Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 14-30%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting of maize germs and other grain fragments.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91 100 % - 4.8 83.6 -98.7 167 4.3
Crude protein 13.9 15.3 % - 1.5 10.5 -17.9 169 1.6 11.5 -19.6 167
Crude fibre 5.5 6 % - 1.7 2.3 -12.5 163 1.9 2.9 -11.1 148
Crude fat 20.9 22.9 % - 3.5 14.1 -27 84 3.8 15.8 -29.3 81
Ash 5.5 6 % - 1.3 1.1 -9.4 139 1.5 1.1 -10 139
Insoluble ash 0.07 0.08 % - 0.05 -0.09 2 0.06 -0.1 2
NDF 26.7 29.3 % - 6 13.2 -40.9 24 6.5 15.3 -43.7 24
ADF 7.2 7.9 % - 3.4 4.2 -18.2 23 3.7 4.7 -19.4 23
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 1.2 0.6 -4.6 15 1.3 0.7 -4.7 15
Water insoluble cell walls 26.1 28.7 % -
Starch 26.9 29.5 % - 6.3 10.5 -43.2 140 6.9 11.4 -47.4 137
Total sugars 6.9 7.5 % - 1.4 3.8 -8.5 17 1.6 3.9 -9.5 17
Gross energy (kcal) 4870 5350 kcal/kg - 380 4460 -5930 9 390 5020 -6340 9
Gross energy (MJ) 20.4 22.4 MJ/kg - 1.6 18.6 -24.8 9 1.6 21 -26.5 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.4 0.09 -1.5 19 0.4 0.1 -1.6 19
Phosphorus 11.1 12.2 g/kg - 2.6 6.9 -14.1 13 2.8 7.5 -15.9 13
Phytate phosphorus 7.8 8.5 g/kg 70 % P
Magnesium 4.6 5 g/kg - 0.4 4.2 -5.1 5 0.4 4.6 -5.6 5
Potassium 13 14.3 g/kg - 9.7 -15 4 10.7 -16.6 4
Sodium 0.29 0.32 g/kg - 0.51 0.06 -1.3 6 0.56 0.07 -1.45 6
Chlorine 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1 -1.2 3 1.1 -1.3 3
Sulfur 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 1.4 -1.9 4 1.5 -2.1 4
Dietary cation-anion difference 214 236 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 314 346 mEq/kg -
Manganese 19 21 mg/kg - 16 -22 4 18 -23 4
Zinc 80 87 mg/kg - 77 -86 4 84 -91 4
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 5 -9 4 5 -9 4
Iron 79 87 mg/kg - 66 -89 4 73 -97 4
Selenium 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0 -0.5 2 0 -0.5 2
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg - 0.9 -1 2 1 -1 2
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 17.6 19.3 g/kg 10.5 % FA 1 1 1
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.7 0.7 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 3 3.3 g/kg 1.8 % FA 1 1 1
C18:1 oleic acid 43.6 47.9 g/kg 26.1 % FA 1 1 1
C18:2 linoleic acid 99.3 109 g/kg 59.5 % FA 1 1 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.2 2.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1 1 1
Fatty acids 16.7 18.4 g/kg 80 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.34 1.47 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.36 1.49 per kg -
PDIA Systali 35 38 g/kg -
PDI Systali 82 90 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 13 14 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.344 0.378 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 3500 3850 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2350 2580 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2390 2620 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 14.6 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 9.8 10.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 10 11 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 82.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 82.8 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 72 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 66 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.36 1.5 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.39 1.53 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 30 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 78 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 16 18 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.28 1.41 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.29 1.41 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 42 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 88 96 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 7 8 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.26 1.39 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.25 1.38 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 38 42 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 93 102 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 73 80 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3380 3720 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.2 15.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.095 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 78.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 7.5 8.3 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.3 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.3 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3620 3970 kcal/kg - 270 3250 -3780 5 270 3590 -4210 5
ME growing pig (kcal) 3510 3860 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2830 3110 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3950 4340 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3800 4170 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 3020 3320 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.1 16.6 MJ/kg - 1.1 13.6 -15.8 5 1.2 15 -17.6 5
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.5 18.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 15.9 17.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 13.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 74.2 % 69-78 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 81 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 76.8 % 73-77 3
OM digestibility adult pig - 85 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.1 %
N digestibility adult pig - 82.4 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 56.5 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 76.4 % 56-79 3
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3160 3480 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3050 3350 kcal/kg - 2830 -3100 2 3120 -3500 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 14.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.8 14 MJ/kg - 11.8 -13 2 13.1 -14.6 2
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 76 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.89 0.98 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 99 109 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3740 4110 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3630 3990 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 15.7 17.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 15.2 16.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 76.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 59.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5 5.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.6 3.6 -13.3 17 1.8 4.2 -9.9 14 1 2.6-5.8 15
Threonine 5 5.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 3.5 -10.6 13 1 4.1 -7.5 10 0.6 2.5-4.8 11
Methionine 2.4 2.6 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.5 1.6 -3.3 11 0.6 1.8 -3.7 10 0.3 1.1-2.2 11
Cystine 3 3.2 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.1 9 0.4 2.2 -3.4 8
Methionine + cystine 5.3 5.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.8 -6 9 0.7 4.4 -6.8 8 0.4 2.7-4.1 9
Tryptophan 0.9 1 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 0.7 -3.1 12 0.3 0.8 -1.8 9 0.2 0.5-1.3 10
Isoleucine 4.5 4.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 3 -9.8 13 1.1 3.3 -6.8 10 0.4 2.3-3.7 11
Valine 6.6 7.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.8 5 -15.8 13 1.9 5.4 -11.1 10 0.8 3.6-6.1 11
Leucine 12.3 13.5 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 1.3 9.5 -21.4 13 1.3 10.8 -14.8 10
Phenylalanine 5.5 6 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.1 3.6 -12.7 13 1.2 4.2 -8.2 10 0.5 2.6-4.6 11
Tyrosine 3.9 4.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.9 1.9 -8.5 11 1 2.2 -5.3 8 0.5 1.4-3.1 9
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.4 10.3 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 2 5.5 -21.2 11 2.2 6.4 -13.5 8 1.1 4-7.7 9
Histidine 4.1 4.5 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.9 2.2 -8.3 13 0.9 2.5 -5.9 10 0.5 1.6-3.7 11
Arginine 7 7.7 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 2.6 5.5 -20.1 13 2.8 6.4 -14.5 10 1.5 4-9.1 11
Alanine 9.1 10 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.3 5.4 -16.9 12 1.4 6.2 -11.1 9
Aspartic acid 8.8 9.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.8 7 -19.4 11 1.9 8.1 -13.5 8 0.8 5-7.7 9
Glutamic acid 20.7 22.7 g/kg 14.9 g/16g N 2.8 15.7 -40.2 12 3 18.2 -26.7 9 1.2 11.3-15.4 10
Glycine 6.1 6.7 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.5 4.4 -14.9 12 1.6 5.1 -10.3 9 0.7 3.2-5.6 10
Serine 5.9 6.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1 4.4 -13.2 12 1.1 5.1 -8.8 9 0.6 3.2-5 10
Proline 8.7 9.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.2 7.2 -13.2 8 1.3 8.1 -11.3 5 0.8 4.5-6.6 6
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.2 g/kg 58 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.5 g/kg 64 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 68 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 58 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.6 g/kg 62 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 78 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 67 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 67 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.6 g/kg 71 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 71 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 69 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.2 g/kg 70 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 81 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 63 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 59 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 15 16.5 g/kg 73 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.4 g/kg 65 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.5 g/kg 70 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 18 % 1
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