Wheat straw

Byproduct of the harvesting of wheat grains (Triticum spp.) consisting of the dry stalks of the wheat plant.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.3 100 % - 2.9 71.8 -96.2 538 4.6
Crude protein 3.5 3.9 % - 0.8 1 -5 446 0.9 1.3 -6.2 527
Crude fibre 37.5 41.6 % - 2.9 25 -45.2 450 2.9 29.4 -49.7 480
Crude fat 1.3 1.4 % - 0.5 0.3 -2.5 60 0.5 0.3 -3 77
Ash 6 6.6 % - 1.5 2.7 -11.3 456 1.6 2.4 -12.6 524
Insoluble ash 2.7 3 % - 1.3 0.6 -8 42 1.5 0.7 -8.7 58
NDF 70.4 78 % - 7.1 33.5 -80.5 110 7.4 38.4 -87.3 170
ADF 45.1 50 % - 4.3 33.2 -56.1 97 4.4 36.8 -60.5 157
Lignin 6.8 7.5 % - 1.4 3.6 -10.4 217 1.6 4.1 -15.3 267
Water insoluble cell walls 69.6 77.1 % -
Starch 0.8 0.8 % - 0.8 0 -4.6 158 0.9 0 -5 156
Starch, enzymatic method 0 0 % -
Total sugars 1.2 1.4 % - 1.4 0.1 -7.9 144 1.5 0.1 -8.6 144
Gross energy (kcal) 3980 4410 kcal/kg - 220 3310 -4150 6 200 3650 -4490 20
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 18.4 MJ/kg - 0.9 13.9 -17.4 6 0.9 15.3 -18.8 20
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 4 4.4 g/kg - 1.4 0.8 -7.9 245 1.5 0.9 -8.7 249
Phosphorus 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.08 -2 253 0.3 0.1 -2.2 257
Phytate phosphorus 0.03 0.04 g/kg 5 % P
Magnesium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.8 0.4 -2.4 32 0.9 0.4 -5.4 35
Potassium 10.9 12 g/kg - 5 1.5 -25.3 60 5.6 1.7 -29.2 62
Sodium 0.16 0.17 g/kg - 0.24 0.01 -1.48 160 0.26 0.01 -1.7 160
Chlorine 5.4 6 g/kg -
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg - 1 1
Dietary cation-anion difference 71 78 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 133 147 mEq/kg -
Manganese 41 46 mg/kg - 14 25 -56 4 16 12 -60 7
Zinc 12 14 mg/kg - 7 2 -25 17 8 2 -31 21
Copper 4 4 mg/kg - 2 0.6 -8 23 2 0.6 -10 25
Iron 151 167 mg/kg - 148 54 -545 22 164 62 -673 23
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.7 0.8 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 1.6 1.7 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 5.8 6.4 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1 1.1 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.45 0.5 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.34 0.38 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 12 13 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 50 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -56 -62 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.561 0.622 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1360 1510 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 790 870 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 610 670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 3.3 3.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 2.5 2.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 44.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 40.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 49 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 25 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.2 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.8 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.47 0.52 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.37 0.41 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 11 12 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 51 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -57 -63 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.41 0.45 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.3 0.33 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 12 14 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 51 56 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -57 -63 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.44 0.49 per kg - 0.4 -0.53 2
UFL INRA 2007 0.44 0.49 per kg - 0.41 -0.52 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.34 0.37 per kg - 0.29 -0.42 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.34 0.37 per kg - 0.29 -0.41 2
PDIA INRA 2007 12 14 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 21 24 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 46 51 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1360 1510 kcal/kg - 1280 -1590 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg - 5.4 -6.6 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 45.9 % 6.5 33.2-63.9 33
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 42.3 % 37.4-46.7 2
N digestibility ruminants - 0 % 47.8 -69.3-85 16
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 65 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 51 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 38 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 26 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.056 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 24 % 6 15-36 18
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 7 % 6 0-25 18
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 49 % 6 36-62 18
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.031 h-1 0.009 0.012-0.045 18
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 60.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.6 1.8 g/kg 40 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 440 488 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 370 409 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 9 10 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -38 -42 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 2 2.2 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1 1.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 45.6 50.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2.16 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.81 0.9 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.76 0.84 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.84 0.93 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.35 0.39 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 48 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 51 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 3.1 3.5 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 67 74 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 600 660 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 540 600 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 230 250 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 860 960 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 770 850 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 350 390 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 2.5 2.8 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 2.3 2.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 3.6 4 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 3.2 3.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 1.5 1.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 15 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 21.7 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 12 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 18.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 0 %
N digestibility adult pig - 45.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.2 0.2 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.3 0.3 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 460 510 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 450 500 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 1.9 2.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 1.9 2.1 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.2 0.2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.2 0.2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 33.3 % 28.8-37.7 2
Energy digestibility horse - 30.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.27 0.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 0 0 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1190 1320 kcal/kg - 1 290 -1530 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 1180 1310 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 5 5.5 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 4.9 5.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 29.9 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 15 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1860 2070 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.8 8.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 46.9 %
N digestibility salmonids - 63.5 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 0.4 -1.5 2 2.2-4.1 2
Threonine 1.1 1.3 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1 0.5 -1.3 2 2.9-3.7 2
Methionine 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.4 g/16g N 1 1.2-1.7 2
Cystine 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 0.7-2.4 2
Methionine + cystine 1 1.1 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Isoleucine 0.9 1 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 1 2.6-2.7 2
Valine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 4.2-4.5 2
Leucine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1 4.1-4.1 2
Phenylalanine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 1 0.3 -1 2 2.1-2.8 2
Tyrosine 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 1.5-1.5 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Histidine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1 3.5-4.7 2
Arginine 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 1 0.2 -0.6 2 1.4-1.7 2
Alanine 2.4 2.6 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 0.7 -3.2 2 4.6-8.9 2
Aspartic acid 2.6 2.9 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 1 7.4-7.8 2
Glutamic acid 3.5 3.9 g/kg 10.2 g/16g N 1 9.5-10.8 2
Glycine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1 4.1-4.2 2
Serine 1.3 1.5 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1 0.5 -1.5 2 3.4-4.1 2
Proline 1.2 1.3 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 3.3-3.5 2
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 44 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 49 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.4 g/kg 67 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.2 g/kg 40 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.4 g/kg 54 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.2 g/kg 50 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 62 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 57 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 63 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 67 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.4 g/kg 62 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 65 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 59 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.4 g/kg 75 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.4 g/kg 52 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.7 g/kg 59 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.7 g/kg 70 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 36 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.7 g/kg 55 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.7 g/kg 59 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.4 g/kg 69 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.3 g/kg 58 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 64 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.2 g/kg 60 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 65 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 62 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 62 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 65 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.3 g/kg 56 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 62 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 0.9 g/kg 60 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 65 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 61 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.7 g/kg 59 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 66 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 55 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 61 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 63 %
Origin France, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.92 1.01 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0 0 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 57 63 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0005 0.0006 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 2.34 2.59 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML