Palm kernel meal, oil 5-20%

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of palm fruit kernels (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). This product has a high content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure only. 

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.7 100 % - 1.4 86.8 -95.5 578 2.1
Crude protein 15.6 17 % - 0.8 11.4 -18.1 1041 0.9 12.5 -20 576
Crude fibre 19 20.7 % - 2.4 9 -28.6 1085 2.6 10 -32 622
Crude fat 7.6 8.3 % - 1.7 5 -16.9 401 1.8 5.5 -18.6 297
Ash 4.4 4.8 % - 0.6 2 -8.3 484 0.7 2.1 -8.9 350
Insoluble ash 0.9 0.9 % - 0.9 0 -3.8 29 0.9 0 -4.1 28
NDF 66.9 72.9 % - 4.5 45.9 -75.2 162 4.8 51.4 -82.3 87
ADF 40.3 44 % - 2.9 28.7 -47.1 161 3.1 32.2 -51.5 86
Lignin 13 14.1 % - 2.2 5.6 -19 159 2.4 6.3 -20.5 87
Water insoluble cell walls 59.1 64.5 % - 2 57.1 -62.4 5 61.3 -66.3 4
Starch 1 1.1 % - 0.9 0.1 -3.3 16 1 0.1 -3.6 16
Starch, enzymatic method 0.8 0.9 % - 1 0.6 -1.1 2
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 0.5 0.9 -2.9 17 0.6 1 -3.1 18
Gross energy (kcal) 4360 4760 kcal/kg - 490 3770 -5480 30 530 2990 -6070 37
Gross energy (MJ) 18.2 19.9 MJ/kg - 2 15.8 -22.9 30 2.2 12.5 -25.4 37
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.8 3 g/kg - 0.8 1.5 -6 82 0.9 1.6 -6.6 85
Phosphorus 5.5 6 g/kg - 1.1 1 -7.8 88 1.2 1.1 -8.4 90
Phytate phosphorus 3.6 3.9 g/kg 65 % P 3.2 -4.8 3 50-80 3
Magnesium 2.9 3.2 g/kg - 0.5 1.8 -4 30 0.6 2 -4.4 30
Potassium 6.3 6.9 g/kg - 1.9 2.4 -11.7 30 2.1 2.7 -12.9 30
Sodium 0.16 0.17 g/kg - 0.27 0.02 -1.11 14 0.3 0.02 -1.2 14
Chlorine 1.8 1.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 2.6 2.9 g/kg - 0.2 2.4 -2.8 5 0.2 2.6 -3.2 5
Dietary cation-anion difference -45 -49 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 119 130 mEq/kg -
Manganese 172 188 mg/kg - 76 22 -291 15 83 24 -313 14
Zinc 61 67 mg/kg - 92 3 -375 14 101 3 -413 14
Copper 25 27 mg/kg - 8 2 -53 21 9 2 -42 18
Iron 507 553 mg/kg - 478 329 -1528 5 356 -755 4
Selenium 0.8 0.9 mg/kg - 0.1 0 -1 6 0.2 0.7 -1 5
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 0.05 0 -0.2 6 0.05 0.1 -0.2 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 5.3 5.8 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 5.2 5.7 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 32.2 35.1 g/kg 47.5 % FA 4 28 -40 5 4.3 32.1 -43.7 5 2.1 44.3-49.7 5
C14:0 myristic acid 10.6 11.6 g/kg 15.7 % FA 1.3 10 -13.3 5 1.4 10.7 -14.5 5 0.8 14.5-16.7 5
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.1 6.7 g/kg 9 % FA 0.5 6.1 -7.3 5 0.5 6.5 -8 5 0.5 8.5-9.8 5
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 2 2.1 g/kg 2.9 % FA 0.2 1.9 -2.4 5 0.2 2 -2.6 5 0.3 2.5-3.3 5
C18:1 oleic acid 10.4 11.4 g/kg 15.4 % FA 1.1 9.8 -12.3 5 1.1 10.5 -13.4 5 1.2 14.2-17.3 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 1.8 1.9 g/kg 2.6 % FA 0.4 1.3 -2.2 5 0.5 1.4 -2.5 5 0.7 1.9-3.5 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 2.2 2.4 g/kg 3.3 % FA 0.4 1.7 -2.7 5 0.4 2 -2.9 5 0.4 2.8-3.8 5
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 6.8 7.4 % 89 % fat 2 87-92 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.84 0.92 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.78 0.85 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 68 74 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 112 122 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -12 -13 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.406 0.443 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2360 2580 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1480 1620 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1380 1500 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.3 6.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.8 6.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 65.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 64.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 45 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 46 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.87 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.81 0.88 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 61 66 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 107 117 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -6 -6 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.8 0.87 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.73 0.79 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 76 83 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 120 130 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -21 -23 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.81 0.89 per kg - 0.09 0.75 -0.95 5 0.1 0.83 -1.04 5
UFL INRA 2007 0.82 0.9 per kg - 0.11 0.79 -1.01 5 0.11 0.87 -1.1 5
UFV INRA 2007 0.74 0.81 per kg - 0.11 0.67 -0.92 5 0.12 0.74 -1 5
UFV INRA 2007 0.75 0.82 per kg - 0.13 0.71 -0.98 5 0.14 0.78 -1.07 5
PDIA INRA 2007 78 85 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 111 121 g/kg - 1 12 120 -151 8
PDIE INRA 2007 117 127 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2330 2540 kcal/kg - 250 2280 -2830 5 270 2510 -3110 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.7 10.6 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.8 10.7 MJ/kg - 1 9.5 -11.8 5 1.1 10.5 -13 5
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 66.6 % 7.9 62.2-78.6 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 66.1 % 7.3 62.6-78.3 5
N digestibility ruminants - 70.7 % 5.1 70.3-84.9 6
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 9 27-59 12
Immediately degradable N (a) - 15 % 12-16 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 76 % 62-84 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.035 h-1 0.025-0.035 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 9 34-60 6
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 11 % 19 -4-48 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 81 % 30 16-100 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.016-0.042 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.7 4.1 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 814 888 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 815 889 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 94 102 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -4 -4 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.3 3.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.6 1.7 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 48.9 53.4 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.25 2.46 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.04 1.13 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.97 1.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.07 1.17 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.56 0.61 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 61 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 54 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.8 6.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 170 186 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -2 -2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2700 2950 kcal/kg - 2590 -3010 3 2250 -3360 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2540 2770 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1620 1760 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2920 3180 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 2670 2910 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE adult pig (kcal) 1750 1910 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.3 12.3 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.6 11.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.8 7.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.2 13.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.3 8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 62 % 59-66 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 66.9 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 65.5 % 63-68 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 70.5 %
N digestibility growing pig - 62 %
N digestibility adult pig - 70.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 54 % 17.7 51.2-87.2 5
Crude fat digestibility pig - 55.9 % 25-78 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 31 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.6 2.8 g/kg 47 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1340 1460 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1260 1380 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 5.6 6.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.4 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.4 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 65.3 % 56.3-69.6 2
Energy digestibility horse - 63 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.75 0.82 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 87 95 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2000 2180 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1920 2090 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 8.4 9.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 8 8.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 45.9 %
N digestibility rabbit - 41.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2490 2710 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 10.4 11.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 57 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.6 5 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.2 2.9 -6.6 23 1.3 3.1 -7.2 22 0.6 1.9-3.8 27
Threonine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.8 3.7 -5.9 18 0.9 4.1 -6.8 17 0.4 2.5-3.9 23
Methionine 2.8 3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.7 1.5 -3.7 20 0.7 1.6 -4.1 19 0.3 1-2.2 24
Cystine 1.9 2.1 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.6 1.1 -2.8 19 0.6 1.2 -3.1 17 0.3 0.7-1.6 22
Methionine + cystine 4.7 5.1 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.1 2.6 -6.5 21 1.2 2.8 -7.1 19 0.5 1.7-3.8 24
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.1 1 -1.4 6 1.1 -1.2 3 0.06 0.7-0.8 6
Isoleucine 5.5 6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1 4.6 -7.1 18 1.1 5 -8.2 17 0.4 2.9-4.2 23
Valine 7.8 8.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.1 6.3 -9.7 18 1.2 6.9 -11.1 17 0.5 4.2-6.1 23
Leucine 9.7 10.6 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.7 8.1 -12.5 18 1.8 8.9 -14.4 17 0.6 5.3-7.6 23
Phenylalanine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 5.2 -7.8 18 1.1 5.7 -9 17 0.3 3.4-4.7 23
Tyrosine 3.8 4.2 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 1 2.4 -5 13 1.1 2.5 -5.7 11 0.4 1.8-3 17
