Grapeseed oil meal

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.3 100 % - 1.8 85.5 -92.8 35 2.8
Crude protein 10.3 11.7 % - 1.2 8.4 -14.3 37 1.3 9.3 -16.6 36
Crude fibre 42.9 48.6 % - 5.6 33.6 -52.2 35 6.2 38.8 -59.9 35
Crude fat 1.4 1.6 % - 1 0.3 -5.2 23 1.1 0.3 -4.3 23
Ash 3.5 4 % - 0.6 2.6 -5.3 30 0.7 3 -5.8 30
Insoluble ash 1.1 1.2 % -
NDF 65 73.6 % - 4.7 61.4 -75.7 15 5.2 66.1 -83.6 17
ADF 57.3 64.9 % - 5.1 52.4 -66.1 15 5.6 56.5 -76.6 16
Lignin 40.1 45.4 % - 10.7 11.7 -58.1 25 12 13.7 -64.2 25
Water insoluble cell walls 76.1 86.1 % - 1 1
Starch 2.2 2.5 % - 1.9 -2.8 4 2.2 -3.2 4
Starch, enzymatic method 0.08 0.09 % - 1 1
Total sugars 0.6 0.7 % - 0.3 0.3 -1.2 6 0.3 0.3 -1.3 6
Gross energy (kcal) 4120 4670 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 17.3 19.5 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 8.7 9.8 g/kg - 1.6 6.5 -12.1 14 1.8 7 -13.4 15
Phosphorus 2 2.3 g/kg - 0.5 1.5 -3.3 14 0.5 1.7 -3.6 15
Phytate phosphorus 1.2 1.4 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 1
Potassium 5.4 6.1 g/kg - 4.5 -6.9 4 5 -8 4
Sodium 0.14 0.16 g/kg - 0.12 0.03 -0.26 7 0.14 0.03 -0.4 8
Chlorine 0.2 0.2 g/kg - 0.1 -0.3 2 0.1 -0.3 2
Sulfur 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 52 59 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 138 156 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg - 1
Zinc 15 17 mg/kg -
Copper 15 17 mg/kg - 10 2 -22 4 11 2 -29 5
Iron 169 191 mg/kg - 1 1
Selenium 0.04 0.04 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0.01 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.06 % FA 0.03 0-0.08 9
C16:0 palmitic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 7.1 % FA 1 5.5-9.2 17
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2 0-0.6 12
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 4.3 % FA 0.8 3.4-5.9 17
C18:1 oleic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 16.1 % FA 3.6 10.8-24.9 17
C18:2 linoleic acid 7.4 8.4 g/kg 70.9 % FA 4.5 60.9-78.2 17
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.1 0.2-0.6 17
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.02 0.2-0.2 15
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.08 0.1-0.4 10
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1 1.2 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.14 0.16 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.06 0.07 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 8 9 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 36 40 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -4 -5 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.569 0.645 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 480 540 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 250 280 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 100 120 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1.8 2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 0.9 1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 0.4 0.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 19.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 17.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 50 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 19 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.17 0.19 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.08 0.09 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 7 8 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 36 41 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -2 -2 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.1 0.12 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.03 0.04 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 9 10 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 36 41 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -10 -11 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.18 0.2 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.16 0.19 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.09 0.1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.08 0.09 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 9 10 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 34 38 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 19 21 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 610 690 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 2.5 2.9 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 2.3 2.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 20.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 18.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 35.9 % 12.8 34.1-68.7 5
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 48 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 10 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 66 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.08 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 20 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 61.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.4 1.6 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 4.8 5.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.7 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 180 203 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 95 108 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 -33 -37 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 28 32 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 -0.3 -0.3 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 -0.03 -0.03 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 21.1 23.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1 1.13 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.21 0.23 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.18 0.2 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.04 0.04 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0 0 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 50 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 56 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 1.3 1.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 77 87 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 4 5 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1480 1670 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1370 1560 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 660 750 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1840 2080 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1650 1870 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 830 940 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 6.2 7 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 6.2 7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 5.8 6.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 5.8 6.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 2.8 3.1 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 2.8 3.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 7.7 8.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 7.2 8.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 6.5 7.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 6.9 7.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 3.2 3.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 3.5 3.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 35.9 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 44.5 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 41.1 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 49.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 22.4 %
N digestibility adult pig - 43.1 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.6 0.7 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 640 730 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 630 710 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 2.7 3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 2.6 3 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.5 0.6 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.5 0.6 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 55.6 %
Energy digestibility horse - 53.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.67 0.76 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 31 35 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 810 910 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 780 890 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.4 3.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.4 3.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.3 3.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.3 3.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 19.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 15.9 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2120 2400 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.9 10.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 51.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 80.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Threonine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.2 1.4 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Valine 3.9 4.4 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.5 4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Histidine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Arginine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N
Alanine 4.6 5.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 5.2 5.9 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 16.2 18.3 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N
Glycine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N
Serine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Proline 3.7 4.2 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 47 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2.1 g/kg 51 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 43 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.4 g/kg 55 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 52 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 63 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 59 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.9 g/kg 64 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 68 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 63 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 66 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.4 g/kg 61 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 76 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 54 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 60 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 11.5 13.1 g/kg 71 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 3 g/kg 40 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 57 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 57 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 60 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 56 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 70 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 59 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 64 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 61 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 66 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 63 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 63 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 66 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 58 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4 g/kg 63 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.5 g/kg 62 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.2 g/kg 63 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 61 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 10.9 12.3 g/kg 67 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 57 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 62 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 64 %
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