Citrus pulp, dried

Dried byproduct of the processing of citrus fruit (Citrus spp.) for juice production or canning. It consists principally of the pulp and can include the skin and the pips. The orange (Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is the main cultivated species.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.3 100 % - 1.3 86.2 -97.3 352 2.1
Crude protein 6.3 7 % - 0.5 4.6 -8.1 462 0.5 5.4 -8.5 349
Crude fibre 12.6 14 % - 0.9 8.7 -15.9 457 0.9 10.2 -17.8 337
Crude fat 2.2 2.5 % - 0.7 0.9 -5.1 482 0.7 1.1 -5.6 503
Ash 6.2 6.9 % - 0.6 4.6 -8 353 0.7 5.3 -8.9 271
Insoluble ash 0.2 0.3 % - 0.1 0.02 -0.4 32 0.1 0.06 -0.4 22
NDF 19.5 21.6 % - 1.9 15.5 -27.5 102 2.1 17.5 -31.7 104
ADF 14.3 15.9 % - 1.7 12.2 -21.5 97 1.9 13.2 -23.7 97
Lignin 2.3 2.5 % - 1.5 0.7 -7.5 170 1.6 0.8 -8 177
Water insoluble cell walls 43.3 48 % -
Starch 6 6.6 % - 2.9 0 -10.2 61 3.3 0 -11.4 56
Starch, enzymatic method 0.05 0.05 % - 1 1
Total sugars 22 24.4 % - 3 11 -34.2 194 3.3 12 -36.7 137
Gross energy (kcal) 3790 4190 kcal/kg - 100 3600 -3970 18 90 3970 -4420 21
Gross energy (MJ) 15.9 17.6 MJ/kg - 0.4 15.1 -16.6 18 0.4 16.6 -18.5 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 15.4 17 g/kg - 2.8 1.3 -36 561 3.1 1.5 -39.7 533
Phosphorus 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.2 0.3 -2.3 459 0.2 0.3 -2.7 460
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.4 g/kg 40 % P
Magnesium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.4 0.8 -2.3 19 0.5 0.9 -2.6 29
Potassium 8.4 9.4 g/kg - 1.7 4.9 -12.2 24 1.8 5.5 -13.9 30
Sodium 1.2 1.33 g/kg - 1.64 0.1 -5.6 27
Chlorine 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.1 0 -0.4 8 0.2 0.1 -0.6 17
Sulfur 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1 0.5 -2.9 15
Dietary cation-anion difference 191 211 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 261 289 mEq/kg -
Manganese 7 8 mg/kg - 3 5 -19 10 3 5 -14 19
Zinc 12 14 mg/kg - 13 5 -52 10 14 6 -57 19
Copper 3 4 mg/kg - 2 2 -9 15 2 2 -10 23
Iron 72 80 mg/kg - 29 43 -654 15 32 46 -144 19
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg - 0.05 0.09 -0.2 5 0.05 0.1 -0.2 5
Molybdenum 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 0.5 0 -1 11
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.09 -0.09 4 0.1 -0.1 4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.8 0.4-2.5 12
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.7 % FA 0.6-0.8 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 3 3.3 g/kg 22.5 % FA 0.6 2.5 -4 5 0.6 2.8 -4.4 5 2.6 18-26.4 17
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.09 -0.3 4 0.1 -0.3 4 1.2 0-4.1 16
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 4.8 % FA 0.1 0.4 -0.7 5 0.1 0.5 -0.8 5 4.1 1.7-15.9 17
C18:1 oleic acid 2 2.2 g/kg 14.9 % FA 9.8 2.4-31.9 17
C18:2 linoleic acid 4.4 4.9 g/kg 32.8 % FA 0.6 3.7 -5.5 5 0.7 4.2 -6 5 8.4 14.6-44.7 17
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.7 2.9 g/kg 19.8 % FA 9.6 6.3-36.6 17
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3 0-0.7 12
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.5 0-1.3 12
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.1 % FA 0.5 0-1.8 12
Fatty acids 1.3 1.5 % 60 % fat 4 56-66 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1 1.11 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.01 1.11 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 20 22 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 72 80 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -53 -59 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.196 0.218 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2640 2920 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1760 1950 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1770 1960 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.6 8.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 81.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 65 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 71 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.02 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.03 1.14 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 17 19 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 71 79 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -53 -58 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.96 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.96 1.07 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 24 26 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 76 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -57 -63 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.97 1.07 per kg - 0.07 0.86 -1.05 7 0.07 0.96 -1.17 7
UFL INRA 2007 0.98 1.09 per kg - 0.05 0.92 -1.07 7 0.05 1.03 -1.21 7
UFV INRA 2007 0.98 1.08 per kg - 0.06 0.91 -1.08 7 0.06 1.02 -1.22 7
UFV INRA 2007 0.96 1.07 per kg - 0.07 0.83 -1.05 7 0.08 0.93 -1.17 7
PDIA INRA 2007 22 24 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 45 49 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 86 95 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2610 2890 kcal/kg - 130 2430 -2790 7 130 2720 -3150 7
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11 12.2 MJ/kg - 0.5 10.2 -11.7 7 0.6 11.4 -13.2 7
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.9 12.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.6 % 3.1 83-91 13
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 82.5 % 3.4 79-89 7
N digestibility ruminants - 65.9 % 8.8 41.1-68.4 14
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 92 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 83 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 66 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 34 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 61 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 65.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.9 0.9 g/kg 91 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.1 3.4 g/kg 20 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.1 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 969 1073 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1054 1167 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 76 84 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -63 -70 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5.5 6.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.8 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 67.8 75.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.93 3.24 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.45 1.61 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.37 1.51 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.57 1.74 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.01 1.12 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 32 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 37 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.9 7.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 127 141 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -10 -11 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2850 3160 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2740 3030 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1790 1980 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3150 3490 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2950 3270 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1990 2210 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg - 1
