Wheat distillers grains, starch > 7%, dried

Byproduct of alcohol (ethanol) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. This process begins with the separation of the bran, which is reintroduced in the byproduct after starch extraction, resulting in distillers grains containing more starch (> 7% as fed) than those resulting from a process without preliminary bran separation. Other names and alternative spellings: wheat DDGS, wheat distillers' grains, wheat distiller's grains.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.9 100 % - 2.2 85.8 -95.9 1039 1.9
Crude protein 30 32.7 % - 1.6 23.4 -35.2 1097 1.7 26.3 -38.9 1032
Crude fibre 5.5 6 % - 0.8 2.4 -8.8 537 0.9 2.6 -9.7 508
Crude fat 4.2 4.6 % - 0.7 2.1 -8.3 185 0.7 2.2 -9 180
Ash 5 5.5 % - 0.8 3.3 -7.2 333 0.9 3.5 -7.9 323
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.7 % - 0.02 -1.3 2 1
NDF 28.3 30.8 % - 4.1 20.1 -38.9 72 4.4 21.8 -45.3 71
ADF 8.1 8.8 % - 1.4 5.6 -22.3 503 1.5 6.1 -26 502
Lignin 3.1 3.4 % - 1 1.3 -6.3 78 1.1 1.4 -6.8 78
Water insoluble cell walls 27.7 30.2 % -
Starch 11.1 12 % - 2.7 7 -20.5 959 2.9 7.5 -23 947
Total sugars 5.4 5.8 % - 1 2.1 -7.8 43 1 2.3 -8.5 43
Gross energy (kcal) 4420 4810 kcal/kg - 120 4420 -4640 5
Gross energy (MJ) 18.5 20.1 MJ/kg - 0.5 18.5 -19.4 5
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.4 1.5 g/kg - 0.3 0.9 -2.1 30 0.3 1 -2.3 30
Phosphorus 7.9 8.6 g/kg - 0.7 6 -9.1 53 0.7 6.6 -10 52
Phytate phosphorus 4.2 4.5 g/kg 53 % P 4.1 -4.2 2 52-53 2
Magnesium 2.8 3 g/kg -
Potassium 15.8 17.2 g/kg - 2.5 10.2 -21 89 2.7 11 -23.7 87
Sodium 1.28 1.39 g/kg - 0.61 0.1 -3.1 190 0.66 0.11 -3.23 184
Chlorine 2.2 2.4 g/kg - 0.3 1.5 -2.9 65 0.3 1.6 -3.2 63
Sulfur 3.5 3.8 g/kg - 3.6 0.2 -7.9 7 3.9 0.2 -8.6 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 181 197 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 401 436 mEq/kg -
Manganese 77 83 mg/kg - 62 -96 4 65 -100 3
Zinc 51 55 mg/kg - 1
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 1
Iron 77 84 mg/kg - 69 -86 3
Selenium 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Iodine 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.9 5.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.2 4.5 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 15.5 16.9 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1.5 -2.4 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.7 3 g/kg 65 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.06 1.16 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.04 1.14 per kg -
PDIA Systali 64 70 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 115 125 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 132 144 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.193 0.21 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2860 3110 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1870 2030 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1840 2000 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12 13 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.8 8.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.7 8.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 79.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 79 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 70 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.18 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.07 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 55 60 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 107 117 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 141 153 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.11 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.99 1.08 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 78 85 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 128 139 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 118 128 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.02 1.11 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.99 1.08 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 63 69 g/kg - 57 -76 3 57 -81 4
PDIN INRA 2007 193 210 g/kg - 193 -216 3
PDIE INRA 2007 118 129 g/kg - 113 -130 3 120 -140 4
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2810 3050 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 12.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.9 % 80.8-84.3 3
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 76.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 % 75.2-85 3
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 78 % 73-84 4
Immediately degradable N (a) - 54 % 50-59 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 42 % 38-46 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.076 h-1 0.073-0.079 2
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 73 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 56 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 36 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.055 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.4 5.9 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3230 3510 kcal/kg - 3090 -3480 3 3280 -3830 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 3010 3280 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1960 2130 kcal/kg - 1910 -2020 2 2030 -2140 2
DE adult pig (kcal) 3380 3680 kcal/kg - 3370 -3630 2 3590 -3840 2
ME adult pig (kcal) 3110 3390 kcal/kg - 2920 -3430 2 3110 -3640 2
NE adult pig (kcal) 2070 2250 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.5 14.7 MJ/kg - 12.9 -14.6 3 13.7 -16 3
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.6 13.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.2 8.9 MJ/kg - 8 -8.5 2 8.5 -8.9 2
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.2 15.4 MJ/kg - 14.1 -15.2 2 15 -16.1 2
ME adult pig (MJ) 13 14.2 MJ/kg - 12.2 -14.4 2 13 -15.2 2
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.7 9.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73 % 67.1-78.1 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 76.5 % 73.3-78.2 2
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.4 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 79 %
N digestibility growing pig - 75.4 % 74.9-87.3 3
