Grape pomace, dried

Dried byproduct of winery or grape juice manufacture obtained from the pressure of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Grape pomace typically contains the pulp, skins, seeds (pips) and sometimes the branches. Grape pomace without the seeds and branches is often called grape marc or grape pulp, but those terms are also used as synonyms.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.2 100 % - 1.9 86.4 -96.5 155 2.9
Crude protein 12.4 13.6 % - 1.6 8.1 -17 235 1.8 8.3 -18.6 150
Crude fibre 22.5 24.7 % - 3.3 14.2 -34.9 249 3.6 15.6 -34.2 154
Crude fat 5.4 6 % - 1.6 2.5 -8.5 107 1.8 2.7 -14.2 79
Ash 6.7 7.4 % - 2.7 3 -13.9 88 2.9 2.4 -17.3 77
Insoluble ash 1.3 1.5 % - 0.4 0.6 -2.5 37 0.4 0.6 -2.7 37
NDF 55.4 60.8 % - 7.6 30.7 -68.5 111 8.2 30.6 -75.8 107
ADF 48 52.6 % - 7.2 27.8 -63.5 110 7.9 25.7 -70.4 106
Lignin 30.8 33.7 % - 5.8 16.5 -47.3 120 6.4 18.3 -54.7 114
Water insoluble cell walls 54.6 59.9 % -
Starch 1 1.1 % - 1 0.6 -1.6 2
Starch, enzymatic method 0.9 0.9 % - 0.7 -1 2
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 4.9 0.01 -6 94 5.3 0.01 -31.8 101
Gross energy (kcal) 4150 4550 kcal/kg - 360 3810 -4770 4 390 4130 -5180 11
Gross energy (MJ) 17.4 19.1 MJ/kg - 1.5 16 -20 4 1.6 17.3 -21.7 11
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 9 9.9 g/kg - 4.2 3.8 -24.8 134 4.6 4.1 -28.1 137
Phosphorus 2.5 2.7 g/kg - 0.6 1.3 -4.5 136 0.7 1.4 -6.5 138
Phytate phosphorus 1.5 1.6 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 0.8 0.8 g/kg - 0.1 0.7 -0.9 3 0.1 0.7 -1 5
Potassium 12.7 14 g/kg - 5.2 5.7 -27.8 101 5.7 6.4 -30.9 98
Sodium 0.2 0.22 g/kg - 0.13 0 -0.7 58 0.14 0 -0.9 56
Chlorine 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.5 0 -2.1 34 0.6 0 -2.3 31
Sulfur 1.4 1.6 g/kg - 0.4 0.9 -1.5 3 0.4 1.1 -2.1 5
Dietary cation-anion difference 233 256 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 322 353 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 13 mg/kg - 4 -16 3 5 -18 4
Zinc 23 25 mg/kg - 11 10 -39 4 12 11 -43 5
Copper 45 49 mg/kg - 20 17 -141 114 22 19 -119 65
Iron 329 361 mg/kg - 146 -600 4 160 -645 4
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 0.1 -0.2 2
Cobalt 0.4 0.4 mg/kg - 0 -1 3 0 -1 4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0.01 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.06 % FA 0.03 0-0.08 9
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.9 3.2 g/kg 7.1 % FA 1 5.5-9.2 17
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2 0-0.6 12
C18:0 stearic acid 1.8 1.9 g/kg 4.3 % FA 0.8 3.4-5.9 17
C18:1 oleic acid 6.6 7.2 g/kg 16.1 % FA 3.6 10.8-24.9 17
C18:2 linoleic acid 29 31.8 g/kg 70.9 % FA 4.5 60.9-78.2 17
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.1 0.2-0.6 17
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.02 0.2-0.2 15
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.08 0.1-0.4 10
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 4.1 4.5 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 4.4 4.9 mg/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.36 0.39 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.25 0.27 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 15 16 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 50 54 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -42 -46 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.554 0.607 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1120 1230 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 630 690 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 430 480 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5 5.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2.8 3.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2 2.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 36.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 34.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 21 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 27 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.38 0.42 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.27 0.3 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 15 16 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 51 55 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -42 -46 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.32 0.35 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.2 0.22 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 15 17 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 50 54 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -43 -47 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.38 0.42 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.41 0.44 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.3 0.32 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.27 0.3 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 16 18 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 25 28 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 32 35 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1210 1320 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.1 5.5 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 38.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 36 %
N digestibility ruminants - 52.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 21 % 9 9-32 7
Immediately degradable N (a) - 16 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 12 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.057 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 26 % 15-41 4
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 10 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 35 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.05 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.7 1.9 g/kg 70 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 4.9 5.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.7 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.6 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 381 417 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 296 324 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 -10 -11 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -8 -9 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 1.7 1.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0.5 0.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 35.2 38.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1.61 1.76 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.6 0.66 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.56 0.61 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.55 0.61 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.07 0.08 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 78 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 79 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 2.7 3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 134 147 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -2 -2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1940 2130 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1810 1990 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1120 1230 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2240 2450 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2030 2230 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1280 1410 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 8.1 8.9 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 4.7 5.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 9.4 10.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 8.5 9.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 5.4 5.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 46.8 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 53.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 51.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 58.2 %
N digestibility growing pig - 47.6 %
N digestibility adult pig - 61.8 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 49.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1130 1240 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1080 1180 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 4.7 5.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 4.5 4.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.6 0.7 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.6 0.7 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 61.4 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 59.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.68 0.75 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 57 63 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1480 1620 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 1450 1590 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 6.2 6.8 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 6.1 6.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 35.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 16.3 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2250 2470 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.4 10.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 54.3 %
N digestibility salmonids - 82.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 3.9-5.4 2
Threonine 4.3 4.7 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1 3.5-4.1 2
Methionine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.5 1.6 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 1 1
Methionine + cystine 2.8 3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 1.2 1.3 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 4.5 4.9 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1
Valine 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 3.4 -5.8 2 1 2.4-4.7 2
Leucine 8.1 8.9 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1
Phenylalanine 4.2 4.6 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 2-2.8 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.8 7.4 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1.8-2.8 2
Arginine 6.5 7.1 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 5.5 6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 5.3 -6.8 2 1 4.3-4.9 2
Aspartic acid 6.3 6.9 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 5.8 -9.8 2 1 4.7-7 2
Glutamic acid 19.5 21.4 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N 14 -21.1 2 1
Glycine 8 8.7 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1
Serine 4.5 4.9 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 4.4 4.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 2.9 g/kg 55 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.7 g/kg 57 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 72 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 51 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 61 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 59 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 68 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.1 g/kg 69 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.3 g/kg 72 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 68 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.2 g/kg 71 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 66 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.6 g/kg 79 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.6 g/kg 60 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.5 g/kg 65 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 14.6 16 g/kg 75 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 49 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 62 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 63 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 65 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 2.9 g/kg 61 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1 g/kg 73 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 62 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2 g/kg 67 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 66 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.4 g/kg 70 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 67 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6 g/kg 68 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 70 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 63 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5 g/kg 67 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.8 g/kg 66 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5 g/kg 70 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4 g/kg 67 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.5 g/kg 64 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.8 15.2 g/kg 71 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.4 g/kg 61 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 66 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 68 %
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