Palm kernel meal, oil < 5%

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of palm fruit kernels (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). This product has a low content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure followed by solvent extraction. 

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.6 100 % - 3.3 83.7 -93.9 116 3
Crude protein 16.4 18.1 % - 1.4 11.1 -20 158 1.5 12.2 -22.4 120
Crude fibre 18.7 20.7 % - 2.8 13.5 -26.7 133 3.1 15 -33.2 97
Crude fat 3.1 3.4 % - 1.3 0.7 -5 66 1.4 0.8 -5.6 63
Ash 4.4 4.9 % - 0.7 2.4 -6.8 105 0.7 2.6 -7.6 91
Insoluble ash 0.4 0.4 % - 0.4 -0.4 2 0.4 -0.4 2
NDF 66.1 72.9 % - 3.6 61.9 -72.8 27 3.7 67.6 -81.7 22
ADF 39.8 44 % - 4.5 36.2 -49 27 4.8 40.1 -55.8 22
Lignin 12.8 14.1 % - 2.2 9.6 -20.4 30 2.4 6.2 -17.8 25
Water insoluble cell walls 58.4 64.5 % -
Starch 0.5 0.6 % - 0.4 -0.7 2 0.4 -0.8 2
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 1 1
Gross energy (kcal) 4090 4510 kcal/kg - 400 3340 -4570 11 430 3670 -5130 12
Gross energy (MJ) 17.1 18.9 MJ/kg - 1.7 14 -19.1 11 1.8 15.4 -21.5 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.7 3 g/kg - 0.5 1.9 -4 14 0.5 2 -4.4 14
Phosphorus 5.5 6.1 g/kg - 1.8 1.2 -7.7 14 2 1.3 -8.5 14
Phytate phosphorus 3.6 4 g/kg 65 % P
Magnesium 3.1 3.4 g/kg - 2.8 -3.6 4 3.1 -3.9 4
Potassium 6.7 7.4 g/kg - 6.2 -7.3 4 6.9 -8.1 4
Chlorine 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
Sulfur 2.2 2.4 g/kg -
Manganese 226 249 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 47 52 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 28 31 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 160 177 mg/kg - 1 1
Selenium 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 2.1 2.4 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 12.9 14.2 g/kg 46.9 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 4.3 4.8 g/kg 15.7 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.3 2.6 g/kg 8.5 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 2.6 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.1 4.5 g/kg 14.9 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 2.2 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
Fatty acids 2.7 3 g/kg 89 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.78 0.86 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.72 0.79 per kg -
PDIA Systali 71 78 g/kg -
PDI Systali 116 128 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -9 -10 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.402 0.443 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2180 2410 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1370 1510 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1260 1390 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 65.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 64.5 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 45 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 46 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.8 0.88 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.74 0.82 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 64 71 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 110 122 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -2 -2 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.74 0.81 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.67 0.74 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 80 88 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 124 136 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -19 -20 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.76 0.84 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.69 0.76 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 82 90 g/kg - 1 1
PDIN INRA 2007 117 129 g/kg - 1 1
PDIE INRA 2007 124 137 g/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2170 2390 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 67.1 % 63.8-67.8 3
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 65.9 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 36-57 2
Immediately degradable N (a) - 15 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 76 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.035 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 41-49 2
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 11 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 81 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.8 4.2 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1640 1810 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 1500 1660 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 900 990 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1990 2190 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1770 1950 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1080 1190 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 6.9 7.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 6.3 6.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 3.8 4.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 7.4 8.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 4.5 5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 40.2 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 48.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 44.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 53 %
N digestibility growing pig - 62.8 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 75.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 54 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 18.3 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 31 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2180 2410 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 66 %
Energy digestibility horse - 63.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.7 0.77 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 95 104 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1840 2040 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1750 1940 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 7.7 8.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 7.3 8.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 45.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 42.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 3 g/16g N 4.5 -5 2 5.1 -5.7 2
Threonine 5.3 5.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 3.2-3.5 2
Methionine 3 3.3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 2.1 -3.1 2 2.4 -3.5 2 1.5-2 2
Cystine 2.1 2.3 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 1.9 -2.3 2 2.2 -2.6 2 1.2-1.6 2
Methionine + cystine 5 5.6 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 5 -5.7 2
Tryptophan 1.1 1.2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.9 6.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 6 -6.6 2 3.4-4.1 2
Valine 8.2 9 g/kg 5 g/16g N 7.7 -8.4 2 8.7 -9.6 2 4.9-5.9 2
Leucine 10.6 11.7 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 6.4-6.6 2
Phenylalanine 6.8 7.5 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 6.7 -7.6 2 4.1-4.3 2
Tyrosine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.1 12.2 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N
Histidine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N
Arginine 23.1 25.5 g/kg 14.1 g/16g N
Alanine 6.6 7.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 4-4.4 2
Aspartic acid 13.8 15.2 g/kg 8.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 31.5 34.8 g/kg 19.3 g/16g N 17.9-19.8 2
Glycine 7.7 8.5 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 4.5-4.9 2
Serine 7.5 8.2 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 5.2 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 37 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3 g/kg 52 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 47 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 60 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 52 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.3 g/kg 66 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 5.9 g/kg 66 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.1 g/kg 70 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.6 g/kg 75 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.2 g/kg 67 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8 8.8 g/kg 72 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 61 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 17.9 19.8 g/kg 78 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.5 g/kg 62 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.6 g/kg 50 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 20 22.1 g/kg 63 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.1 g/kg 49 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.3 g/kg 64 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 51 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.4 g/kg 63 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.2 g/kg 71 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 75 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 74 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.1 g/kg 75 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.1 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.4 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.1 g/kg 78 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 69 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.4 9.3 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 65 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.1 21.1 g/kg 83 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9.1 10 g/kg 66 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 24.3 26.8 g/kg 77 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.1 g/kg 72 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.3 g/kg 74 %
CSVXLSXXML