Cocoa hulls

Hulls of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) and the byproduct of the dehulling step in the extraction of cocoa butter. Cocoa hulls are different from cocoa husks, which are the empty pods resulting from the removal of the beans. Other name: cocoa shells.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.8 100 % - 4.6 81.8 -97 440 4.2
Crude protein 15.8 17.8 % - 1.2 12.8 -20.6 434 1.2 13.5 -22.6 433
Crude fibre 18.4 20.7 % - 1.7 12.5 -24 438 1.8 13.7 -25.5 434
Crude fat 5.3 6 % - 1.9 0.6 -10.7 227 2.1 0.7 -11.7 228
Ash 8.3 9.4 % - 0.8 4 -10.9 246 0.8 4.6 -12.2 250
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.8 % - 1 1
NDF 41.2 46.5 % - 4.4 22.1 -49.3 83 4.8 22.8 -56.3 88
ADF 32.2 36.2 % - 3.6 15.1 -39.4 85 3.9 15.6 -42.5 91
Lignin 16.3 18.3 % - 2.4 10.6 -23.4 143 2.6 11.9 -25.1 148
Water insoluble cell walls 50.5 56.8 % - 1 1
Starch 7 7.9 % - 0.5 6.4 -7.5 5 6.8 -8.3 4
Total sugars 0.9 1 % - 0.4 -1.4 2 0.4 -1.6 2
Gross energy (kcal) 3990 4490 kcal/kg - 190 3780 -4040 3 170 4180 -4720 7
Gross energy (MJ) 16.7 18.8 MJ/kg - 0.8 15.8 -16.9 3 0.7 17.5 -19.7 7
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 3.2 3.7 g/kg - 0.8 1 -6 121 0.9 1.1 -6.4 122
Phosphorus 3.9 4.4 g/kg - 0.7 2.5 -6.8 131 0.8 2.7 -7.5 132
Magnesium 3.8 4.3 g/kg - 3.3 -4.7 2 3.6 -5 2
Potassium 23.7 26.7 g/kg - 2.9 13.7 -29 60 3.2 15.6 -32.9 60
Sodium 0.19 0.22 g/kg - 0.18 0.1 -0.9 23 0.2 0.11 -1.04 23
Chlorine 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.1 0 -0.6 16 0.2 0 -0.7 16
Electrolyte balance 608 685 mEq/kg -
Copper 35 39 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 493 556 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 10.2 11.5 g/kg 25.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.2 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 13.5 15.2 g/kg 33.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 13.3 15 g/kg 33.3 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 2.3 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1 % FA
Fatty acids 4 4.5 g/kg 75 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.33 0.37 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.22 0.25 per kg -
PDIA Systali 42 47 g/kg -
PDI Systali 73 83 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 20 22 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.441 0.497 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 1030 1170 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 580 650 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 390 440 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 4.3 4.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 2.4 2.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 1.6 1.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 36.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 34.2 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 52 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 40 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 1.6 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.6 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.35 0.4 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.24 0.27 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 71 80 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 24 27 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.29 0.32 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.18 0.2 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 48 54 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 79 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 10 11 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.36 0.4 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.25 0.28 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 48 54 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 89 100 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 64 72 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1140 1280 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 4.8 5.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 38 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 35.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 56.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 55 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 % 1
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 50 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 37 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 36 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.041 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 38 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 8 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 53 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.6 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.8 2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.4 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.6 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 790 890 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 730 830 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 510 580 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1080 1220 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 990 1110 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 630 710 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 3.3 3.7 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 3.1 3.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 2.1 2.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 4.5 5.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 4.1 4.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 2.6 3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 19.8 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 27.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 23.8 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 31 %
N digestibility growing pig - 0 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 11.1 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54.9 % 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 66 %
Energy digestibility horse - 63.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.6 0.68 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 79 89 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1900 2140 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 1810 2030 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 7.9 8.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 7.6 8.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 47.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 45.5 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.8 7.6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 5.5 6.2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 1.7 2 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 1.7 2 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.5 6.2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Valine 6 6.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 9.8 11 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Tyrosine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.9 12.3 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N
Histidine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N
Arginine 7.9 8.9 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Alanine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 13.6 15.3 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 23.7 26.7 g/kg 15 g/16g N
Glycine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Serine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Proline 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
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