Wheat gluten

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch from wheat grains (Triticum spp.) by wet milling. It consists principally of gluten obtained during the separation of starch. Wheat gluten is a protein-rich product (about 80% crude protein as fed) mostly used for human food, with some applications for animal feeding.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 94 100 % - 1.2 90.6 -96 57 1.8
Crude protein 79.8 85 % - 2.3 75.4 -84.9 74 2.2 76.9 -90.9 59
Crude fibre 0.7 0.7 % - 0.5 0 -2 22 0.6 0 -2.1 21
Crude fat 1.6 1.7 % - 0.9 0.3 -5.6 32 1 0.3 -5.9 33
Ash 0.9 1 % - 0.6 0.6 -3.8 29 0.6 0.6 -4 30
Insoluble ash 0 0 % -
NDF 0.5 0.5 % - 0.3 -0.5 3 0.3 -0.5 3
ADF 0.3 0.3 % - 0.1 -1.2 2 0.1 -1.3 2
Lignin 0.05 0.05 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 0.5 0.5 % -
Starch 5.4 5.7 % - 2.1 3.1 -9.8 21 2.2 3.3 -10.6 21
Starch, enzymatic method 5.2 5.5 % - 1 1
Total sugars 2.9 3.1 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 5120 5450 kcal/kg - 270 4790 -5440 4 280 5110 -5820 5
Gross energy (MJ) 21.4 22.8 MJ/kg - 1.1 20.1 -22.8 4 1.2 21.4 -24.4 5
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1 g/kg - 0.7 0.2 -2.3 7 0.8 0.4 -2.5 6
Phosphorus 1.8 1.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.5 -2.4 7 0.3 1.6 -2.5 6
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.4 g/kg 23 % P 1 22-25 2
Magnesium 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.2 -0.7 4 0.2 -0.7 4
Potassium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 1 -1.5 5 0.2 1 -1.6 5
Sodium 0.57 0.61 g/kg - 0.18 -1 4 0.19 -1.04 4
Chlorine 1 1 g/kg - 1 -1 2
Sulfur 4.6 4.9 g/kg - 3 -7.5 3 3.1 -8 3
Dietary cation-anion difference -258 -275 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 28 29 mEq/kg -
Manganese 24 26 mg/kg - 15 -34 2 16 -35 2
Zinc 43 46 mg/kg - 30 -57 2 32 -60 2
Copper 23 25 mg/kg - 6 -40 2 6 -43 2
Iron 50 53 mg/kg - 36 -74 4 39 -78 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.2 2.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.05 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 1.9 2 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 6.9 7.3 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.06 0.06 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1.2 1.3 % 75 % fat 2 71-76 7
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.5 1.6 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.55 1.65 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 477 507 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 519 552 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 189 201 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.528 0.562 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3880 4130 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2650 2820 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2730 2910 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 16.3 17.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.1 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.4 12.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 94.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 99.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 34 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 85 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 29 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.2 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.3 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.47 1.56 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.5 1.6 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 443 472 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 488 520 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 222 236 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.45 1.54 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.48 1.58 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 535 570 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 574 611 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 129 138 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.28 1.36 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.28 1.36 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.26 1.34 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.26 1.34 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 566 603 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 663 706 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 594 632 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3450 3670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.4 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.4 15.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 96.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 97 %
N digestibility ruminants - 81.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 29 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 87 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 30 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 63.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.2 1.3 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.4 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1275 1356 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1377 1465 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 593 631 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 129 137 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.4 3.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 1.8 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 89.7 95.5 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 4.86 5.17 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.69 2.86 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 2.55 2.72 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.83 3.01 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.04 2.17 Mcal/kg -
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 9 9.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 686 730 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 18 19 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4860 5170 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 4390 4680 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2610 2780 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4960 5270 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4460 4750 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2690 2860 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 20.3 21.7 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 20.5 21.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 18.4 19.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 18.5 19.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.9 11.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.9 11.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 20.8 22.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 20.7 22.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.7 20 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.7 19.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 95 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 96.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 93.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 95.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 87.9 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88.6 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 92 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 40.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.2 1.2 g/kg 65 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.7 1.8 g/kg 98 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3800 4040 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3800 4040 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.4 0.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.4 0.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90.6 %
Energy digestibility horse - 87 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.02 1.08 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 676 720 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 5490 5840 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 4950 5270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 23 24.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 20.7 22.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 100 %
N digestibility rabbit - 55.3 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4400 4680 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.4 19.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.4 19.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 85.9 % 1
N digestibility salmonids - 93.8 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 15.2 16.1 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 1.4 11.4 -15.8 31 1.5 12.2 -17 17 0.2 1.4-2.2 32
Threonine 21.5 22.9 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 2.9 18.7 -30 29 3.1 20.1 -31.5 15 0.3 2.3-3.7 30
Methionine 11.6 12.3 g/kg 1.4 g/16g N 2.3 10.7 -17.8 27 2.5 11.6 -18.5 13 0.2 1.4-2.2 28
Cystine 16 17.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 6.3 13.4 -31.5 26 6.7 14.2 -32.8 12 0.6 1.7-3.9 27
Methionine + cystine 27.6 29.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 4.8 25.9 -40 25 5.1 27.5 -43.8 11 0.4 3.2-5.2 26
Tryptophan 6.5 6.9 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N
Isoleucine 29.3 31.2 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 3.8 26 -40.1 29 4.1 28.5 -42.8 15 0.4 3.4-5 30
Valine 31.6 33.6 g/kg 4 g/16g N 3 26 -37.2 29 3.2 28.5 -39.7 15 0.3 3.4-5.1 30
Leucine 53.7 57.2 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 4.6 49 -64.1 29 4.9 53.7 -68.4 15 0.5 6.3-8.7 30
Phenylalanine 42.3 45 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 4.7 28.8 -47.6 26 5 30.7 -51 12 0.5 3.6-6.6 27
Tyrosine 26.6 28.3 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 2.5 25.7 -27.9 13 2.7 27.2 -35 7 0.3 3.1-4.6 14
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 68.9 73.3 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 7.9 55.2 -73.3 13 8.3 58.9 -86 7 0.9 6.9-11.2 14
Histidine 17.1 18.2 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1.1 15 -19 28 1.1 16.2 -20.5 14 0.2 1.9-2.6 29
Arginine 34 36.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 4.2 25.7 -39 27 4.4 27.9 -42.3 13 0.5 3.2-4.8 28
Alanine 23.1 24.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 2.8 18.4 -26.5 24 3 19.5 -29.2 10 0.3 2.2-3.5 25
Aspartic acid 35.5 37.7 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 291 310 g/kg 36.5 g/16g N 34.6 225 -329 22 36.6 239 -350 7 2.2 27.8-39.9 22
Glycine 28.6 30.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 3.3 21.3 -30.5 24 3.5 22.6 -33 10 0.3 2.6-4.3 25
Serine 40.9 43.5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 3.1 33.8 -43.7 24 3.2 37.3 -46.3 9 0.3 4.3-5.3 24
Proline 96 102 g/kg 12 g/16g N 7.9 88.2 -120 19 97.2 -126 4 0.9 11.2-14.9 19
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 9.7 g/kg 60 % 1 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 16.3 17.4 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 10.2 10.8 g/kg 88 % 1 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 13.6 14.5 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 23.8 25.3 g/kg 86 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.5 g/kg 79 % 1 1 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 24.9 26.5 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 26.5 28.2 g/kg 84 % 1 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 46.7 49.7 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 36.8 39.2 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 24.1 25.7 g/kg 91 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 60.9 64.8 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 14.7 15.6 g/kg 86 % 1 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 28.9 30.7 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 18 19.2 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.1 25.7 g/kg 68 % 1 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 271 288 g/kg 93 % 1 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 24.9 26.5 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 35.6 37.9 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 88.4 94 g/kg 92 % 1 1 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.1 14 g/kg 86 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.9 19 g/kg 83 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.3 11 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.4 13.2 g/kg 77 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 22.7 24.2 g/kg 82 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 5.9 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.2 26.8 g/kg 86 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 27.1 28.9 g/kg 86 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 47.3 50.4 g/kg 88 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 37.2 39.6 g/kg 88 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 23.4 24.9 g/kg 88 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 60.7 64.6 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.6 15.5 g/kg 86 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 30.2 32.1 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 20 21.2 g/kg 86 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 29.1 30.9 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 262 278 g/kg 90 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 24 25.5 g/kg 84 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 34.5 36.8 g/kg 84 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 82.4 87.7 g/kg 86 %
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