Soybean hulls

Byproduct of the processing of soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) for the manufacture of soybean oil and other soy-based products, consisting of the outer envelopes obtained after the dehulling step of the process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.9 100 % - 1 86.1 -97.7 787 1.6
Crude protein 11.4 12.8 % - 1.5 8.5 -17.9 1141 1.7 9.4 -19.8 781
Crude fibre 34.8 39.1 % - 2 27.3 -40.9 1128 2.2 29.4 -45.4 753
Crude fat 1.9 2.1 % - 0.9 0.7 -5.6 367 1 0.8 -5.7 260
Ash 4.7 5.3 % - 0.5 3.5 -6.5 249 0.5 3.6 -7.4 202
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.5 % - 0.2 -0.8 2
NDF 58.1 65.3 % - 5 42.6 -69.4 169 5.5 48.2 -74 178
ADF 41.3 46.5 % - 3.8 28.7 -48 155 4.2 32.2 -55.4 167
Lignin 2.1 2.4 % - 0.9 0.8 -6 188 1 0.7 -5.5 196
Water insoluble cell walls 63.2 71 % - 3.7 60.2 -70.1 19 4.1 67 -79.8 15
Starch 5.1 5.7 % - 2.8 0 -8.7 15 3.2 0 -9.8 20
Starch, enzymatic method 0.1 0.1 % - 0 -0.3 3 0 -0.3 3
Total sugars 1.1 1.2 % - 0.8 0.8 -2.3 3 0.9 0.3 -2.5 6
Gross energy (kcal) 3850 4330 kcal/kg - 240 3630 -4130 8 270 4190 -5180 12
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.1 MJ/kg - 1 15.2 -17.3 8 1.1 17.5 -21.7 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 4.9 5.6 g/kg - 1 2 -8.1 102 1.1 2.2 -9.1 114
Phosphorus 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 1.2 0.7 -3.2 123 1.4 0.4 -16 134
Phytate phosphorus 0.9 1 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 0.6 0.9 -2.4 7 0.7 0.7 -4.2 20
Potassium 11.6 13 g/kg - 2.7 9.4 -14.7 11 3.1 3.5 -17.6 23
Sodium 0.1 0.11 g/kg - 0.15 0 -0.73 13 0.17 0 -0.8 24
Chlorine 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.2 0 -0.6 13
Sulfur 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.1 0.1 0.8 -1.2 10
Dietary cation-anion difference 239 269 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 293 330 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg - 9 8 -37 5 10 9 -43 16
Zinc 43 48 mg/kg - 17 15 -90 16
Copper 7 8 mg/kg - 3 6 -13 5 3 3 -15 17
Iron 594 669 mg/kg - 290 137 -1259 6 326 145 -1401 18
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.2 -0.3 3 0.2 -0.3 3
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.8 0.9 0 -2 10
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 0-0.01 5
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.3 0-1.1 14
C16:0 palmitic acid 2 2.2 g/kg 11.2 % FA 2.2 9.6-20.8 22
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.08 0-0.2 7
C18:0 stearic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.8 % FA 0.4 3.2-4.8 22
C18:1 oleic acid 4.1 4.6 g/kg 23.1 % FA 1.6 19.8-27.3 23
C18:2 linoleic acid 9.6 10.8 g/kg 54 % FA 2.9 42.9-58.2 22
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 7.2 % FA 0.9 4.8-8.7 22
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.09 0.1-0.4 11
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.04 0.1-0.2 6
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:0 behenic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.5 % FA 0.4-0.5 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-0.3 2
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.2 2
Fatty acids 1.8 2 % 95 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.94 1.06 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.93 1.04 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 33 38 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 84 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -28 -31 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.395 0.444 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2520 2830 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1650 1860 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1630 1840 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.7 12.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 7.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7 7.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 79.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 77.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 56 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 70 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 46 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.96 1.08 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.95 1.07 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 81 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -24 -27 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.9 1.01 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.88 0.99 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 39 43 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -35 -39 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1 per kg - 0.88 -1.02 2 0.99 -1.11 2
UFL INRA 2007 0.88 0.98 per kg - 0.84 -0.97 2 0.94 -1.06 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.86 0.97 per kg - 0.86 -1.02 2 0.96 -1.11 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.84 0.95 per kg - 0.8 -0.96 2 0.9 -1.05 2
PDIA INRA 2007 38 43 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 71 80 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 95 107 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2410 2710 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.1 11.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.2 11.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.7 % 5.9 69.7-86.7 6
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 78.5 % 75.6-87.3 4
N digestibility ruminants - 77.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 67 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 85 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 55 % 6 48-66 7
Immediately degradable N (a) - 19 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 71 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.06 h-1 0.023-0.063 2
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 43 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 52 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.072 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 15 -18-41 10
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 92 % 23 38-112 10
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.036 0.009-0.109 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 68.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1 1.1 g/kg 65 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.7 3.1 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 874 983 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 923 1038 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 83 93 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -34 -39 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 6.4 7.2 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 59.6 67 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.65 2.98 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.28 1.44 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.2 1.35 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.38 1.56 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.85 0.96 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 43 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 49 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.2 7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 142 160 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -5 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1950 2200 kcal/kg - 1 2050 -2720 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 1830 2060 kcal/kg - 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1010 1140 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2690 3030 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 2450 2760 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1440 1620 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 8.2 9.2 MJ/kg - 1
