide FG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Cobalt selenite 0 0 mEq/kg -
Cobalt sulfate heptahydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Cod liver oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Common bean 284 319 mEq/kg -
Copper acetate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper carbonate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper chloride dihydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper chloride tribasic 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper citrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper lysine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper methionine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper oxide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper proteinate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copper sulfate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Copra meal, oil 5-20% 135 148 mEq/kg -
Copra meal, oil < 5% 201 222 mEq/kg -
Copra oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Corn gluten feed 247 281 mEq/kg -
Corn gluten meal -323 -355 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed hulls 69 76 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre 15-20% 151 163 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil 5-20%, crude fibre < 15% 228 247 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre 15-20% 185 205 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 15% 169 187 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed, whole 141 153 mEq/kg -
Cottonseed, whole, extruded 141 153 mEq/kg -
Diammonium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate 5 5 mEq/kg -
Diiodosalicylic acid 0 0 mEq/kg -
Disodium phosphate anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Disodium phosphate hydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
DL-methionine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Dolomite limestone 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, coloured flowers 95 110 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, coloured flowers, extruded 95 110 mEq/kg -
Faba bean, white flowers 137 159 mEq/kg -
Feather meal -1013 -1102 mEq/kg -
Ferric chloride 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferric citrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferric phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferric polyphosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferric pyrophosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferric sodium pyrophosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferrous carbonate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferrous chloride 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferrous sulfate monohydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 62% -262 -284 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 65% -247 -268 mEq/kg -
Fish meal, protein 70% -199 -216 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, anchovy 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, capelin 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, herring 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, menhaden 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, rockfish 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, salmon 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish oil, sardine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Fish solubles, condensed, defatted 20 21 mEq/kg -
Fish solubles, condensed, fat 24 26 mEq/kg -
Fodder beet, raw 158 978 mEq/kg -
Grape pomace, dried 233 256 mEq/kg -
Grape pulp, dried 438 486 mEq/kg -
Grape seeds 30 32 mEq/kg -
Grapeseed oil meal 52 59 mEq/kg -
Grass, dehydrated 494 549 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil 5-20% 94 102 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 9% 112 126 mEq/kg -
Groundnut meal, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 9% 136 153 mEq/kg -
L-lysine HCl 0 0 mEq/kg -
L-threonine 0 0 mEq/kg -
L-tryptophan 0 0 mEq/kg -
L-valine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Lard 0 0 mEq/kg -
Lentils 103 117 mEq/kg -
Limestone 0 0 mEq/kg -
Linseed meal, oil < 5% 74 84 mEq/kg -
Linseed meal, oil > 5% 62 68 mEq/kg -
Linseed, whole 29 32 mEq/kg -
Linseed, whole, extruded 29 32 mEq/kg -
Liquid potato feed 142 832 mEq/kg -
Lupin, blue 148 165 mEq/kg -
Lupin, white 97 110 mEq/kg -
Lupin, white, extruded 97 110 mEq/kg -
Magnesium acetate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium carbonate RG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium citrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium hydroxide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium lactate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium oxide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium oxide, granular 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium oxide, powder 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate RG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Magnesium sulfate monohydrate RG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Maize -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize bran 59 65 mEq/kg -
Maize bran, starch production -32 -37 mEq/kg -
Maize distillers grains and solubles, oil < 6 %, dried 77 87 mEq/kg -
Maize distillers grains with solubles, ethanol production, dried -61 -68 mEq/kg -
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 14-30% 214 236 mEq/kg -
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 5-14% 110 123 mEq/kg -
Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil <5% 110 123 mEq/kg -
Maize flour, crude fibre 2-10% 64 73 mEq/kg -
Maize flour, crude fibre < 2% -46 -53 mEq/kg -
Maize germ meal, oil 5-20% -116 -120 mEq/kg -
Maize germ meal, oil < 5% -68 -78 mEq/kg -
Maize germs -123 -129 mEq/kg -
Maize starch -67 -76 mEq/kg -
Maize, extruded -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize, flaked -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Maize, high moisture 2 3 mEq/kg -
Manganese carbonate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese chloride dihydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese chloride tetrahydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese methionine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese oxide MnO 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese oxide MnO-Mn2O3 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese oxide MnO2 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese proteinate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese sulfate monohydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Methionine Hydroxy Analog MHA 0 0 mEq/kg -
Milk powder, skimmed 121 128 mEq/kg -
Milk powder, whole 181 188 mEq/kg -
Millet, pearl 30 34 mEq/kg -
Millet, proso 30 34 mEq/kg -
Molasses, beet 836 1109 mEq/kg -
