Palm kernel meal, oil < 5%

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of palm fruit kernels (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). This product has a low content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure followed by solvent extraction. 

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.6 100 % - 1.9 83.7 -93.9 117 3
Crude protein 16.6 18.3 % - 1.4 11.1 -20 159 1.5 12.2 -22.4 121
Crude fibre 18.7 20.7 % - 2.8 13.5 -26.7 133 3.1 15 -33.2 97
Crude fat 2.9 3.2 % - 1.3 0.7 -5 66 1.4 0.8 -5.6 63
Ash 4.3 4.8 % - 0.7 2.4 -6.8 106 0.8 2.6 -7.6 92
Insoluble ash 0.4 0.4 % - 0.4 -0.4 2 0.4 -0.4 2
NDF 66.1 72.9 % - 3.8 61.9 -75.3 28 3.8 67.6 -82.7 23
ADF 39.8 44 % - 4.4 36.2 -49 28 4.8 40.1 -55.8 23
Lignin 12.8 14.1 % - 2.2 8.3 -20.4 31 2.4 6.2 -17.8 26
Water insoluble cell walls 58.4 64.5 % -
Starch 0.5 0.6 % - 0.4 -0.7 2 0.4 -0.8 2
Starch, enzymatic method 0.8 0.9 % -
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 1 1
Gross energy (kcal) 4080 4510 kcal/kg - 400 3340 -4570 11 430 3670 -5130 12
Gross energy (MJ) 17.1 18.9 MJ/kg - 1.7 14 -19.1 11 1.8 15.4 -21.5 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.7 3 g/kg - 0.5 1.9 -4 14 0.5 2 -4.4 14
Phosphorus 5.5 6.1 g/kg - 1.8 1.2 -7.7 14 2 1.3 -8.5 14
Phytate phosphorus 3.6 4 g/kg 65 % P 50-80 3
Magnesium 3.1 3.4 g/kg - 2.8 -3.6 4 3.1 -3.9 4
Potassium 6.7 7.4 g/kg - 6.2 -7.3 4 6.9 -8.1 4
Sodium 0.16 0.17 g/kg -
Chlorine 1.7 1.9 g/kg -
Sulfur 2.6 2.9 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference -31 -34 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 131 145 mEq/kg -
Manganese 226 249 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 47 52 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 28 31 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 160 177 mg/kg - 1 1
Selenium 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 2 2.2 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 2.1 2.4 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 12.3 13.5 g/kg 47.5 % FA 2.1 44.3-49.7 5
C14:0 myristic acid 4.1 4.5 g/kg 15.7 % FA 0.8 14.5-16.7 5
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.3 2.6 g/kg 9 % FA 0.5 8.5-9.8 5
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 2.9 % FA 0.3 2.5-3.3 5
C18:1 oleic acid 4 4.4 g/kg 15.4 % FA 1.2 14.2-17.3 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.7 0.7 g/kg 2.6 % FA 0.7 1.9-3.5 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.3 % FA 0.4 2.8-3.8 5
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.6 2.8 % 89 % fat 2 87-92 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.77 0.85 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.71 0.78 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 72 79 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 117 129 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -8 -9 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.402 0.443 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2170 2390 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1360 1500 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1250 1380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 65.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 64.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 45 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 46 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.79 0.87 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.73 0.81 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 65 71 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 111 122 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -0.9 -1 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.73 0.8 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.66 0.73 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 81 89 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 124 137 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -18 -19 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.76 0.84 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.75 0.83 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.69 0.76 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.68 0.76 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 83 91 g/kg - 1 1
PDIN INRA 2007 118 130 g/kg - 1 1
PDIE INRA 2007 125 138 g/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2150 2380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9 10 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 66.7 % 63.8-67.8 3
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 65.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 30-57 3
Immediately degradable N (a) - 15 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 76 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.035 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 41-49 2
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 11 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 81 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 71.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.8 4.2 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 752 829 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 749 827 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 102 113 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -6 -6 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.6 4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 1.9 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 43.6 48.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.04 2.26 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.88 0.97 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.82 0.9 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.91 1.01 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.42 0.46 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 54 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 61 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.3 5.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 170 187 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -0.6 -0.7 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2530 2800 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2360 2600 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1390 1530 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2750 3030 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2480 2740 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1530 1690 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 10.6 11.7 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 9.9 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 5.8 6.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.5 12.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.4 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.4 7.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 62 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 67.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 65.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 70.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 63.2 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 70.9 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 54 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 14.3 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 31 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.6 2.8 g/kg 47 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 970 1070 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 940 1040 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 4.1 4.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 3.9 4.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Available P cockerel 1.4 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.4 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 65.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 63.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.7 0.77 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 96 106 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1850 2040 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1750 1940 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 7.7 8.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 7.3 8.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 45.2 %
N digestibility rabbit - 43.2 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2270 2510 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.5 10.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 55.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 84 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5 5.5 g/kg 3 g/16g N 4.5 -5 2 5.1 -5.7 2
Threonine 5.4 6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 3.2-3.5 2
Methionine 3 3.3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 2.1 -3.1 2 2.4 -3.5 2 1.5-2 2
Cystine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 1.9 -2.3 2 2.2 -2.6 2 1.2-1.6 2
Methionine + cystine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 5 -5.7 2 3.1-3.2 2
Tryptophan 1.1 1.2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N
Isoleucine 6 6.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 3.4-4.1 2
Valine 8.3 9.1 g/kg 5 g/16g N 7.7 -8.4 2 8.7 -9.6 2 4.9-5.9 2
Leucine 10.8 11.9 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 6.4-6.6 2
Phenylalanine 6.9 7.6 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 6.7 -7.6 2 4.1-4.3 2
Tyrosine 4.4 4.9 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.3 12.5 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N
Histidine 4.3 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Arginine 23.8 26.2 g/kg 14.3 g/16g N
Alanine 6.7 7.4 g/kg 4 g/16g N 4-4.4 2
Aspartic acid 14 15.5 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 32.1 35.4 g/kg 19.3 g/16g N 17.9-19.8 2
Glycine 7.8 8.6 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 4.5-4.9 2
Serine 7.6 8.4 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 5.3 5.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 37 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 52 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 47 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 60 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 52 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.4 g/kg 66 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6 g/kg 66 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.3 g/kg 70 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 75 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 67 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9 g/kg 72 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.9 g/kg 61 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 18.5 20.4 g/kg 78 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.6 g/kg 62 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7 7.7 g/kg 50 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 20.3 22.4 g/kg 63 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.2 g/kg 49 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.4 g/kg 64 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 51 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 63 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.2 g/kg 71 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 75 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.7 g/kg 74 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.2 g/kg 75 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.2 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.5 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.4 9.3 g/kg 78 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.1 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.4 g/kg 69 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.5 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 65 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.7 21.8 g/kg 83 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.7 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9.3 10.2 g/kg 66 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 24.7 27.3 g/kg 77 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 72 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.3 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.4 g/kg 74 %
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