N digestibility adult pig - 78.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 % 78-83.3 4
Crude fat digestibility pig - 53.4 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2190 2390 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2150 2340 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.2 10 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9 9.8 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.85 0.92 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 238 259 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3290 3580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3030 3300 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 15 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 13.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 74.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 70.2 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.9 3.6 -12.7 197 0.9 3.9 -9 52 0.3 1.3-3.1 73
Threonine 9.7 10.5 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1.3 7.8 -11.5 24 1.4 8.6 -13.4 10 0.2 2.8-3.7 24
Methionine 4.6 5 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.3 3.6 -5.1 27 0.3 4.4 -5.4 9 0.1 1.2-1.7 27
Cystine 5.7 6.2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -6.6 30 0.6 4.8 -6.9 9 0.1 1.5-2.2 30
Methionine + cystine 10.3 11.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.9 8.4 -11.7 26 1 9.2 -12.3 8 0.2 2.9-3.8 26
Tryptophan 3.2 3.5 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 0.3 3.1 -4.1 12 0.3 3.4 -4.4 7 0.07 1-1.3 12
Isoleucine 10.3 11.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.6 9.1 -13.7 28 1.7 10.3 -16 9 0.2 3.3-4.2 28
Valine 13 14.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.7 11.4 -16.2 27 1.9 12.5 -18.9 8 0.2 4-5 27
Leucine 19.3 21 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 2.2 16.9 -23.4 27 2.4 18.5 -26.3 8 0.3 6-7.3 27
Phenylalanine 13.1 14.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.6 11.7 -15.8 28 1.7 12.9 -18.4 9 0.2 4.2-4.8 28
Tyrosine 8.9 9.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.1 8.1 -10.7 16 1.2 9 -11.9 6 0.1 2.7-3.1 16
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 22 23.9 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 1.7 19.8 -26.2 15 1.8 23 -27.8 5 0.2 7.2-7.7 15
Histidine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 5 -8.3 28 1.1 5.4 -9.7 9 0.2 1.7-2.5 28
Arginine 13.1 14.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 11.8 -15.2 27 1.1 13 -16.1 9 0.2 3.6-4.7 27
Alanine 11 12 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1.7 9.3 -14 19 1.9 10.2 -16.3 8 0.3 3.3-4.4 19
Aspartic acid 15.1 16.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 2.2 12.6 -18.3 17 2.3 13.8 -21.3 7 0.3 4.4-5.6 17
Glutamic acid 77 83.8 g/kg 25.6 g/16g N 7.4 65.7 -91.1 19 7.9 74.9 -99 8 0.8 23.9-26.7 19
Glycine 11.8 12.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.7 10.8 -14.9 17 1.8 11.9 -17.4 7 0.2 3.6-4.6 17
Serine 13.5 14.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.9 11.4 -17 19 2 13.2 -19.8 8 0.3 4-5.2 19
Proline 19 20.7 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.4 g/kg 65 % 1 1 5 57-72 7
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.4 g/kg 79 % 1 1 5 74-85 7
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.2 g/kg 83 % 1 1 6 75-90 7
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5 g/kg 81 % 1 1 2 79-84 7
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.2 g/kg 82 % 81-84 3
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.8 g/kg 80 % 1 1 3 76-85 5
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9 g/kg 80 % 1 1 3 74-83 7
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 11.5 g/kg 81 % 1 1 3 77-84 7
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 16.3 17.7 g/kg 84 % 1 1 2 82-87 7
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 11.6 12.6 g/kg 88 % 1 1 2 85-90 7
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.1 g/kg 83 % 4 79-88 6
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 19 20.7 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.5 g/kg 82 % 1 1 2 79-85 7
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 11.4 12.4 g/kg 87 % 1 1 3 83-89 7
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.1 g/kg 76 % 3 71-79 6
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 11.7 12.7 g/kg 77 % 5 71-83 6
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 69.1 75.1 g/kg 90 % 1 88-92 6
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.2 g/kg 79 % 2 77-83 6
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 11.4 12.4 g/kg 84 % 3 80-87 6
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 17.2 18.8 g/kg 91 % 88-93 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.8 g/kg 57 % 50-67 3
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.3 g/kg 69 % 52-80 4
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.8 g/kg 77 % 58-86 4
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.3 g/kg 69 % 63-72 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.1 g/kg 72 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.7 g/kg 77 % 76-80 3
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.3 g/kg 74 % 57-82 4
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.4 g/kg 73 % 59-80 4
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.2 16.5 g/kg 78 % 64-85 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.9 11.9 g/kg 84 % 70-89 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 6.8 g/kg 70 % 64-74 3
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.7 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.2 g/kg 76 % 72-78 4
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.4 g/kg 73 % 54-84 4
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.2 7.8 g/kg 66 % 51-73 3
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 9.6 g/kg 59 % 44-67 3
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 66.1 71.9 g/kg 86 % 82-88 3
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.5 g/kg 66 % 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11.1 g/kg 75 % 71-78 3
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 16.5 18 g/kg 87 % 84-88 3
CSVXLSXXML