Citrus pulp, dried

Dried byproduct of the processing of citrus fruit (Citrus spp.) for juice production or canning. It consists principally of the pulp and can include the skin and the pips. The orange (Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is the main cultivated species.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.3 100 % - 2.3 86.2 -97.3 319 2.1
Crude protein 6.3 6.9 % - 0.5 4.6 -8.1 429 0.5 5.4 -8.5 316
Crude fibre 12.6 14 % - 0.8 8.7 -15.9 424 0.9 10.7 -17.8 304
Crude fat 2.2 2.5 % - 0.7 0.4 -5.1 495 0.8 0.5 -5.6 516
Ash 6.2 6.9 % - 0.6 4.6 -8 325 0.7 5.3 -8.9 243
Insoluble ash 0.2 0.3 % - 0.1 0.02 -0.4 32 0.1 0.06 -0.4 22
NDF 19.5 21.6 % - 1.9 15.5 -27.5 102 2.1 17.5 -31.7 104
ADF 14.3 15.9 % - 1.7 12.2 -21.5 97 1.9 13.2 -23.7 97
Lignin 2.3 2.5 % - 1.5 0.7 -7.5 170 1.6 0.8 -8 177
Water insoluble cell walls 43.6 48.3 % - 8.6 21.7 -44.8 6 24.4 -50.2 4
Starch 10.9 12.1 % - 15.6 0 -69.1 69 17.3 0 -78.8 63
Total sugars 22.2 24.6 % - 3 11 -27 168 3.4 12 -30.3 113
Gross energy (kcal) 3790 4190 kcal/kg - 100 3600 -3970 18 90 3970 -4420 21
Gross energy (MJ) 15.8 17.6 MJ/kg - 0.4 15.1 -16.6 18 0.4 16.6 -18.5 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 16 17.8 g/kg - 2.8 1.3 -424 562 3.1 1.5 -39.7 533
Phosphorus 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.2 0.3 -2.3 459 0.2 0.3 -2.7 460
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.4 g/kg 40 % P
Magnesium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.4 0.8 -2.3 19 0.5 0.9 -2.6 29
Potassium 8.4 9.4 g/kg - 1.7 4.9 -12.2 24 1.8 5.5 -13.9 30
Sodium 1.2 1.33 g/kg - 1.64 0.1 -5.6 27
Chlorine 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.1 0 -0.4 8 0.2 0.1 -0.6 17
Sulfur 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1 0.5 -2.9 15
Dietary cation-anion difference 190 211 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 260 289 mEq/kg -
Manganese 7 8 mg/kg - 3 5 -19 10 3 5 -14 19
Zinc 12 14 mg/kg - 13 5 -52 10 14 6 -57 19
Copper 3 4 mg/kg - 2 2 -9 15 2 2 -10 23
Iron 72 80 mg/kg - 28 43 -654 15 32 46 -144 19
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg - 0.05 0.09 -0.2 5 0.05 0.1 -0.2 5
Molybdenum 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 0.5 0 -1 11
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.09 -0.09 4 0.1 -0.1 4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C12:0 lauric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.7 % FA 0.6-0.8 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.4 3.8 g/kg 25.9 % FA 0.6 2.5 -4 5 0.6 2.8 -4.4 5
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 4.8 % FA 0.1 0.4 -0.7 5 0.1 0.5 -0.8 5 0.3 4.1-5 5
C18:1 oleic acid 3.4 3.8 g/kg 25.9 % FA 0.9 2.5 -4.6 5 1 2.8 -5.1 5 3 24.4-31.9 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 4.8 5.3 g/kg 35.9 % FA 0.6 3.7 -5.5 5 0.7 4.2 -6 5 2.8 31.3-37.8 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 6.4 % FA 0.1 0.7 -1 5 0.1 0.8 -1.1 5 0.4 6.3-7.2 5
Fatty acids 1.3 1.5 g/kg 60 % fat 4 56-66 5
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.01 1.12 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.03 1.14 per kg -
PDIA Systali 20 22 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 74 82 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -57 -63 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.196 0.218 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2670 2960 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1790 1980 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1800 2000 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.6 8.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 65 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 71 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.03 1.14 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.05 1.16 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 17 19 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 73 81 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -56 -62 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.98 1.09 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.98 1.09 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 24 26 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 77 85 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -60 -66 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.98 1.09 per kg - 0.05 0.92 -1.07 7 0.05 1.03 -1.21 7
UFV INRA 2007 0.98 1.08 per kg - 0.06 0.91 -1.08 7 0.06 1.02 -1.22 7
PDIA INRA 2007 22 24 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 44 49 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 86 95 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2640 2920 kcal/kg - 130 2430 -2790 7 130 2720 -3150 7
