Wheat distillers grains, starch > 7%, dried

Byproduct of alcohol (ethanol) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. This process begins with the separation of the bran, which is reintroduced in the byproduct after starch extraction, resulting in distillers grains containing more starch (> 7% as fed) than those resulting from a process without preliminary bran separation. Other names and alternative spellings: wheat DDGS, wheat distillers' grains, wheat distiller's grains.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.9 100 % - 1.2 85.8 -95.9 1072 1.9
Crude protein 30 32.7 % - 1.6 23.4 -35.2 1130 1.7 26.3 -38.9 1065
Crude fibre 5.5 6 % - 0.8 2.4 -8.8 564 0.9 2.6 -9.7 535
Crude fat 4.2 4.6 % - 0.7 1.8 -8.3 201 0.7 2 -9 196
Ash 5 5.5 % - 0.8 3.3 -7.2 360 0.8 3.5 -7.9 350
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.7 % - 0.02 -1.3 2 1
NDF 28.5 31 % - 4.1 20.1 -38.9 73 4.4 21.8 -45.3 72
ADF 8.1 8.8 % - 1.4 5.6 -22.3 504 1.5 6.1 -26 503
Lignin 3.1 3.4 % - 1 1.3 -6.3 79 1.1 1.4 -6.8 79
Water insoluble cell walls 27.9 30.4 % -
Starch 11 12 % - 2.7 7 -20.5 982 2.9 7.5 -23 969
Starch, enzymatic method 8.4 9.1 % -
Total sugars 5.4 5.8 % - 1 2.1 -7.8 43 1 2.3 -8.5 43
Gross energy (kcal) 4420 4810 kcal/kg - 120 4420 -4640 5
Gross energy (MJ) 18.5 20.1 MJ/kg - 0.5 18.5 -19.4 5
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.4 1.5 g/kg - 0.3 0.9 -2.1 30 0.3 1 -2.3 30
Phosphorus 7.9 8.6 g/kg - 0.7 6 -9.1 61 0.7 6.6 -10 60
Phytate phosphorus 4.2 4.5 g/kg 53 % P 4.1 -4.2 2 52-53 2
Magnesium 2.8 3 g/kg -
Potassium 15.9 17.3 g/kg - 2.5 10.2 -21 89 2.7 11 -23.7 87
Sodium 1.26 1.37 g/kg - 0.6 0.1 -3.1 194 0.66 0.11 -3.23 188
Chlorine 2.2 2.4 g/kg - 0.3 1.5 -2.9 65 0.3 1.6 -3.2 63
Sulfur 3.5 3.8 g/kg - 3.6 0.2 -7.9 7 3.9 0.2 -8.6 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 181 197 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 401 436 mEq/kg -
Manganese 78 85 mg/kg - 62 -96 4 65 -100 3
Zinc 51 55 mg/kg - 1
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 1
Iron 77 84 mg/kg - 69 -86 3
Selenium 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Iodine 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.9 5.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.2 4.5 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 15.5 16.9 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1.5 -2.4 3 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.06 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.8 3 % 65 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.02 1.1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.99 1.07 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 64 70 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 114 124 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 134 145 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.193 0.21 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2760 3000 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1790 1940 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1740 1890 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12 13 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.8 8.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.7 8.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 76.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 70 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.04 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.02 1.1 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 55 60 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 106 116 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 142 155 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.97 1.05 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.93 1.01 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 78 85 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 127 138 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 119 130 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.02 1.11 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.98 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.99 1.08 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.94 1.02 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 63 69 g/kg - 57 -76 3 57 -81 4
PDIN INRA 2007 193 210 g/kg - 193 -216 3
PDIE INRA 2007 116 127 g/kg - 113 -130 3 120 -140 4
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2720 2960 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 12.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 78.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 77.8 %
N digestibility ruminants - 75.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 % 75.2-85 3
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 78 % 73-84 4
Immediately degradable N (a) - 54 % 50-59 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 42 % 38-46 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.076 h-1 0.073-0.079 2
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 73 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 56 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 36 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.055 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.4 5.9 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 982 1068 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1031 1122 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 102 111 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 142 154 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.7 4.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 69.6 75.7 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.34 3.63 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.72 1.87 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.63 1.77 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.85 2.01 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.25 1.36 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 21 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 24 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7 7.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 187 204 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 18 20 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3230 3510 kcal/kg - 3090 -3480 3 3280 -3830 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 3010 3280 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1960 2130 kcal/kg - 1910 -2020 2 2030 -2140 2
DE adult pig (kcal) 3380 3680 kcal/kg - 3370 -3630 2 3590 -3840 2
ME adult pig (kcal) 3110 3380 kcal/kg - 2920 -3430 2 3110 -3640 2
NE adult pig (kcal) 2070 2250 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.5 14.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.6 13.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.2 8.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.1 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13 14.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.7 9.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 72.9 % 67.1-78.1 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 76.4 % 73.3-78.2 2
