Wheat gluten feed, type 20% starch

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch obtained from wheat grains (Triticum spp.) by wet milling. It is composed of bran and gluten, to which steeping liquor and germs may be added. This product contains about 20% starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.9 100 % - 2.4 84 -95.3 1056 2.2
Crude protein 17.3 19 % - 1.1 13 -22 1199 1.2 14.1 -24.1 1095
Crude fibre 6.3 6.9 % - 0.9 4.4 -8.6 472 1 4.6 -9.6 406
Crude fat 4 4.4 % - 0.5 2.4 -4.8 168 0.6 2.8 -5.3 167
Ash 6.8 7.5 % - 0.8 3.7 -8.4 571 0.9 4 -9.2 471
NDF 29 31.9 % -
ADF 8.5 9.4 % - 0.7 7.4 -9 5
Lignin 2.8 3 % - 0.2 2.4 -2.9 6 0.2 2.6 -3.2 5
Water insoluble cell walls 28.4 31.2 % - 26.1 -28.7 2 1
Starch 19 20.9 % - 3 12.4 -31.4 1086 3.2 13.2 -36 991
Total sugars 2.9 3.2 % - 1.1 1.2 -9.4 175 1.2 1.3 -7.8 173
Gross energy (kcal) 4110 4520 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 17.2 18.9 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 0.7 -1.8 135 0.3 0.8 -2 128
Phosphorus 7.5 8.3 g/kg - 0.8 5.7 -9.9 137 0.9 6.2 -10.8 130
Phytate phosphorus 4.9 5.4 g/kg 65 % P
Magnesium 2.9 3.2 g/kg - 2.5 0.7 -11.2 13 2.7 0.8 -12.1 13
Potassium 10.7 11.7 g/kg - 3.4 2.1 -13.3 27 3.7 2.3 -14.5 18
Sodium 12.52 13.78 g/kg - 4.18 0.23 -22.6 743 4.59 0.25 -24.95 643
Chlorine 8.4 9.2 g/kg - 3.6 0.8 -25.3 742 4 0.8 -27.9 699
Sulfur 3.9 4.3 g/kg - 2.9 -5 2
Dietary cation-anion difference 337 370 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 582 640 mEq/kg -
Manganese 77 85 mg/kg - 73 -81 2 1
Zinc 57 63 mg/kg - 53 -61 2 1
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 7 -9 2 1
Iron 110 121 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.7 5.1 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4 4.4 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 14.8 16.3 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.5 1.7 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.6 2.9 g/kg 65 % fat
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 10 10 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.95 1.05 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.93 1.02 per kg -
PDIA Systali 38 42 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 88 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 38 41 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.209 0.23 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2580 2840 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1680 1850 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1640 1800 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.8 11.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.8 7.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 77.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 74 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.98 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.96 1.05 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 33 37 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 84 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 41 45 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.91 1 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.88 0.97 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 46 51 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 95 105 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 30 33 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.93 1.02 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.89 0.98 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 39 43 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 112 124 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 91 100 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2560 2820 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.7 11.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 78.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 70 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.1 5.6 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.3 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2890 3180 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2730 3000 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1870 2060 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3050 3350 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2840 3120 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1980 2180 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.1 13.3 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.4 12.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.8 8.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.8 14 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 70.3 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 74.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 73.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 77 %
N digestibility growing pig - 73.2 %
N digestibility adult pig - 78.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 68 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 51.9 % 39.7-53.2 2
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.1 2.3 g/kg 28 % 24-32 2
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2150 2370 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2100 2310 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.8 9.7 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 72 %
Energy digestibility horse - 69.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.81 0.89 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 127 139 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2950 3240 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2820 3100 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 71.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 57.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.4 6 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 1 3.1 -7.1 33 1 3.9 -7.9 24 0.5 2-4 29
Threonine 5.8 6.3 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.5 4.6 -6.4 27 0.5 5 -7 22 0.1 3.1-3.6 27
Methionine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.4 g/16g N 0.2 2 -2.7 26 0.2 2.2 -3 21 0.08 1.3-1.6 26
Cystine 3.7 4 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -4.4 27 0.5 3.1 -4.8 22 0.1 1.8-2.3 27
Methionine + cystine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.6 4.9 -7.1 25 0.6 5.5 -7.8 20 0.2 3.1-3.8 25
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -2.4 24 0.3 1.8 -2.7 20 0.2 1.1-1.6 24
Isoleucine 5.8 6.4 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.7 4.6 -6.3 12 0.8 5 -7 7 0.1 3.1-3.6 12
Valine 8.7 9.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 6.7 -9.1 11 1.1 7.3 -10.1 6
Leucine 11 12.1 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.6 8.8 -12.5 11 1.8 9.7 -13.8 6 0.3 6-6.9 11
Phenylalanine 6.9 7.5 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.1 5.4 -7.7 11 1.2 5.9 -8.5 6 0.1 3.7-4.1 11
Tyrosine 4.6 5.1 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.9 3.7 -5.5 10 0.9 4.1 -6.1 5 0.2 2.6-3 10
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.5 12.6 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.6 9.3 -13.2 9 10.2 -14.6 4 0.3 6.3-7 9
Histidine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N
Arginine 10.6 11.7 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 1.4 8 -11.7 10 1.6 8.8 -12.9 6 0.2 5.6-6.3 10
Alanine 8.3 9.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.9 6.6 -8.9 12 1 7.2 -9.8 7 0.2 4.4-5 12
Aspartic acid 11.5 12.7 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.4 9.4 -12.6 11 1.5 10.3 -13.9 6 0.4 6.2-7.6 10
Glutamic acid 35.1 38.7 g/kg 20.3 g/16g N 4.3 26.3 -38.4 12 4.7 30.7 -42.2 7 1.5 16.6-21.2 12
Glycine 8.7 9.6 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.1 6.7 -9.2 12 1.2 7.3 -10.2 7 0.3 4.6-5.6 12
Serine 8.3 9.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.9 6.2 -8.5 11 0.9 7 -9.4 6
Proline 11 12.1 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.8 8.8 -13.2 11 1.9 9.8 -14.6 6 0.5 5.7-7 11
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 57 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.2 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 72 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.9 g/kg 72 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 72 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.5 g/kg 66 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.5 g/kg 70 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 66 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 8.9 g/kg 73 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 5.8 g/kg 78 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 3.9 g/kg 78 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 9.8 g/kg 78 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 3.9 g/kg 73 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.5 9.3 g/kg 80 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 62 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.5 g/kg 67 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 29 31.9 g/kg 83 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6 g/kg 63 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.6 g/kg 72 % 1
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 7.53 8.28 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.77 1.95 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 474 522 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0074 0.0082 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 2.94 3.23 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.86 0.95 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML