Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 14-30%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting of maize germs and other grain fragments.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91 100 % - 2.8 83.6 -98.7 167 4.3
Crude protein 13.9 15.3 % - 1.5 10.5 -17.9 169 1.6 11.5 -19.6 167
Crude fibre 5.3 5.9 % - 1.7 2.3 -12.5 163 1.9 2.9 -11.1 148
Crude fat 20.9 22.9 % - 3.5 14.1 -27 84 3.8 15.8 -29.3 81
Ash 5.5 6 % - 1.3 1.1 -9.4 139 1.5 1.1 -10 139
Insoluble ash 0.07 0.08 % - 0.05 -0.09 2 0.06 -0.1 2
NDF 26 28.6 % - 6 13.2 -40.9 24 6.5 15.3 -43.7 24
ADF 7 7.7 % - 3.4 4.2 -18.2 23 3.7 4.7 -19.4 23
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 1.2 0.6 -4.6 15 1.3 0.7 -4.7 15
Water insoluble cell walls 25.5 28 % -
Starch 26.6 29.3 % - 6.3 10.5 -43.2 140 6.9 11.4 -47.4 137
Starch, enzymatic method 24.8 27.2 % -
Total sugars 6.9 7.5 % - 1.4 3.8 -8.5 17 1.6 3.9 -9.5 17
Gross energy (kcal) 4870 5350 kcal/kg - 380 4460 -5930 9 390 5020 -6340 9
Gross energy (MJ) 20.4 22.4 MJ/kg - 1.6 18.6 -24.8 9 1.6 21 -26.5 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.4 0.09 -1.5 19 0.4 0.1 -1.6 19
Phosphorus 11.1 12.2 g/kg - 2.6 6.9 -14.1 13 2.8 7.5 -15.9 13
Phytate phosphorus 7.8 8.5 g/kg 70 % P
Magnesium 4.6 5 g/kg - 0.4 4.2 -5.1 5 0.4 4.6 -5.6 5
Potassium 13 14.3 g/kg - 9.7 -15 4 10.7 -16.6 4
Sodium 0.29 0.32 g/kg - 0.51 0.06 -1.3 6 0.56 0.07 -1.45 6
Chlorine 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1 -1.2 3 1.1 -1.3 3
Sulfur 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 1.4 -1.9 4 1.5 -2.1 4
Dietary cation-anion difference 214 236 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 314 346 mEq/kg -
Manganese 19 21 mg/kg - 16 -22 4 18 -23 4
Zinc 80 87 mg/kg - 77 -86 4 84 -91 4
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 5 -9 4 5 -9 4
Iron 79 87 mg/kg - 66 -89 4 73 -97 4
Selenium 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0 -0.5 2 0 -0.5 2
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg - 0.9 -1 2 1 -1 2
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 17.6 19.3 g/kg 10.5 % FA 1 1 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 3 3.3 g/kg 1.8 % FA 1 1 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 43.6 47.9 g/kg 26.1 % FA 1 1 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 99.3 109 g/kg 59.5 % FA 1 1 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.2 2.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1 1 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 0.6 % FA 1 1 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 16.7 18.3 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.4 1.54 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.44 1.58 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 35 38 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 83 91 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 11 12 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.344 0.378 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3640 4000 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2470 2710 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2530 2790 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 14.6 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.8 10.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10 11 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 72 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.43 1.57 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.48 1.62 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 30 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 80 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 14 15 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.35 1.48 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.37 1.51 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 42 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 89 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 5 5 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.32 1.45 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.26 1.39 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.33 1.46 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.25 1.38 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 38 42 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 93 102 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 75 82 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3510 3850 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.7 16.1 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.2 15.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 73 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 78.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 7.5 8.3 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.3 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1319 1450 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1453 1597 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 67 74 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 34 38 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.4 3.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 86.1 94.7 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.8 4.17 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.17 2.39 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 2.06 2.26 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.16 2.37 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.51 1.66 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 31 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 9.3 10.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 187 206 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -8 -8 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3590 3950 kcal/kg - 270 3250 -3780 5 270 3590 -4210 5
ME growing pig (kcal) 3480 3830 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2810 3090 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3930 4320 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3780 4150 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 3010 3300 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.1 16.6 MJ/kg - 1.1 13.6 -15.8 5 1.2 15 -17.6 5
DE growing pig (MJ) 15 16.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 16.1 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.6 16 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.8 12.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.5 18.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.4 18.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 15.9 17.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 15.8 17.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 13.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 13.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73.7 % 69-78 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 80.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 76.4 % 73-77 3