Molasses, sugarcane 230 319 mEq/kg -
Molybdenum metal 0 0 mEq/kg -
Molybdenum trioxide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Monoammonium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Monocalcium phosphate 86 87 mEq/kg -
Monodicalcium phosphate 82 84 mEq/kg -
Monosodium phosphate anhydrous 0 0 mEq/kg -
Monosodium phosphate anhydrous FG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Monosodium phosphate hydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Monosodium phosphate hydrate FG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Mustard bran -191 -214 mEq/kg -
Oat groats -19 -22 mEq/kg -
Oat hulls 71 79 mEq/kg -
Oats -0.9 -1 mEq/kg -
Oats, flaked -0.9 -1 mEq/kg -
Palm kernel meal, oil 5-20% -45 -49 mEq/kg -
Palm kernel meal, oil < 5% -31 -34 mEq/kg -
Palm oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Pea 110 126 mEq/kg -
Pea protein concentrate 139 150 mEq/kg -
Pea, extruded 110 126 mEq/kg -
Pentacalcium orthoperiodate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Phosphate, defluorinated 2471 2475 mEq/kg -
Potassium iodide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Potato protein concentrate -150 -163 mEq/kg -
Potato pulp, dried 171 197 mEq/kg -
Potato tuber, dried 417 468 mEq/kg -
Poultry fat 0 0 mEq/kg -
Processed animal proteins, pig -252 -265 mEq/kg -
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein 45-60% -467 -508 mEq/kg -
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein 60-70% -223 -238 mEq/kg -
Processed animal proteins, poultry, protein > 70% -375 -400 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed meal, oil 5-20% -184 -200 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed meal, oil < 5% -147 -165 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed, whole -23 -25 mEq/kg -
Rapeseed, whole, extruded -23 -25 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 58 65 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 92 102 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil < 5%, crude fibre > 20% 47 52 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 11-20% 140 155 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre 5-11% 238 266 mEq/kg -
Rice bran, oil > 5%, crude fibre > 20% 53 58 mEq/kg -
Rice hulls 48 52 mEq/kg -
Rice shorts, oil < 5%, crude fibre < 5% 44 50 mEq/kg -
Rice shorts, oil > 5%, crude fibre < 5% 131 146 mEq/kg -
Rice, brown 61 69 mEq/kg -
Rice, paddy 47 54 mEq/kg -
Rice, polished, broken 27 31 mEq/kg -
Rye 22 25 mEq/kg -
Seashells, ground 166 166 mEq/kg -
Selenium methionine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Selenium yeast 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sesame meal, oil > 5% -78 -83 mEq/kg -
Shrimp meal -382 -416 mEq/kg -
Sodium bicarbonate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium chloride 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium iodide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium molybdate dihydrate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium selenate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium selenite 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium sulfate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sodium-calcium-magnesium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sorghum 30 34 mEq/kg -
Soybean hulls 239 269 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil 5-20% 346 371 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 46% protein + oil 295 336 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil 286 325 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, extruded 286 325 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 48% protein + oil, formaldehyde-treated 286 325 mEq/kg -
Soybean meal, oil < 5%, 50% protein + oil 273 311 mEq/kg -
Soybean oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 50-60% 265 286 mEq/kg -
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 60-70% 121 130 mEq/kg -
Soybean protein concentrate, protein 70-90% -576 -621 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, extruded 283 316 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, flaked 318 355 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, toasted 263 297 mEq/kg -
Soybean, whole, toasted, flaked and expanded 269 296 mEq/kg -
Sunflower hulls 11 12 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil 5-20%, dehulled 143 153 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil 5-20%, non dehulled 91 99 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, dehulled 77 85 mEq/kg -
Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, non dehulled 90 101 mEq/kg -
Sunflower oil 0 0 mEq/kg -
Sunflower seed, whole 61 65 mEq/kg -
Sweet potato, dried 224 254 mEq/kg -
Tallow 0 0 mEq/kg -
Tomato pulp, dehydrated 59 63 mEq/kg -
Tricalcium phosphate 0 0 mEq/kg -
Triticale 23 27 mEq/kg -
Urea 0 0 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, different origins -598 -885 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from the production of glutamic acid -436 -624 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 30 % 418 671 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 40% -620 -910 mEq/kg -
Vinasse, from yeast production, protein 48% -277 -392 mEq/kg -
Wheat bran 163 188 mEq/kg -
Wheat bran from starch production 145 166 mEq/kg -
Wheat bran, durum 154 177 mEq/kg -
Wheat distillers grains, starch < 7%, dried 89 97 mEq/kg -
Wheat distillers grains, starch > 7%, dried 181 197 mEq/kg -
Wheat feed flour 34 39 mEq/kg -
Wheat feed flour, durum 45 52 mEq/kg -
Wheat flour "Gruau D", durum 75 87 mEq/kg -
Wheat gluten -258 -275 mEq/kg -
Wheat gluten feed, type 20% starch 339 373 mEq/kg -
Wheat gluten feed, type 30% starch 126 142 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings (average) 135 154 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, durum 132 151 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch 20-30% 122 138 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch 30-40% 79 90 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch < 20% 106 120 mEq/kg -
Wheat middlings, starch > 40% 93 105 mEq/kg -
Wheat straw 71 78 mEq/kg -
Wheat, durum 3 4 mEq/kg -
Wheat, soft -8 -9 mEq/kg -
Whey permeate 225 231 mEq/kg -
Whey powder, acid -12 -13 mEq/kg -
Whey powder, sweet 67 69 mEq/kg -
Whey, dehydrated, with added fat 4-15% 112 117 mEq/kg -
Whey, dried, with added fat 15-30% 103 107 mEq/kg -
Zinc carbonate FG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc carbonate RG 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc chloride 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc lysine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc metal 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc methionine 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc oxide 0 0 mEq/kg -
Zinc sulfate heptahydrate RG 0 0 mEq/kg -