Cocoa hulls

Hulls of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) and the byproduct of the dehulling step in the extraction of cocoa butter. Cocoa hulls are different from cocoa husks, which are the empty pods resulting from the removal of the beans. Other name: cocoa shells.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.8 100 % - 2.7 81.8 -97 440 4.2
Crude protein 15.8 17.8 % - 1.2 12.8 -20.6 434 1.2 13.5 -22.6 433
Crude fibre 18.4 20.7 % - 1.7 12.5 -24 438 1.8 13.7 -25.5 434
Crude fat 5.3 6 % - 1.9 0.6 -10.7 227 2.1 0.7 -11.7 228
Ash 8.3 9.4 % - 0.8 4 -10.9 246 0.8 4.6 -12.2 250
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.8 % - 1 1
NDF 41.3 46.5 % - 4.4 22.1 -49.3 83 4.8 22.8 -56.3 88
ADF 32.2 36.3 % - 3.6 15.1 -39.4 85 3.9 15.6 -42.5 91
Lignin 16.3 18.3 % - 2.4 10.6 -23.4 143 2.6 11.9 -25.1 148
Water insoluble cell walls 40.5 45.6 % - 1 1
Starch 6.9 7.8 % - 0.5 6.4 -7.5 5 6.8 -8.3 4
Starch, enzymatic method 2.2 2.5 % - 1
Total sugars 0.9 1 % - 0.4 -1.4 2 0.4 -1.6 2
Gross energy (kcal) 3990 4490 kcal/kg - 190 3780 -4040 3 170 4180 -4720 7
Gross energy (MJ) 16.7 18.8 MJ/kg - 0.8 15.8 -16.9 3 0.7 17.5 -19.7 7
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 3.2 3.7 g/kg - 0.8 1 -6 121 0.9 1.1 -6.4 122
Phosphorus 3.9 4.4 g/kg - 0.7 2.5 -6.8 131 0.8 2.7 -7.5 132
Phytate phosphorus 2.3 2.6 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 3.8 4.3 g/kg - 3.3 -4.7 2 3.6 -5 2
Potassium 23.7 26.7 g/kg - 2.9 13.7 -29 60 3.2 15.6 -32.9 60
Sodium 0.19 0.22 g/kg - 0.18 0.1 -0.9 23 0.2 0.11 -1.04 23
Chlorine 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.1 0 -0.6 16 0.2 0 -0.7 16
Electrolyte balance 608 685 mEq/kg -
Copper 35 39 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 493 556 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 13.5 15.2 g/kg 26.6 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 17.6 19.8 g/kg 34.7 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 17.3 19.5 g/kg 34.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 1.5 1.7 g/kg 2.9 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 5.1 5.7 % 95 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.33 0.37 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.22 0.25 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 40 45 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 72 81 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 23 26 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.391 0.441 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1030 1170 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 580 650 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 390 440 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 4.3 4.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2.4 2.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1.6 1.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 36.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 34.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 54 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 46 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.6 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.6 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.35 0.4 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.24 0.27 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 37 41 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 70 78 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 27 31 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.29 0.32 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.18 0.2 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 46 52 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 77 87 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 13 15 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.36 0.4 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.36 0.4 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.25 0.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.25 0.28 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 46 52 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 89 100 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 63 71 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1140 1280 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 4.8 5.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 4.8 5.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 38 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 35.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 56.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 55 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 % 1
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 37 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 36 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.041 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 45 % 40-54 2
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 16 % 3-41 3
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 50 % 37-57 3
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.085 h-1 0.032-0.112 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.9 g/kg 65 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.8 2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.4 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 358 403 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 275 310 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 22 25 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 49 55 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 0.9 1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0.2 0.2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 48.6 54.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.23 2.51 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.02 1.15 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.96 1.08 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.07 1.21 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.57 0.64 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 47 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 50 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 2.5 2.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 119 134 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 6 7 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 790 890 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 720 810 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 530 600 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1070 1210 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 970 1090 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 640 720 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 3.3 3.7 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 3 3.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 2.2 2.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 4.5 5.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 4.1 4.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 2.7 3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 19.7 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 26.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 25.7 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 32.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 10 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 20.8 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54.9 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.2 1.3 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.8 2 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1360 1540 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1310 1470 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.7 6.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.5 6.2 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1 1.1 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1 1.1 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 66.2 %
Energy digestibility horse - 63.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.6 0.68 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 79 89 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1900 2140 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 1800 2030 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 7.9 8.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 7.6 8.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 47.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 45.5 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2250 2540 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.4 10.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 56.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.8 7.6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 5.5 6.2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 1.7 2 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 1.7 2 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.5 6.2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Valine 6 6.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 9.8 11 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Tyrosine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.9 12.3 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N
Histidine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N
Arginine 7.9 8.9 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Alanine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 13.6 15.3 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 23.7 26.7 g/kg 15 g/16g N
Glycine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Serine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Proline 5.1 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.8 g/kg 63 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4 g/kg 65 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 77 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.2 g/kg 60 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 67 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.3 g/kg 66 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 73 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 70 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.3 8.2 g/kg 74 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.7 g/kg 77 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 73 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.2 g/kg 75 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 72 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.3 g/kg 82 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 67 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 10.8 g/kg 71 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 18.7 21.1 g/kg 79 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 59 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 69 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 70 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.4 g/kg 70 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 66 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.2 g/kg 77 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.3 g/kg 66 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 71 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 70 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 74 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 71 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.1 8 g/kg 73 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 74 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 69 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 8.9 g/kg 72 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 71 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.6 g/kg 75 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 71 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9.3 10.5 g/kg 69 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.9 20.1 g/kg 75 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.8 g/kg 67 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 70 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 72 %
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