OM digestibility adult pig - 84.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.7 %
N digestibility adult pig - 83.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 56.5 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 76.5 % 56-79 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.3 2.6 g/kg 21 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.5 3.8 g/kg 32 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3170 3480 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3060 3360 kcal/kg - 2830 -3100 2 3120 -3500 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.3 14.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 14.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.8 14.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.8 14 MJ/kg - 11.8 -13 2 13.1 -14.6 2
Available P cockerel 2.8 3 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.8 3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 73 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.89 0.98 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 99 109 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3750 4120 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3630 4000 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 15.7 17.3 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 15.7 17.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 15.2 16.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 15.2 16.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 77 %
N digestibility rabbit - 60 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2980 3280 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 12.5 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 61.3 %
N digestibility salmonids - 82.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5 5.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.6 3.6 -13.3 17 1.8 4.2 -9.9 14 1 2.6-5.8 15
Threonine 5 5.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 3.5 -10.6 13 1 4.1 -7.5 10 0.6 2.5-4.8 11
Methionine 2.4 2.6 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.5 1.6 -3.3 11 0.6 1.8 -3.7 10 0.3 1.1-2.2 11
Cystine 2.9 3.2 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.1 9 0.4 2.2 -3.4 8
Methionine + cystine 5.3 5.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.8 -6 9 0.7 4.4 -6.8 8 0.4 2.7-4.1 9
Tryptophan 0.9 1 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 0.7 -3.1 12 0.3 0.8 -1.8 9 0.2 0.5-1.3 10
Isoleucine 4.5 4.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 3 -9.8 13 1.1 3.3 -6.8 10 0.4 2.3-3.7 11
Valine 6.6 7.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.8 5 -15.8 13 1.9 5.4 -11.1 10 0.8 3.6-6.1 11
Leucine 12.3 13.5 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 1.3 9.5 -21.4 13 1.3 10.8 -14.8 10
Phenylalanine 5.5 6 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.1 3.6 -12.7 13 1.2 4.2 -8.2 10 0.5 2.6-4.6 11
Tyrosine 3.9 4.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.9 1.9 -8.5 11 1 2.2 -5.3 8 0.5 1.4-3.1 9
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.4 10.3 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 2 5.5 -21.2 11 2.2 6.4 -13.5 8 1.1 4-7.7 9
Histidine 4.1 4.5 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.9 2.2 -8.3 13 0.9 2.5 -5.9 10 0.5 1.6-3.7 11
Arginine 7 7.7 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 2.6 5.5 -20.1 13 2.8 6.4 -14.5 10 1.5 4-9.1 11
Alanine 9.1 10 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.3 5.4 -16.9 12 1.4 6.2 -11.1 9
Aspartic acid 8.8 9.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.8 7 -19.4 11 1.9 8.1 -13.5 8 0.8 5-7.7 9
Glutamic acid 20.7 22.7 g/kg 14.9 g/16g N 2.8 15.7 -40.2 12 3 18.2 -26.7 9 1.2 11.3-15.4 10
Glycine 6.1 6.7 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.5 4.4 -14.9 12 1.6 5.1 -10.3 9 0.7 3.2-5.6 10
Serine 5.9 6.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 4.4 -13.2 12 1.1 5.1 -8.8 9 0.6 3.2-5 10
Proline 8.7 9.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.2 7.2 -13.2 8 1.3 8.1 -11.3 5 0.8 4.5-6.6 6
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.2 g/kg 58 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.5 g/kg 64 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 68 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 58 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.6 g/kg 62 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 78 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 67 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 67 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.6 g/kg 71 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 71 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 69 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.2 g/kg 70 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 81 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 63 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 59 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 15 16.5 g/kg 73 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.4 g/kg 65 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.5 g/kg 70 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 18 % 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.2 g/kg 76 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4 g/kg 73 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.1 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.3 g/kg 70 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.4 g/kg 75 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 76 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.9 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 77 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.7 10.6 g/kg 79 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 4.8 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.1 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.4 g/kg 76 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 80 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 7.7 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.1 g/kg 74 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 16.8 18.4 g/kg 81 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 4.9 g/kg 73 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 4.9 g/kg 76 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.4 g/kg 78 %
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