Citrus pulp, fresh

Fresh byproduct of the processing of citrus fruit (Citrus spp.) for juice production or canning. It consists principally of the pulp and can include the skin and the pips. The orange (Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is the main cultivated species.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 17.7 100 % - 6.6 11.1 -24.9 18 30.4
Crude protein 1.1 6.5 % - 0.3 0.6 -1.8 15 1.2 4.1 -9.1 24
Crude fibre 2.1 11.8 % - 0.8 1.3 -4.5 8 4 7.4 -23.2 17
Crude fat 0.8 4.3 % - 0.4 0.08 -1.6 7 2 0.4 -8.3 15
Ash 0.7 4.1 % - 0.2 0.5 -1 12 0.8 3 -6.3 21
NDF 3.5 19.5 % - 1.2 2.9 -7.1 8 5.6 18.4 -36.3 8
ADF 2.5 14.1 % - 1.2 0.6 -4.2 6 6.2 4 -25.3 14
Lignin 0.4 2 % - 1 1.4 1 -5.7 9
Water insoluble cell walls 1.2 6.7 % -
Starch 0.8 4.4 % - 1 1
Total sugars 4.6 26.1 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 780 4390 kcal/kg - 1 3520 -4700 2
Gross energy (MJ) 3.3 18.4 MJ/kg - 1 14.7 -19.7 2
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.4 7.8 g/kg - 0.3 0.9 -2 6 1 6.1 -9.4 7
Phosphorus 0.3 1.5 g/kg - 0.1 0.05 -0.4 5 0.6 0.3 -2 6
Phytate phosphorus 0.1 0.6 g/kg 40 % P
Magnesium 0.1 0.7 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 0.9 5.1 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.11 0.6 g/kg - 1 1
Chlorine 0.06 0.3 g/kg -
Sulfur 0.2 1.2 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 12 70 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 26 148 mEq/kg -
Manganese 1 8 mg/kg -
Zinc 2 14 mg/kg -
Copper 1 5 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 14 80 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.03 0.2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.04 0.2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.02 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C12:0 lauric acid 0.04 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.2 g/kg 0.7 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.2 6.7 g/kg 25.9 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 1.2 g/kg 4.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 1.2 6.7 g/kg 25.9 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 1.7 9.3 g/kg 35.9 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 1.7 g/kg 6.4 % FA
Fatty acids 0.5 2.6 g/kg 60 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.21 1.21 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.22 1.23 per kg -
PDIA Systali 4 20 g/kg -
PDI Systali 15 82 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -12 -68 g/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 560 3170 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 380 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 380 2170 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 2.3 13.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 1.6 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 1.6 9.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 86.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 83.6 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 66 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 68 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.22 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.22 1.26 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 3 18 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 14 81 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -12 -68 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.21 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.21 1.18 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 4 24 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 15 85 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -13 -71 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.21 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.21 1.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 4 22 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 8 46 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 17 95 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 550 3120 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 2.3 13.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.1 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.9 %
N digestibility ruminants - 65.3 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 92 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 82 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 66 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 71.2 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 1.6 g/kg 20 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 590 3340 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 570 3210 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 380 2140 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 650 3670 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 610 3440 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 420 2370 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 2.5 14 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 2.4 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 1.6 9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 2.7 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 2.6 14.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 1.8 9.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 76.2 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 83.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 79.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 86.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 58.3 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88.8 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 56.9 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 71.6 %
Energy digestibility horse - 69 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.16 0.93 per kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 550 3090 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 540 3030 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 2.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 2.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 70.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 64 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 0.4 2.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Threonine 0.4 2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Methionine 0.1 0.8 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N
Cystine 0.1 0.6 g/kg 1 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 0.02 0.1 g/kg 0.1 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.1 0.6 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N
Isoleucine 0.4 2.1 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Valine 0.5 2.8 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N
Leucine 0.6 3.5 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 0.5 2.6 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 0.3 1.8 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.05 0.3 g/kg 0.5 g/16g N
Histidine 0.2 1.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N
Arginine 0.5 3.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Alanine 0.5 2.8 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 1.2 6.5 g/kg 10.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 0.9 5.3 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N
Glycine 0.5 2.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Serine 0.5 2.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N
Proline 0.9 5.3 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N
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