Palm kernel meal, oil 5-20%

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of palm fruit kernels (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). This product has a high content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure only. 

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.6 100 % - 2.4 86.8 -95.5 509 2.2
Crude protein 15.6 17.1 % - 0.8 11.4 -18.1 974 0.8 12.5 -20 509
Crude fibre 18.8 20.5 % - 2.3 9 -28.6 988 2.5 10 -32 525
Crude fat 7.5 8.2 % - 1.7 5 -16.9 350 1.9 5.5 -18.6 246
Ash 4.4 4.8 % - 0.6 2.6 -8.3 453 0.7 2.9 -8.9 319
Insoluble ash 1.3 1.4 % - 1.9 0 -8.8 31 2 0 -9.8 30
NDF 66.8 72.9 % - 4.3 45.9 -75.2 145 4.6 51.4 -82.3 70
ADF 40.2 43.9 % - 3 28.7 -47.1 146 3.2 32.2 -51.5 71
Lignin 12.9 14.1 % - 2.2 5.6 -19 142 2.4 6.3 -20.5 70
Water insoluble cell walls 59 64.4 % - 2 57.1 -62.4 5 61.3 -66.3 4
Starch 1 1.1 % - 0.9 0.1 -3.3 16 1 0.1 -3.6 16
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 0.5 0.9 -2.9 17 0.6 1 -3.1 18
Gross energy (kcal) 4350 4750 kcal/kg - 490 3770 -5480 29 530 2990 -6070 36
Gross energy (MJ) 18.2 19.9 MJ/kg - 2.1 15.8 -22.9 29 2.2 12.5 -25.4 36
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.7 3 g/kg - 0.7 1.5 -5.2 81 0.8 1.6 -5.7 84
Phosphorus 5.5 6 g/kg - 1.1 1 -7.8 87 1.2 1.1 -8.4 89
Phytate phosphorus 3.6 3.9 g/kg 65 % P 3.2 -4.8 3 50-80 3
Magnesium 2.9 3.1 g/kg - 0.5 1.8 -4 29 0.6 2 -4.4 29
Potassium 6.2 6.8 g/kg - 1.9 2.4 -11.7 29 2.1 2.7 -12.9 29
Sodium 0.17 0.18 g/kg - 0.28 0.02 -1.11 13 0.31 0.02 -1.2 13
Chlorine 1.5 1.6 g/kg -
Sulfur 2.2 2.4 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference -13 -14 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 125 137 mEq/kg -
Manganese 177 193 mg/kg - 76 22 -291 15 83 24 -313 14
Zinc 61 67 mg/kg - 92 3 -375 14 101 3 -413 14
Copper 26 28 mg/kg - 8 2 -53 20 9 2 -42 17
Iron 713 778 mg/kg - 478 329 -1528 5
Selenium 0.6 0.7 mg/kg - 0.1 0 -1 6 0.2 0.7 -1 5
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 0.05 0 -0.2 6 0.05 0.1 -0.2 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 5.2 5.7 g/kg 7.8 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 31.4 34.3 g/kg 46.9 % FA 4 28 -40 5 4.3 32.1 -43.7 5 2.1 44.3-49.7 5
C14:0 myristic acid 10.5 11.5 g/kg 15.7 % FA 1.3 10 -13.3 5 1.4 10.7 -14.5 5 0.8 14.5-16.7 5
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.7 6.2 g/kg 8.5 % FA 0.5 8.5-9.8 5
C18:0 stearic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 2.6 % FA 0.3 2.5-3.3 5
C18:1 oleic acid 10 10.9 g/kg 14.9 % FA 1.1 9.8 -12.3 5 1.1 10.5 -13.4 5 1.2 14.2-17.3 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 1.5 1.6 g/kg 2.2 % FA 0.4 1.3 -2.2 5 0.5 1.4 -2.5 5 0.7 1.9-3.5 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.4 % FA
Fatty acids 6.7 7.3 g/kg 89 % fat 2 87-92 5
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.85 0.93 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.79 0.86 per kg -
PDIA Systali 68 74 g/kg -
PDI Systali 113 123 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -12 -13 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.406 0.443 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2380 2600 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1500 1630 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1390 1520 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.3 6.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 5.8 6.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 65.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 65.3 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 45 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 46 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.6 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 7.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.87 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.82 0.9 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 61 67 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 107 117 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -6 -6 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.8 0.88 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.74 0.8 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 76 83 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 120 131 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -21 -23 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.82 0.9 per kg - 0.11 0.79 -1.01 5 0.11 0.87 -1.1 5
UFV INRA 2007 0.75 0.82 per kg - 0.13 0.71 -0.98 5 0.14 0.78 -1.07 5
PDIA INRA 2007 78 85 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 111 121 g/kg - 1 12 120 -151 8
PDIE INRA 2007 117 128 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2340 2560 kcal/kg - 250 2280 -2830 5 270 2510 -3110 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.8 10.7 MJ/kg - 1 9.5 -11.8 5 1.1 10.5 -13 5
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 67.2 % 7.9 62.2-78.6 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 66.7 % 7.3 62.6-78.3 5
N digestibility ruminants - 71.1 % 5.1 70.3-84.9 6
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 9 27-59 11
Immediately degradable N (a) - 15 % 12-16 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 76 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.035 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 % 9 34-60 6
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 11 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 81 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.016-0.042 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.7 4.1 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1820 1980 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 1680 1830 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1130 1230 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2150 2350 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 1950 2120 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE adult pig (kcal) 1300 1420 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.3 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 7 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 4.7 5.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 9 9.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 8.1 8.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE adult pig (MJ) 5.4 5.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 41.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 49.5 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 46.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 54 %
N digestibility growing pig - 62.2 %
N digestibility adult pig - 75.1 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 54 % 17.7 51.2-87.2 5
Crude fat digestibility pig - 55.6 % 25-78 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 31 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2150 2340 kcal/kg - 2010 -2690 4
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9 9.8 MJ/kg - 8.4 -11.3 4
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 65 % 56-70 2
Energy digestibility horse - 63.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.75 0.82 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 88 96 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2000 2180 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1920 2090 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 8.4 9.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 8 8.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 46 %
N digestibility rabbit - 41.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.6 5 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.2 2.9 -6.6 23 1.3 3.1 -7.2 22 0.6 1.9-3.8 27
Threonine 5 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.8 3.7 -5.9 18 0.9 4.1 -6.8 17 0.4 2.5-3.9 23
Methionine 2.8 3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.7 1.5 -3.7 20 0.7 1.6 -4.1 19 0.3 1-2.2 24
Cystine 1.9 2.1 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.6 1.1 -2.8 19 0.6 1.2 -3.1 17 0.3 0.7-1.6 22
Methionine + cystine 4.7 5.1 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.1 2.6 -6.5 21 1.2 2.8 -7.1 19 0.5 1.7-3.8 24
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.1 1 -1.4 6 1.1 -1.2 3 0.06 0.7-0.8 6
Isoleucine 5.5 6.1 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1 4.6 -7.1 18 1.1 5 -8.2 17 0.4 2.9-4.2 23
Valine 7.8 8.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.1 6.3 -9.7 18 1.2 6.9 -11.1 17 0.5 4.2-6.1 23
Leucine 9.8 10.7 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.7 8.1 -12.5 18 1.8 8.9 -14.4 17 0.6 5.3-7.6 23
Phenylalanine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 5.2 -7.8 18 1.1 5.7 -9 17 0.3 3.4-4.7 23
Tyrosine 3.8 4.2 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 1 2.4 -5 13 1.1 2.5 -5.7 11 0.4 1.8-3 17
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.1 11 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.6 8.7 -12.6 11 1.7 9.3 -14.2 9 0.5 5.8-7.5 15
Histidine 3.4 3.7 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1.2 2.1 -6 18 1.4 2.3 -6.5 17 0.6 1.2-3.5 23
Arginine 20 21.8 g/kg 12.8 g/16g N 5.2 11.7 -27.5 16 5.7 12.6 -30 15 2.6 7.8-15.9 21
Alanine 6.3 6.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 5.4 -7.8 18 1 6 -9 17 0.3 3.4-4.6 22
Aspartic acid 12.8 13.9 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N 2.2 10.2 -15.5 18 2.4 11.2 -17.6 17 0.8 6.7-9.2 20
Glutamic acid 29.3 32 g/kg 18.8 g/16g N 4.9 22.7 -37.6 18 5.4 24.8 -43.3 17 1.8 15.1-22.1 22
Glycine 7.1 7.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.2 5.5 -8.8 18 1.3 6 -10 17 0.4 3.7-5.3 23
Serine 6.9 7.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.2 5.1 -8.4 18 1.3 5.6 -9.5 17 0.6 3.3-5.7 22
Proline 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.9 3.6 -6.1 13 1 3.9 -7 12 0.3 2.6-3.4 17
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 37 % 1 1 31 25-90 5
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.8 g/kg 52 % 1 1 18 50-85 5
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 68 % 1 1 14 63-92 5
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 47 % 1 1 16 42-76 5
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 60 % 1 1 15 58-89 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 52 % 52-90 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4 g/kg 66 % 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.6 g/kg 66 % 1 1 13 63-89 5
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.4 g/kg 70 % 1 1 13 66-93 5
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.1 g/kg 75 % 1 1 11 70-93 5
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 2.8 g/kg 67 % 1 1 14 65-93 5
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 7.9 g/kg 72 % 1 1 12 70-93 5
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.3 g/kg 61 % 1 1 19 54-93 5
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 15.6 17 g/kg 78 % 1 1 9 68-90 5
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 62 % 1 1 12 57-81 5
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 6.9 g/kg 50 % 1 1 17 46-82 5
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 18.6 20.3 g/kg 63 % 1 1 15 60-89 5
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.7 g/kg 49 % 1 1 13 46-75 5
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.8 g/kg 64 % 1 1 13 60-87 5
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 51 % 1 1 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.5 g/kg 90 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.7 g/kg 68 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 92 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 47 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.7 g/kg 73 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.1 g/kg 84 % 1
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 7.6 g/kg 72 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 5.9 g/kg 86 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.2 g/kg 53 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.1 g/kg 74 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3 g/kg 82 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.3 18.9 g/kg 87 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 82 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8 g/kg 57 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.8 g/kg 59 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 72 % 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.4 g/kg 85 % 1
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.5 g/kg 86 % 1
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.72 1.88 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4250 4639 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0056 0.0061 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 2.13 2.33 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.86 0.94 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.01 4.38 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4398 4801 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0091 0.01 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 2.39 2.61 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.87 0.95 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.76 1.92 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 2863 3125 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0055 0.006 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.41 3.72 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.86 0.94 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.04 4.41 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 3012 3288 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0091 0.0099 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.67 4 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.87 0.95 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 1.81 1.98 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 241 263 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0054 0.0059 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.83 6.36 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.87 0.94 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.1 4.47 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.35 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 390 425 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0089 0.0098 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 6.08 6.64 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.87 0.95 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML