Grape pomace, dried

Dried byproduct of winery or grape juice manufacture obtained from the pressure of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Grape pomace typically contains the pulp, skins, seeds (pips) and sometimes the branches. Grape pomace without the seeds and branches is often called grape marc or grape pulp, but those terms are also used as synonyms.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.2 100 % - 3.2 86.4 -95.9 147 2.8
Crude protein 12.5 13.7 % - 1.3 8.6 -17 228 1.4 9.4 -18.6 129
Crude fibre 22.6 24.7 % - 3 14.2 -34.9 245 3.3 15.6 -34.2 142
Crude fat 5.4 6 % - 1.2 2.5 -8.5 102 1.3 2.7 -9.1 60
Ash 7.4 8.1 % - 2.5 3.1 -16.6 355 2.7 3.4 -17.6 354
Insoluble ash 1.3 1.5 % - 0.4 0.6 -2.5 37 0.4 0.6 -2.7 37
NDF 57.4 63 % - 5.7 43 -68.5 103 6.1 47.7 -75.8 91
ADF 49.6 54.4 % - 5.7 37.7 -63.5 103 6.2 42.1 -70.4 91
Lignin 31.3 34.3 % - 5.8 16.5 -47.3 115 6.3 18.3 -54.7 103
Starch 1.5 1.6 % - 1 1
Total sugars 0.9 1 % - 0.7 0.01 -6 94 0.8 0.01 -6.7 93
Gross energy (kcal) 4120 4520 kcal/kg - 1 4470 -5010 3
Gross energy (MJ) 17.3 18.9 MJ/kg - 1 18.7 -21 3
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 9 9.9 g/kg - 4.2 3.8 -24.8 134 4.6 4.1 -28.1 136
Phosphorus 2.5 2.7 g/kg - 0.6 1.3 -4.5 136 0.7 1.4 -6.5 138
Magnesium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.7 -0.9 3 0.7 -1 4
Potassium 12.6 13.9 g/kg - 5.2 5.7 -27.8 101 5.7 6.4 -30.9 97
Sodium 0.2 0.22 g/kg - 0.13 0 -0.7 58 0.14 0 -0.9 55
Chlorine 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.6 0 -2.1 34 0.6 0 -2.3 30
Sulfur 1.4 1.5 g/kg - 0.9 -1.5 3 1.1 -2.1 4
Dietary cation-anion difference 233 256 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 320 351 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 13 mg/kg - 4 -16 3 5 -18 4
Zinc 23 25 mg/kg - 11 10 -39 4 12 11 -43 5
Copper 45 49 mg/kg - 20 17 -141 114 22 19 -119 64
Iron 329 361 mg/kg - 146 -600 4 160 -645 4
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 0.1 -0.2 2
Cobalt 0.4 0.4 mg/kg - 0 -1 3 0 -1 4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3 3.3 g/kg 7.4 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.6 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 1.6 1.7 g/kg 3.9 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 6.4 7 g/kg 15.6 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 29.4 32.3 g/kg 72.2 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA
Fatty acids 4.1 4.5 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 4 5 mg/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.39 0.42 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.28 0.3 per kg -
PDIA Systali 15 16 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 50 55 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -43 -47 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.554 0.607 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1200 1320 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 680 750 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 480 530 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5 5.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2.8 3.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2 2.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 39.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 36.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 21 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 27 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.2 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.41 0.45 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.3 0.33 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 15 16 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 51 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -43 -48 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.34 0.38 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.23 0.26 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 15 17 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 50 55 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -44 -49 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.41 0.44 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.3 0.32 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 16 18 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 26 29 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 34 37 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1270 1400 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 40.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 38.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 54.7 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 22 % 8 10-32 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 16 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 12 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.057 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 26 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 10 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 35 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.05 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.6 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 5 5.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.7 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1460 1600 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1350 1480 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 850 930 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1690 1860 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1520 1670 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 960 1050 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 6.1 6.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 5.6 6.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 3.5 3.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 7.1 7.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 6.4 7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 4 4.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 35.3 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 41.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 40.4 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 46 %
N digestibility growing pig - 35.8 %
N digestibility adult pig - 47.2 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 49.1 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 61 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 59.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.67 0.74 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 58 63 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1390 1530 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 1370 1500 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 5.8 6.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 33.8 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 14.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 3.9-5.4 2
Threonine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1 3.5-4.1 2
Methionine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.5 1.6 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 1 1
Methionine + cystine 2.8 3.1 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 1.2 1.3 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 4.5 5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1
Valine 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 3.4 -5.8 2 1 2.4-4.7 2
Leucine 8.1 8.9 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1
Phenylalanine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 2-2.8 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.8 7.5 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1.8-2.8 2
Arginine 6.5 7.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 5.5 6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 5.3 -6.8 2 1 4.3-4.9 2
Aspartic acid 6.3 6.9 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 5.8 -9.8 2 1 4.7-7 2
Glutamic acid 19.6 21.5 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N 14 -21.1 2 1
Glycine 8 8.8 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1
Serine 4.5 5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 4.4 4.9 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
CSVXLSXXML