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.3 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 78.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 75.4 % 74.9-87.3 3
N digestibility adult pig - 78.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 % 78-83.3 4
Crude fat digestibility pig - 53.3 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2 2.2 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3 3.2 g/kg 38 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2560 2780 kcal/kg - 2390 -2570 4 2550 -2800 4
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2510 2730 kcal/kg - 2200 -2640 4 2400 -2790 4
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 10.7 11.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.5 11.4 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2 2.2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2 2.2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.85 0.92 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 238 259 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3290 3580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3030 3300 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 15 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 13.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 74.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 70 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2810 3050 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.7 12.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 63.4 %
N digestibility salmonids - 86.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.2 6.7 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.8 3.6 -12.7 248 0.9 3.9 -9 62 0.3 1.3-3.1 83
Threonine 9.7 10.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1.3 7.8 -11.5 24 1.4 8.6 -13.4 10 0.2 2.8-3.7 24
Methionine 4.6 5 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.3 3.6 -5.1 27 0.3 4.4 -5.4 9 0.1 1.2-1.7 27
Cystine 5.7 6.2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -6.6 30 0.6 4.8 -6.9 9 0.1 1.5-2.2 30
Methionine + cystine 10.3 11.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.9 8.4 -11.7 27 0.9 9.2 -12.3 9 0.2 2.9-3.8 27
Tryptophan 3.2 3.5 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 0.3 3.1 -4.1 12 0.3 3.4 -4.4 7 0.07 1-1.3 12
Isoleucine 10.3 11.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.6 9.1 -13.7 28 1.7 10.3 -16 9 0.2 3.3-4.2 28
Valine 13 14.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.7 11.4 -16.2 27 1.9 12.5 -18.9 8 0.2 4-5 27
Leucine 19.3 21 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 2.2 16.9 -23.4 27 2.4 18.5 -26.3 8 0.3 6-7.3 27
Phenylalanine 13.1 14.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.6 11.7 -15.8 28 1.7 12.9 -18.4 9 0.2 4.2-4.8 28
Tyrosine 8.9 9.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.1 8.1 -10.7 16 1.2 9 -11.9 6 0.1 2.7-3.1 16
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 22 23.9 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 2.5 19.8 -26.2 16 2.7 23 -30.3 6 0.2 7.2-8 16
Histidine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 5 -8.3 28 1.1 5.4 -9.7 9 0.2 1.7-2.5 28
Arginine 13.1 14.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 11.8 -15.2 27 1.1 13 -16.1 9 0.2 3.6-4.7 27
Alanine 11 12 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1.7 9.3 -14 19 1.9 10.2 -16.3 8 0.3 3.3-4.4 19
Aspartic acid 15 16.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 2.2 12.6 -18.3 17 2.3 13.8 -21.3 7 0.3 4.4-5.6 17
Glutamic acid 77 83.8 g/kg 25.6 g/16g N 7.4 65.7 -91.1 19 7.9 74.9 -99 8 0.8 23.9-26.7 19
Glycine 11.8 12.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.7 10.8 -14.9 17 1.8 11.9 -17.4 7 0.2 3.6-4.6 17
Serine 13.5 14.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.9 11.4 -17 19 2 13.2 -19.8 8 0.3 4-5.2 19
Proline 19 20.7 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.4 g/kg 65 % 1 1 5 57-72 7
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.4 g/kg 79 % 1 1 5 74-85 7
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.2 g/kg 83 % 1 1 6 75-90 7
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5 g/kg 81 % 1 1 2 79-84 7
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.2 g/kg 82 % 81-84 3
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.8 g/kg 80 % 1 1 3 76-85 5
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9 g/kg 80 % 1 1 3 74-83 7
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 11.5 g/kg 81 % 1 1 3 77-84 7
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 16.3 17.7 g/kg 84 % 1 1 2 82-87 7
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 11.5 12.6 g/kg 88 % 1 1 2 85-90 7
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.1 g/kg 83 % 4 79-88 6
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 19 20.7 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.5 g/kg 82 % 1 1 2 79-85 7
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 11.4 12.4 g/kg 87 % 1 1 3 83-89 7
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.1 g/kg 76 % 3 71-79 6
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 11.7 12.7 g/kg 77 % 5 71-83 6
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 69.1 75.2 g/kg 90 % 1 88-92 6
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.2 g/kg 79 % 2 77-83 6
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 11.4 12.4 g/kg 84 % 3 80-87 6
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 17.2 18.8 g/kg 91 % 88-93 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.8 g/kg 57 % 50-67 3
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.3 g/kg 69 % 52-80 4
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.8 g/kg 77 % 58-86 4
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.3 g/kg 69 % 63-72 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.1 g/kg 72 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.7 g/kg 77 % 76-80 3
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.3 g/kg 74 % 57-82 4
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.4 g/kg 73 % 59-80 4
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.2 16.5 g/kg 78 % 64-85 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.9 11.9 g/kg 84 % 70-89 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 6.8 g/kg 70 % 64-74 3
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.7 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.1 g/kg 76 % 72-78 4
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.4 g/kg 73 % 54-84 4
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.2 7.8 g/kg 66 % 51-73 3
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 9.6 g/kg 59 % 44-67 3
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 66.1 71.9 g/kg 86 % 82-88 3
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.5 g/kg 66 % 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11.1 g/kg 75 % 71-78 3
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 16.5 18 g/kg 87 % 84-88 3
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