Grape seeds

Dried byproduct of wine or grape juice manufacture obtained from the pressure of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Grape seeds result from the removal of the seeds in certain processes.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92 100 % - 2.8 88.4 -96.6 60 2.5
Crude protein 9.1 9.9 % - 0.8 7.1 -11.2 58 0.8 7.5 -11.6 64
Crude fibre 39 42.4 % - 4.7 30 -52.7 61 5 32.3 -58.6 68
Crude fat 11.7 12.7 % - 2 8.8 -16.7 49 2.2 6.9 -17.8 55
Ash 3.1 3.4 % - 0.6 2.4 -4.6 24 0.6 2.2 -4.9 31
NDF 64.1 69.7 % - 4.7 49.2 -70.7 51 4.9 54.2 -82.2 54
ADF 54.3 59 % - 4.9 40.5 -64.7 51 5.2 44.7 -73.8 54
Lignin 40.6 44.1 % - 6.1 26.5 -54.4 52 6.6 28.8 -62.3 55
Starch 2 2.1 % - 0.9 -2.7 4 1 -2.9 4
Total sugars 1.1 1.2 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 4780 5190 kcal/kg - 1
Gross energy (MJ) 20 21.7 MJ/kg - 1
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 6.3 6.9 g/kg - 1.4 4.7 -8.6 17 1.5 4 -9.1 18
Phosphorus 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.4 1.3 -2.8 17 0.5 1.4 -3 18
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1.2 -1.2 2
Potassium 4.9 5.3 g/kg - 1.6 3.4 -8.3 17 1.7 3.8 -8.8 18
Sodium 0.09 0.1 g/kg - 0.05 0 -0.2 13 0.06 0 -0.22 11
Chlorine 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.5 0 -1.8 14 0.5 0.07 -2 12
Electrolyte balance 120 131 mEq/kg -
Zinc 10 11 mg/kg - 11 -11 2
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 3 11 -21 17 3 9 -24 17
Iron 31 34 mg/kg - 34 -34 2
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.08-0.08 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 8.2 8.9 g/kg 7.4 % FA 7.4-7.4 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.7 0.7 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.6-0.6 2
C18:0 stearic acid 4.3 4.7 g/kg 3.9 % FA 3.9-3.9 2
C18:1 oleic acid 17.3 18.8 g/kg 15.6 % FA 15.6-15.6 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 80.1 87.2 g/kg 72.2 % FA 72.2-72.2 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.2 % FA
Fatty acids 11.1 12.1 g/kg 95 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.25 0.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.14 0.15 per kg -
PDIA Systali 7 8 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -14 -15 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.614 0.668 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 830 910 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 450 490 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 240 260 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 3.5 3.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1.9 2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 23.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 23 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 49 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 20 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.16 0.18 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 7 7 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 37 40 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -13 -14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.21 0.22 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.1 0.11 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 8 8 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -17 -18 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.16 0.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 8 9 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 30 32 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 13 14 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 930 1010 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 3.9 4.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 24.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 24.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 28.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 47 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 7 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 56 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 19 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 33 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 77.5 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.5 3.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.6 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.7 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1040 1140 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 970 1050 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 740 810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1350 1470 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1230 1340 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 830 900 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 4.4 4.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 4 4.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 3.1 3.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 5.7 6.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 5.1 5.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 3.5 3.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 21.9 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 28.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 27.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 34 %
N digestibility growing pig - 30.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 50.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 65.5 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 51 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 49.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.7 0.76 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 28 30 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1450 1580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1430 1560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 6.1 6.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 6 6.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 30.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 12.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Threonine 3.2 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1 1 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1.1-1.1 2
Cystine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 2 2.2 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Valine 3.5 3.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 5.9 6.4 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.1 3.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5 5.4 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Histidine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Arginine 4.8 5.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N
Alanine 4 4.4 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 4.6 5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 14.3 15.6 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N
Glycine 5.9 6.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N
Serine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Proline 3.2 3.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
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