Grape seeds

Dried byproduct of wine or grape juice manufacture obtained from the pressure of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Grape seeds result from the removal of the seeds in certain processes.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.5 100 % - 2 85.9 -96.6 69 3
Crude protein 9.2 10 % - 0.8 7.1 -11.2 67 0.8 7.5 -12.2 73
Crude fibre 38.8 42.4 % - 4.6 30 -52.7 62 5 32.3 -58.6 69
Crude fat 11.6 12.7 % - 2 7.6 -16.7 58 2.2 6.9 -17.8 64
Ash 3.1 3.3 % - 0.6 2.4 -4.6 25 0.6 2.2 -4.9 32
Insoluble ash 1.1 1.2 % -
NDF 63.7 69.5 % - 4.8 49.2 -70.7 52 5 54.2 -82.2 55
ADF 54.1 59.1 % - 4.9 40.5 -64.7 52 5.2 44.7 -73.8 55
Lignin 40.5 44.2 % - 6.1 26.5 -54.4 53 6.6 28.8 -62.3 56
Water insoluble cell walls 62.9 68.7 % -
Starch 1.9 2.1 % - 0.9 -2.7 4 1 -2.9 4
Starch, enzymatic method 0.08 0.09 % -
Total sugars 1.1 1.2 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 4760 5190 kcal/kg - 1
Gross energy (MJ) 19.9 21.7 MJ/kg - 1
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 6.3 6.9 g/kg - 1.4 4.7 -8.6 17 1.5 4 -9.1 18
Phosphorus 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.4 1.3 -2.8 17 0.5 1.4 -3 18
Phytate phosphorus 1.1 1.2 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1.2 -1.2 2
Potassium 4.9 5.3 g/kg - 1.6 3.4 -8.3 17 1.7 3.8 -8.8 18
Sodium 0.09 0.1 g/kg - 0.05 0 -0.2 13 0.06 0 -0.22 11
Chlorine 0.4 0.4 g/kg - 0.5 0 -1.8 14 0.5 0.07 -2 12
Sulfur 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 30 32 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 118 129 mEq/kg -
Zinc 10 11 mg/kg - 11 -11 2
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 3 11 -21 17 3 9 -24 17
Iron 31 34 mg/kg - 34 -34 2
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.01 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.06 % FA 0.03 0-0.08 9
C16:0 palmitic acid 7.9 8.6 g/kg 7.1 % FA 1 5.5-9.2 17
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2 0-0.6 12
C18:0 stearic acid 4.8 5.2 g/kg 4.3 % FA 0.8 3.4-5.9 17
C18:1 oleic acid 17.7 19.4 g/kg 16.1 % FA 3.6 10.8-24.9 17
C18:2 linoleic acid 78.2 85.5 g/kg 70.9 % FA 4.5 60.9-78.2 17
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.1 0.2-0.6 17
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.02 0.2-0.2 15
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.08 0.1-0.4 10
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 11 12.1 % 95 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.26 0.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.14 0.16 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 7 8 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -13 -15 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.611 0.668 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 850 930 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 460 500 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 250 270 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 3.5 3.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1.9 2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 23.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 23.5 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 49 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 20 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.29 0.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.17 0.18 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 7 7 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 37 40 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -13 -14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.21 0.23 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.1 0.11 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 8 8 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -16 -18 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.29 0.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.16 0.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.17 0.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 8 9 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 30 33 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 13 15 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 940 1030 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 4 4.3 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 3.9 4.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 25.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 24.8 %
N digestibility ruminants - 29.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 47 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 7 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 56 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 19 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 33 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 77.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.3 1.5 g/kg 70 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.5 3.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.6 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.6 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 285 312 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 181 198 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 -38 -41 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 30 33 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 -0.5 -0.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 -0.1 -0.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 37.4 40.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1.67 1.83 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.68 0.75 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.63 0.69 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.6 0.66 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.12 0.13 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 51 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 55 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 2 2.2 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 83 90 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 1 2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2020 2210 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1920 2090 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1270 1380 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2360 2570 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2180 2380 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1410 1550 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 8.5 9.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 8 8.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 9.9 10.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 9.1 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 5.9 6.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 42.5 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 49.5 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 47.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 54.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 30.6 %
N digestibility adult pig - 52.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 65.5 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.6 0.6 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.9 0.9 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1340 1470 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1220 1340 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.6 6.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.1 5.6 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.5 0.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.5 0.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 50.6 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 49.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.7 0.76 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 28 30 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1450 1580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1430 1560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 6.1 6.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 6 6.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 30.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 12.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2620 2870 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 55.2 %
N digestibility salmonids - 79.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Threonine 3.2 3.5 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1 1.1 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 2 2.2 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.9 1 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Valine 3.5 3.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 5.9 6.5 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.1 3.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5 5.4 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Histidine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Arginine 4.8 5.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N
Alanine 4 4.4 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 4.6 5.1 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 14.4 15.7 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N
Glycine 5.9 6.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N
Serine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Proline 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 1.9 g/kg 49 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 53 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.7 g/kg 70 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 45 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.3 g/kg 57 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 54 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.3 g/kg 65 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.3 g/kg 60 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.3 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.4 g/kg 70 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.3 g/kg 65 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.7 g/kg 68 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.3 g/kg 62 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4 g/kg 77 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.5 g/kg 56 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.1 g/kg 62 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 11.3 g/kg 72 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.7 g/kg 42 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 58 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 59 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 62 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 58 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.7 g/kg 71 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 60 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.5 g/kg 65 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 63 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 67 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.2 g/kg 65 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.3 g/kg 68 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.2 g/kg 59 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 64 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.3 g/kg 63 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 68 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 2.8 g/kg 64 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.1 g/kg 62 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9.8 10.7 g/kg 68 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.7 g/kg 58 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.3 g/kg 63 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.3 g/kg 65 %
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