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.9 13.2 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.5 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.5 8.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.5 8.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.2 14.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.4 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.2 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.4 9.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 75.4 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 83.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 78.8 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 85.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 56.6 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 85 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 36.3 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.3 0.3 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.4 0.5 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1380 1530 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1340 1490 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.2 5.8 MJ/kg - 0.3 4.8 -5.5 5 0.3 5.4 -6.2 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.8 6.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.1 5.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.6 6.2 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70.8 %
Energy digestibility horse - 68.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.8 0.88 per kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2540 2820 kcal/kg - 2370 -3360 3 2690 -3730 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 2490 2760 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 10.6 11.8 MJ/kg - 9.9 -14.1 3 11.3 -15.6 3
DE rabbit (MJ) 10.6 11.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.4 11.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.4 11.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67.2 % 64-89.2 3
N digestibility rabbit - 59.7 % 17.3-88.5 3
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1850 2050 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.7 8.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 48.8 %
N digestibility salmonids - 75.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.5 0.9 -2.3 7 0.5 1.1 -2.5 7 0.7 1.9-4 8
Threonine 2 2.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2 6 0.4 2.3-3.6 7
Methionine 0.8 0.8 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.1 1-1.4 7
Cystine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.1 0.8-1.1 5
Methionine + cystine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.09 1.1 -1.2 5 0.1 1.2 -1.4 5
Tryptophan 0.6 0.6 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 1 1 0.8-1 2
Isoleucine 2 2.3 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.1 7 0.4 1.2 -2.3 7 0.6 2-4.1 8
Valine 2.7 3 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.4 1.4 -2.7 6 0.5 1.6 -3 6 0.7 2.8-4.9 7
Leucine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N 0.7 4-6.5 8
Phenylalanine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.6 1 -2.6 6 0.6 1.2 -2.9 6 1 2.1-5 7
Tyrosine 1.8 2 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.5 0.6 -2 6 0.8 1.1-3.3 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 1.6 -4.4 6 1.1 1.9 -4.8 6 1.9 3.2-8.3 6
Histidine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.3 0.5 -1.4 7 0.4 0.6 -1.6 7 0.6 1-2.7 8
Arginine 3 3.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.1 2.5-5.7 7
Alanine 2.8 3.1 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -2.8 7 0.4 1.9 -3.1 7 0.5 3.3-5 7
Aspartic acid 6.4 7.1 g/kg 10.1 g/16g N 0.9 4.1 -6.5 7 0.9 4.8 -7.3 7 1.7 7.5-11.9 7
Glutamic acid 5.1 5.7 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N 0.6 3.2 -5.4 7 0.7 3.7 -6 7 1.1 6.5-9.9 7
Glycine 2.7 2.9 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.6 3-5 7
Serine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.9 2.6-5 6
Proline 5.2 5.8 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 78 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 77 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.5 g/kg 76 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 78 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 81 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 80 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.2 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.6 g/kg 83 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 82 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.9 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.4 g/kg 79 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.7 g/kg 80 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.3 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 81 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 75 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 72 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 78 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 80 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 79 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.3 g/kg 82 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 79 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 81 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1.1 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.7 g/kg 82 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 79 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.4 g/kg 76 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.7 g/kg 83 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.2 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.2 g/kg 78 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 80 %
CSVXLSXXML