Cassava pulp, dried

Dried cassava pulp is a dried by-product of the extraction of starch from cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz).  This is a highly variable product.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89 100 % - 2.8 83.5 -94.8 14 4.4
Crude protein 2.1 2.4 % - 0.6 1.1 -3.1 14 0.7 1.1 -3.4 16
Crude fibre 15.3 17.2 % - 3.7 10.6 -22.5 11 4.1 12.1 -26.9 11
Crude fat 0.5 0.6 % - 0.4 0.2 -1.9 10 0.5 0.2 -2 12
Ash 3.6 4.1 % - 1.5 2.5 -5.8 11 1.7 1.5 -6.5 14
Insoluble ash 1.3 1.5 % - 1
NDF 32.8 36.9 % - 10.1 6.6 -38.8 9 11.2 7.3 -46.7 11
ADF 16.5 18.6 % - 9.7 2.9 -31.4 9 10.9 3.3 -35.2 11
Lignin 3.4 3.9 % - 1 3.6 -4.4 3
Water insoluble cell walls 32.1 36 % -
Starch 47.5 53.4 % - 6.2 39.4 -57.4 10 6.8 42.8 -64 10
Total sugars 2.9 3.3 % - 1 1
Gross energy (kcal) 3720 4180 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 15.6 17.5 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 6.6 7.4 g/kg - 2.3 3.4 -10.6 6 2.5 3.8 -11.9 7
Phosphorus 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.2 0.2 -0.4 6 0.3 0.2 -0.9 7
Phytate phosphorus 0.08 0.09 g/kg 25 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1
Zinc 91 102 mg/kg - 1
Copper 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Iron 498 559 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 3.9 % FA 0.2-7.6 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 1.5 % FA 0-3.3 3
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 31.6 % FA 28.6-35.1 3
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 2.4 % FA 0.7-4.1 2
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 2.8 % FA 2-3.7 3
C18:1 oleic acid 1.5 1.7 g/kg 35.9 % FA 33.2-37.5 3
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 15.7 % FA 14.5-18.1 3
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 7.7 % FA 4.2-11 3
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 0.4 0.5 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.55 0.62 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.47 0.53 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 6 7 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 46 51 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -60 -68 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.281 0.316 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1610 1810 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 970 1090 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 830 930 kcal/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 51.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 65 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 61 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 78 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.57 0.64 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.49 0.55 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 6 6 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 47 52 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -62 -70 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.52 0.58 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.43 0.48 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 7 8 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 45 51 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -60 -67 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.56 0.62 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.47 0.53 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 7 8 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 14 16 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 42 47 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1650 1850 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 6.9 7.7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 56.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 52.6 %
N digestibility ruminants - 0 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 18 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 67 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.13 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 73 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.04 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 20 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.13 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 33.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.6 4.1 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 555 623 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 518 582 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 15 17 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -47 -52 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 2.5 2.8 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1 1.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 62.8 70.5 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.66 2.99 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.28 1.44 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.21 1.35 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.39 1.56 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.86 0.96 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 34 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 39 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 3.9 4.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 73 82 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -8 -9 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2450 2750 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2390 2680 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1840 2070 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2640 2960 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2540 2860 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1930 2170 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10 11.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.7 8.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11 12.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.6 12 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.1 9.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 65.8 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.8 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74.1 %
N digestibility growing pig - 54.8 %
N digestibility adult pig - 100 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.03 0.04 g/kg 10 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.05 0.05 g/kg 15 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2140 2410 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2140 2410 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9 10.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9 10.1 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.08 0.09 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.08 0.09 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 72.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 70.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.9 1.01 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 7 7 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2460 2760 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2430 2730 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 10.3 11.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.2 11.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 66.1 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 50.4 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1680 1890 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7 7.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 45.2 %
N digestibility salmonids - 46.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N
Isoleucine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 0.9 1 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 0.5 0.6 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.2 1.4 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 1.4 1.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 2.5 2.8 g/kg 12 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 0.7 0.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 0.9 1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 69 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 69 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.3 g/kg 80 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.3 g/kg 66 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 72 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.1 0.1 g/kg 70 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 76 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 74 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 78 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.4 g/kg 77 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 76 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.7 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 71 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 74 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 65 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 73 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 74 %
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