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11 12.2 MJ/kg - 0.5 10.2 -11.7 7 0.6 11.4 -13.2 7
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.5 % 3.1 83-91 13
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.5 % 3.4 79-89 7
N digestibility ruminants - 67 % 8.8 41.1-68.4 14
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 92 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 83 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 66 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 34 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 61 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 65 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.9 0.9 g/kg 91 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 3.2 3.6 g/kg 20 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.1 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2780 3080 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2680 2960 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1800 1990 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3110 3440 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2930 3240 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2000 2220 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.5 8.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.2 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.4 9.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73.5 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 82.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 77 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 84.7 %
N digestibility growing pig - 56.6 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 87.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 35.9 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1250 1390 kcal/kg - 70 1150 -1310 5 80 1290 -1480 5
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1210 1340 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.2 5.8 MJ/kg - 0.3 4.8 -5.5 5 0.3 5.4 -6.2 5
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.1 5.6 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 71.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 69.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.82 0.91 per kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2540 2820 kcal/kg - 2370 -3360 3 2690 -3730 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 2490 2760 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 10.6 11.8 MJ/kg - 9.9 -14.1 3 11.3 -15.6 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.4 11.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67.2 % 64-89.2 3
N digestibility rabbit - 59.7 % 17.3-88.5 3
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.1 2.3 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.5 0.9 -2.3 7 0.5 1.1 -2.5 7 0.7 1.9-4 8
Threonine 2 2.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2 6 0.3 1.3 -2.2 6 0.4 2.3-3.6 7
Methionine 0.8 0.8 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.1 1-1.4 7
Cystine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.1 0.8-1.1 5
Methionine + cystine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.2 1.9-2.3 5
Tryptophan 0.6 0.6 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 1 1 0.8-1 2
Isoleucine 2 2.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.1 7 0.4 1.2 -2.3 7 0.6 2-4.1 8
Valine 2.7 2.9 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.4 1.4 -2.7 6 0.5 1.6 -3 6 0.7 2.8-4.9 7
Leucine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N 0.7 4-6.5 8
Phenylalanine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.6 1 -2.6 6 0.6 1.2 -2.9 6 1 2.1-5 7
Tyrosine 1.8 2 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.5 0.5 -1.8 6 0.5 0.6 -2 6 0.8 1.1-3.3 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 4.3 4.7 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 1.6 -4.4 6 1.1 1.9 -4.8 6 1.9 3.2-8.3 6
Histidine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.3 0.5 -1.4 7 0.4 0.6 -1.6 7 0.6 1-2.7 8
Arginine 3 3.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.1 2.5-5.7 7
Alanine 2.8 3.1 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -2.8 7 0.4 1.9 -3.1 7 0.5 3.3-5 7
Aspartic acid 6.3 7 g/kg 10.1 g/16g N 0.9 4.1 -6.5 7 0.9 4.8 -7.3 7 1.7 7.5-11.9 7
Glutamic acid 5.1 5.7 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N 0.6 3.2 -5.4 7 0.7 3.7 -6 7 1.1 6.5-9.9 7
Glycine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.6 3-5 7
Serine 2.6 2.8 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.9 2.6-5 6
Proline 5.2 5.7 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
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