Grape seeds

Dried byproduct of wine or grape juice manufacture obtained from the pressure of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Grape seeds result from the removal of the seeds in certain processes.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92 100 % - 2.8 88.4 -96.6 60 2.5
Crude protein 9.1 9.9 % - 0.8 7.1 -11.2 58 0.8 7.5 -11.6 64
Crude fibre 39 42.4 % - 4.7 30 -52.7 61 5 32.3 -58.6 68
Crude fat 11.7 12.7 % - 2 8.8 -16.7 49 2.2 6.9 -17.8 55
Ash 3.1 3.4 % - 0.6 2.4 -4.6 24 0.6 2.2 -4.9 31
NDF 64.1 69.7 % - 4.7 49.2 -70.7 51 4.9 54.2 -82.2 54
ADF 54.3 59 % - 4.9 40.5 -64.7 51 5.2 44.7 -73.8 54
Lignin 40.6 44.1 % - 6.1 26.5 -54.4 52 6.6 28.8 -62.3 55
Starch 2 2.1 % - 0.9 -2.7 4 1 -2.9 4
Total sugars 1.1 1.2 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 4780 5190 kcal/kg - 1
Gross energy (MJ) 20 21.7 MJ/kg - 1
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 6.3 6.9 g/kg - 1.4 4.7 -8.6 17 1.5 4 -9.1 18
Phosphorus 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.4 1.3 -2.8 17 0.5 1.4 -3 18
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1.2 -1.2 2
Potassium 4.9 5.3 g/kg - 1.6 3.4 -8.3 17 1.7 3.8 -8.8 18
Sodium 0.09 0.1 g/kg - 0.05 0 -0.2 13 0.06 0 -0.22 11
Chlorine 0.3 0.4 g/kg - 0.5 0 -1.8 14 0.5 0.07 -2 12
Electrolyte balance 120 131 mEq/kg -
Zinc 10 11 mg/kg - 11 -11 2
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 3 11 -21 17 3 9 -24 17
Iron 31 34 mg/kg - 34 -34 2
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.08-0.08 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 8.2 8.9 g/kg 7.4 % FA 7.4-7.4 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.7 0.7 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.6-0.6 2
C18:0 stearic acid 4.3 4.7 g/kg 3.9 % FA 3.9-3.9 2
C18:1 oleic acid 17.3 18.8 g/kg 15.6 % FA 15.6-15.6 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 80.1 87.2 g/kg 72.2 % FA 72.2-72.2 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.2 % FA
Fatty acids 11.1 12.1 g/kg 95 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.25 0.28 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.14 0.15 per kg -
PDIA Systali 7 8 g/kg -
PDI Systali 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -14 -15 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.614 0.668 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 830 910 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 450 490 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 240 260 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 3.5 3.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 1.9 2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 23.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 23 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 49 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 20 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.16 0.18 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 7 7 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 37 40 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -13 -14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.21 0.22 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.1 0.11 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 8 8 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 36 39 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -17 -18 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.16 0.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 8 9 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 30 32 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 13 14 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 930 1010 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 3.9 4.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 24.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 24.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 28.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 15 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 50 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 47 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 7 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 56 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 19 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 33 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 77.5 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.5 3.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.6 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.7 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1040 1140 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 970 1050 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 740 810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1350 1470 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1230 1340 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 830 900 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 4.4 4.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 4 4.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 3.1 3.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 5.7 6.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 5.1 5.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 3.5 3.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 21.9 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 28.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 27.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 34 %
N digestibility growing pig - 30.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 50.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 65.5 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 51 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 49.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.7 0.76 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 28 30 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1450 1580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1430 1560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 6.1 6.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 6 6.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 30.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 12.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Threonine 3.2 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Methionine 1 1 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1.1-1.1 2
Cystine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 2 2.2 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Valine 3.5 3.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Leucine 5.9 6.4 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.1 3.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5 5.4 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Histidine 1.9 2 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Arginine 4.8 5.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N
Alanine 4 4.4 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 4.6 5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 14.3 15.6 g/kg 15.7 g/16g N
Glycine 5.9 6.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N
Serine 3.3 3.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
Proline 3.2 3.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N
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