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10 11 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 2 7.5 -12.6 14 2.1 8.2 -14.2 12 0.6 5-7.5 18
Histidine 3.4 3.7 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1.2 2.1 -6 18 1.4 2.3 -6.5 17 0.6 1.2-3.5 23
Arginine 19.9 21.7 g/kg 12.7 g/16g N 5.2 11.7 -27.5 16 5.7 12.6 -30 15 2.6 7.8-15.9 21
Alanine 6.3 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 5.4 -7.8 18 1 6 -9 17 0.3 3.4-4.6 22
Aspartic acid 12.8 13.9 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N 2.2 10.2 -15.5 18 2.4 11.2 -17.6 17 0.8 6.7-9.2 20
Glutamic acid 29.3 32 g/kg 18.8 g/16g N 4.9 22.7 -37.6 18 5.4 24.8 -43.3 17 1.8 15.1-22.1 22
Glycine 7.1 7.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.2 5.5 -8.8 18 1.3 6 -10 17 0.4 3.7-5.3 23
Serine 6.9 7.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.2 5.1 -8.4 18 1.3 5.6 -9.5 17 0.6 3.3-5.7 22
Proline 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.9 3.6 -6.1 13 1 3.9 -7 12 0.3 2.6-3.4 17
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 37 % 1 1 31 25-90 5
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.8 g/kg 52 % 1 1 18 50-85 5
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 68 % 1 1 14 63-92 5
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 47 % 1 1 16 42-76 5
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3 g/kg 60 % 1 1 15 58-89 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 52 % 52-90 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4 g/kg 66 % 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.6 g/kg 66 % 1 1 13 63-89 5
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.4 g/kg 70 % 1 1 13 66-93 5
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.1 g/kg 75 % 1 1 11 70-93 5
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 67 % 1 1 14 65-93 5
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 7.9 g/kg 72 % 1 1 12 70-93 5
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 61 % 1 1 19 54-93 5
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 15.5 16.9 g/kg 78 % 1 1 9 68-90 5
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 62 % 1 1 12 57-81 5
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 6.9 g/kg 50 % 1 1 17 46-82 5
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 18.6 20.3 g/kg 63 % 1 1 15 60-89 5
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.7 g/kg 49 % 1 1 13 46-75 5
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.8 g/kg 64 % 1 1 13 60-87 5
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.6 g/kg 51 % 1 1 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.5 g/kg 90 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.7 g/kg 68 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 92 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 47 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.7 g/kg 73 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.8 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5 g/kg 84 % 1
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 7.6 g/kg 72 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 5.9 g/kg 86 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.2 g/kg 53 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.1 g/kg 74 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3 g/kg 82 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.8 g/kg 87 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 82 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8 g/kg 57 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.7 g/kg 59 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.5 g/kg 72 % 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.4 g/kg 85 % 1
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.5 g/kg 86 % 1
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.75 1.91 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 237 259 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0053 0.0058 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 22.75 24.81 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.04 4.41 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 387 422 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0089 0.0097 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 30.64 33.42 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.67 1.82 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4247 4631 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0055 0.006 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 23.61 25.75 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.96 4.31 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4396 4795 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0091 0.0099 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 31.5 34.36 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.7 1.85 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 2860 3119 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0055 0.006 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 23.31 25.43 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.99 4.35 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.33 1.45 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 3009 3282 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.009 0.0098 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 31.21 34.03 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML