Wheat gluten

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch from wheat grains (Triticum spp.) by wet milling. It consists principally of gluten obtained during the separation of starch. Wheat gluten is a protein-rich product (about 80% crude protein as fed) mostly used for human food, with some applications for animal feeding.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 93.8 100 % - 2 90.6 -95.3 49 1.8
Crude protein 80.2 85.5 % - 2.4 75.4 -84.9 66 2.3 76.9 -90.9 51
Crude fibre 0.7 0.7 % - 0.5 0 -2 17 0.6 0 -2.1 16
Crude fat 1.5 1.6 % - 0.6 0.3 -2.6 31 0.7 0.3 -2.8 32
Ash 0.8 0.9 % - 0.1 0.6 -1.2 21 0.2 0.6 -1.3 22
NDF 0.4 0.4 % - 0.3 -0.5 3 0.3 -0.5 3
ADF 0.6 0.7 % - 0.1 -1.2 2 0.1 -1.3 2
Lignin 0.3 0.3 % - 0.05 -0.5 2 0.05 -0.6 2
Water insoluble cell walls 9.1 9.7 % -
Starch 5.4 5.7 % - 2.4 3.1 -9.8 15 2.5 3.3 -10.6 15
Total sugars 0 0 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 5110 5450 kcal/kg - 4790 -5440 3 5110 -5820 4
Gross energy (MJ) 21.4 22.8 MJ/kg - 20.1 -22.8 3 21.4 -24.4 4
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.2 -2.3 4 0.7 -2.5 3
Phosphorus 1.9 2 g/kg - 1.6 -2.3 4
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.4 g/kg 22 % P 1 1
Magnesium 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 1.3 1.4 g/kg - 1.1 -1.5 2 1.2 -1.6 2
Sodium 0.18 0.19 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 7.5 8 g/kg - 1 1
Manganese 15 16 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 30 32 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 40 43 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 41 43 mg/kg - 36 -47 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.1 % FA
Fatty acids 3.3 3.6 g/kg 80 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.5 1.6 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.55 1.65 per kg -
PDIA Systali 479 510 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 521 555 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 191 203 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.527 0.562 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3880 4140 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2650 2820 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2730 2910 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 16.3 17.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.1 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.4 12.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 95 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 100 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 34 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 85 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 29 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.2 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.3 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.46 1.56 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.5 1.6 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 445 475 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 490 522 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 224 239 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.45 1.55 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.48 1.58 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 538 573 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 577 614 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 131 139 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.28 1.36 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.26 1.34 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 569 606 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 666 710 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 594 633 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3450 3670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.4 15.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 96.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 97.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 81.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 29 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 87 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 30 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.3 1.4 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.4 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4890 5220 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 4420 4710 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2610 2780 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4980 5310 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4470 4770 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2690 2870 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 20.5 21.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 18.5 19.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.9 11.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 20.8 22.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.7 20 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 95.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 97.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 94.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 96 %
N digestibility growing pig - 88.1 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88.7 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 92 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 37.8 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3800 4040 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3800 4040 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.9 16.9 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 1 1.07 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 679 724 g/kg -
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4400 4680 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.4 19.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 85.9 % 1
N digestibility salmonids - 93.8 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 15.2 16.2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 1.5 11.4 -15.8 28 1.6 12.2 -17 14 0.2 1.4-2.2 29
Threonine 21.6 23 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 2 18.7 -22 26 2.1 20.1 -28 12 0.2 2.3-3.6 27
Methionine 11.6 12.4 g/kg 1.4 g/16g N 2 10.7 -16.1 24 2.1 11.6 -17 10 0.2 1.4-2 25
Cystine 16.1 17.2 g/kg 2 g/16g N 4.7 13.4 -29 23 5 14.2 -31.8 9 0.4 1.7-3.7 24
Methionine + cystine 27.7 29.5 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 4.9 25.9 -40 24 5.2 27.5 -43.8 10 0.5 3.2-5.2 25
Tryptophan 6.6 7 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N
Isoleucine 29.4 31.4 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 4.2 26 -40.1 26 4.5 28.5 -42.8 12 0.4 3.4-5 27
Valine 31.7 33.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 3.4 26 -37.2 26 3.6 28.5 -39.7 12 0.4 3.4-5.1 27
Leucine 54 57.5 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 5.1 49 -64.1 26 5.4 53.7 -68.4 12 0.5 6.3-8.7 27
Phenylalanine 42.5 45.3 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 5.5 28.8 -47.6 23 5.9 30.7 -51 9 0.5 3.6-6.6 24
Tyrosine 26.7 28.5 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 2.6 25.7 -27.9 12 2.8 27.2 -35 6 0.3 3.1-4.6 13
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 69.2 73.8 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 8.6 55.2 -73.3 12 9.1 58.9 -86 6 1 6.9-11.2 13
Histidine 17.1 18.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.9 15 -19 25 0.9 17.4 -20.5 11 0.2 1.9-2.6 26
Arginine 34.1 36.4 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 4.6 25.7 -39 24 4.8 27.9 -42.3 10 0.5 3.2-4.8 25
Alanine 23.2 24.8 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 3 18.4 -26.5 23 3.2 19.5 -29.2 9 0.3 2.2-3.5 24
Aspartic acid 35.6 38 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 292 312 g/kg 36.5 g/16g N 38.6 225 -329 21 41 239 -356 7 3.1 27.8-46.3 22
Glycine 28.7 30.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 3.5 21.3 -30.5 23 3.7 22.6 -33 9 0.3 2.6-4.3 24
Serine 41.1 43.8 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 4.6 33.8 -43.7 23 4.9 37.3 -53 9 0.5 4.3-6.9 24
Proline 96.6 103 g/kg 12 g/16g N 8 88.2 -120 18 1.2 11.2-15.9 19
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 9.7 g/kg 60 % 1 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 16.4 17.5 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 10.2 10.9 g/kg 88 % 1 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 13.7 14.6 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 23.9 25.5 g/kg 86 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.5 g/kg 79 % 1 1 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 25 26.7 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 26.6 28.4 g/kg 84 % 1 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 46.9 50 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 37 39.4 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 14.7 15.7 g/kg 86 % 1 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 29 30.9 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 18.1 19.3 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.2 25.8 g/kg 68 % 1 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 272 290 g/kg 93 % 1 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 25 26.6 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 35.7 38.1 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 88.8 94.7 g/kg 92 % 1 1 1
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