Wheat straw

Byproduct of the harvesting of wheat grains (Triticum spp.) consisting of the dry stalks of the wheat plant.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.2 100 % - 6.1 43.7 -96.2 532 5.6
Crude protein 3.5 3.9 % - 0.8 1 -5 440 0.9 1.3 -6.2 515
Crude fibre 37.5 41.6 % - 3 25 -45.2 450 2.9 29.4 -49.7 480
Crude fat 1.3 1.4 % - 0.5 0.3 -2.5 55 0.5 0.3 -3 70
Ash 6 6.6 % - 1.4 2.7 -11.3 451 1.6 3 -12.6 514
Insoluble ash 2.7 3 % - 1.3 0.6 -8 41 1.5 0.7 -8.7 57
NDF 70.3 78 % - 7.3 33.5 -80.5 105 7.5 38.4 -87.3 159
ADF 45.1 50 % - 4.3 26.3 -56.1 92 4.3 36.8 -60.5 146
Lignin 6.8 7.5 % - 1.4 4.2 -10.4 211 1.5 4.1 -15.3 256
Starch 0.7 0.8 % - 0.8 0 -4.6 158 0.9 0 -5 155
Total sugars 1.2 1.4 % - 1.4 0.1 -7.9 143 1.5 0.1 -8.6 143
Gross energy (kcal) 3970 4410 kcal/kg - 240 3310 -4150 6 200 3650 -4490 20
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 18.4 MJ/kg - 1 13.9 -17.4 6 0.9 15.3 -18.8 20
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 4 4.5 g/kg - 1.4 0.8 -7.9 244 1.5 0.9 -8.7 248
Phosphorus 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.08 -2 253 0.3 0.1 -2.2 257
Phytate phosphorus 0.03 0.04 g/kg 5 % P
Magnesium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.8 0.4 -2.4 32 0.9 0.4 -5.4 35
Potassium 10.8 12 g/kg - 5 1.5 -25.3 60 5.6 1.7 -29.2 62
Sodium 0.16 0.17 g/kg - 0.24 0.01 -1.48 160 0.26 0.01 -1.7 160
Chlorine 5.4 6 g/kg -
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg - 1 1
Dietary cation-anion difference 70 77 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 132 146 mEq/kg -
Manganese 41 46 mg/kg - 14 25 -56 4 16 12 -60 7
Zinc 12 14 mg/kg - 7 2 -25 17 8 2 -31 21
Copper 4 4 mg/kg - 2 0.6 -8 23 2 0.6 -10 25
Iron 151 167 mg/kg - 148 54 -545 22 164 62 -673 23
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.7 0.8 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0 0 g/kg % FA
Fatty acids 1 1.1 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0.6 0.7 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.45 0.5 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.34 0.38 per kg -
PDIA Systali 9 10 g/kg -
PDI Systali 48 53 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -52 -58 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.6 0.665 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 1360 1510 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 790 870 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 600 670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 3.3 3.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 2.5 2.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 44.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 40.9 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 61 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 21 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
UFL FL1 Systali 0.47 0.52 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.37 0.41 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 8 9 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 48 53 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -52 -58 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.41 0.45 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.3 0.33 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 10 11 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 49 54 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -54 -59 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.44 0.49 per kg - 0.4 -0.53 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.34 0.37 per kg - 0.29 -0.42 2
PDIA INRA 2007 10 11 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 21 24 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 44 48 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 1360 1510 kcal/kg - 1280 -1590 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg - 5.4 -6.6 2
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 45.9 % 6.5 33.2-63.9 33
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 42.3 % 37.4-46.7 2
N digestibility ruminants - 0 % 47.8 -69.3-85 16
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 65 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 % 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 18 % 6 15-36 18
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 0 % 6 0-25 18
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 50 % 6 36-62 18
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.035 h-1 0.009 0.012-0.045 18
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 60.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.2 2.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 480 530 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 420 470 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 230 250 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 740 820 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 650 720 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 350 390 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 2 2.2 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 1.8 2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 3.1 3.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 2.7 3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 1.5 1.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 12 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 18.7 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 12 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 18 %
N digestibility growing pig - 0 %
N digestibility adult pig - 45.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 33 % 29-38 2
Energy digestibility horse - 30.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.27 0.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 0 0 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 750 830 kcal/kg - 1 290 -1530 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 740 820 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.1 3.5 MJ/kg - 1 1.2 -6.4 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.1 3.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 18.8 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 15 %
Origin France, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.92 1.02 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0 0 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 57 64 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0005 0.0006 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.08 0.09 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
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