DE growing pig (MJ) 8.1 9.1 MJ/kg - 1 8.6 -11.4 3
ME growing pig (MJ) 7.7 8.6 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.5 MJ/kg - 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 4.2 4.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 4.2 4.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.7 MJ/kg - 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.6 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.2 11.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6 6.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6 6.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 50.7 % 47.5-64.8 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 69.9 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 54 % 52.1-64 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 71.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 39.8 %
N digestibility adult pig - 78.7 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 57 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 50 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.3 g/kg 75 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 850 950 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 830 930 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 3.5 4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 3.5 3.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.4 0.4 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.4 0.4 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 54.1 %
Energy digestibility horse - 52.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.43 0.49 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 43 48 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1420 1590 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1300 1460 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 5.4 6.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 5.5 6.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 36.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 83 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2010 2260 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.4 9.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 52.1 %
N digestibility salmonids - 81.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.3 8.2 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.2 6 -11.4 18 1.4 6.6 -12.3 18 0.4 5.5-7 18
Threonine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.8 3.1 -6.3 18 0.8 3.4 -6.8 18 0.1 3.3-3.7 18
Methionine 1.3 1.5 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2 18 0.3 1.1 -2.2 18 0.2 0.7-1.5 18
Cystine 2.1 2.3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.4 1.7 -3.5 18 0.5 1.9 -3.8 18 0.2 1.5-2.1 18
Methionine + cystine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.6 2.7 -5.5 18 0.7 2.9 -6 18 0.2 2.3-3.4 18
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 0.3 0.5 -1.4 16 0.3 0.6 -1.5 16 0.2 0.6-1.2 16
Isoleucine 4 4.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.8 3 -5.9 18 0.8 3.4 -6.4 18 0.2 3.1-4 18
Valine 4.8 5.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1 5.4 -7.8 5 0.3 3.9-4.6 5
Leucine 7 7.9 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.3 5.3 -10.7 18 1.5 5.8 -11.6 18 0.2 5.5-6.6 18
Phenylalanine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.9 3.1 -6.7 18 1 3.4 -7.2 18 0.2 3.3-4 18
Tyrosine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.5 -6.3 13 0.9 3.8 -6.8 13 0.1 3.6-4.1 13
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.6 9.7 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 1.7 6.6 -12.9 13 1.9 7.2 -14 13 0.2 7.1-7.8 13
Histidine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.3 -4.2 18 0.5 2.5 -4.5 18 0.2 2.1-2.8 18
Arginine 5.6 6.3 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.4 3.9 -10.1 18 1.6 4.3 -10.9 18 0.4 4.2-6 18
Alanine 4.8 5.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.9 3.6 -7.1 16 1 3.9 -7.7 16 0.2 3.7-4.5 16
Aspartic acid 10.3 11.6 g/kg 9.1 g/16g N 2.7 10 -17.1 5 3.1 11.3 -18.5 5 0.6 8.5-10.2 5
Glutamic acid 13.2 14.8 g/kg 11.6 g/16g N 1.8 8.6 -14.5 14 2 9.4 -16.3 14 0.9 9.3-12.6 14
Glycine 8.5 9.5 g/kg 7.5 g/16g N 0.7 7.4 -10.3 18 0.8 8.3 -11.4 18 1 5.8-9.1 18
Serine 5.7 6.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 4.5 -7.3 17 1.1 5 -8 17 0.4 4.2-5.6 17
Proline 5.4 6.1 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 0.9 4.2 -7.4 15 1 4.7 -8 15 0.2 4.3-4.9 15
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 60 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 61 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 71 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.4 g/kg 63 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.5 g/kg 66 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 63 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 68 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 61 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 70 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 72 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 64 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.6 g/kg 68 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 58 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.3 g/kg 84 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 56 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 7.9 g/kg 69 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.7 10.9 g/kg 74 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 38 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.8 g/kg 59 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.7 g/kg 61 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.2 g/kg 63 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 59 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1.1 g/kg 72 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.4 g/kg 61 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 65 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 64 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 69 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 66 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.2 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 69 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 61 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 65 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 64 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 69 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 65 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.3 g/kg 63 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10.3 g/kg 70 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.7 g/kg 60 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 65 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4 g/kg 67 %
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