Soybean hulls

Byproduct of the processing of soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) for the manufacture of soybean oil and other soy-based products, consisting of the outer envelopes obtained after the dehulling step of the process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.8 100 % - 1.8 86.1 -97.7 657 1.6
Crude protein 11.4 12.9 % - 1.5 8.8 -17.9 1011 1.7 9.6 -19.8 653
Crude fibre 34.7 39.1 % - 1.9 27.3 -40.4 997 2.1 29.4 -44.2 624
Crude fat 1.9 2.1 % - 0.9 0.8 -5.1 312 1 0.9 -5.6 206
Ash 4.7 5.3 % - 0.5 3.5 -6.5 216 0.5 3.6 -7.4 169
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.5 % - 0.2 -0.8 2
NDF 57.9 65.2 % - 5 42.6 -69.4 169 5.5 48.2 -74 177
ADF 41.2 46.4 % - 3.7 28.7 -48 154 4.2 32.2 -55.4 165
Lignin 2.1 2.4 % - 0.9 0.8 -6 188 1 0.7 -5.5 195
Water insoluble cell walls 63 70.9 % - 3.7 60.2 -70.1 19 4.1 67 -79.8 15
Starch 5.1 5.7 % - 2.8 0 -8.7 15 3.2 0 -9.8 20
Total sugars 1.1 1.2 % - 0.8 0.8 -2.3 3 0.9 0.3 -2.5 6
Gross energy (kcal) 3850 4340 kcal/kg - 90 3630 -4130 7 90 4190 -4470 10
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.1 MJ/kg - 0.4 15.2 -17.3 7 0.4 17.5 -18.7 10
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 4.9 5.6 g/kg - 1 2 -8.1 102 1.1 2.2 -9.1 114
Phosphorus 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 1.2 0.7 -3.2 123 1.4 0.4 -16 134
Phytate phosphorus 0.9 1 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 0.6 0.9 -2.4 7 0.7 0.7 -4.2 20
Potassium 11.6 13 g/kg - 2.7 9.4 -14.7 11 3.1 3.5 -17.6 23
Sodium 0.1 0.11 g/kg - 0.15 0 -0.73 13 0.17 0 -0.8 24
Chlorine 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.2 0 -0.6 13
Sulfur 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.1 0.1 0.8 -1.2 10
Dietary cation-anion difference 239 269 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 293 330 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg - 9 8 -37 5 10 9 -43 16
Zinc 43 48 mg/kg - 17 15 -90 16
Copper 7 8 mg/kg - 3 6 -13 5 3 3 -15 17
Iron 594 669 mg/kg - 289 137 -1259 6 326 145 -1401 18
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.2 -0.3 3 0.2 -0.3 3
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.8 0.9 0 -2 10
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.9 2.1 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.2 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 3.9 4.4 g/kg 21.7 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 9.6 10.8 g/kg 53.1 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 7.4 % FA
Fatty acids 1.8 2 g/kg 95 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.96 1.08 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.95 1.07 per kg -
PDIA Systali 34 38 g/kg -
PDI Systali 85 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -28 -32 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.395 0.444 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2560 2880 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1690 1900 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1670 1880 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.7 12.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.1 7.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7 7.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 80.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 78.3 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 56 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 46 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 70 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.98 1.1 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.97 1.09 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 30 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 82 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -24 -28 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.92 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.9 1.02 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 39 44 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 89 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -35 -39 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1 per kg - 0.88 -1.02 2 0.99 -1.11 2
UFV INRA 2007 0.86 0.97 per kg - 0.86 -1.02 2 0.96 -1.11 2
PDIA INRA 2007 39 44 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 71 80 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 96 108 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2440 2750 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.2 11.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.8 % 6.3 69.7-86.7 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 79.7 % 75.6-87.3 4
N digestibility ruminants - 78.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 67 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 85 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 55 % 5 48-61 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 19 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 71 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.06 h-1 0.023-0.063 2
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 43 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 52 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.072 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 43 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 92 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.036 0.009-0.109 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 68.9 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.7 3.1 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1930 2170 kcal/kg - 1 2050 -2720 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 1810 2030 kcal/kg - 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1000 1120 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2680 3020 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 2440 2740 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1430 1610 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 8.1 9.1 MJ/kg - 1 8.6 -11.4 3
ME growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.5 MJ/kg - 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 4.2 4.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.6 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.2 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6 6.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 50.1 % 47.5-64.8 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 69.6 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 53.4 % 52.1-64 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 71 %
N digestibility growing pig - 39.9 %
N digestibility adult pig - 79.1 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 57 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 54 %
Energy digestibility horse - 52.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.44 0.49 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 43 48 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 1420 1600 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 1300 1470 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 5.9 6.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 5.5 6.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 36.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 83.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.3 8.2 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.2 6 -11.4 18 1.4 6.6 -12.3 18 0.4 5.5-7 18
Threonine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.8 3.1 -6.3 18 0.8 3.4 -6.8 18 0.1 3.3-3.7 18
Methionine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2 18 0.3 1.1 -2.2 18 0.2 0.7-1.5 18
Cystine 2.1 2.3 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.4 1.7 -3.5 18 0.5 1.9 -3.8 18 0.2 1.5-2.1 18
Methionine + cystine 3.4 3.9 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.6 2.7 -5.5 18 0.7 2.9 -6 18 0.2 2.3-3.4 18
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 0.3 0.5 -1.4 16 0.3 0.6 -1.5 16 0.2 0.6-1.2 16
Isoleucine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.8 3 -5.9 18 0.8 3.4 -6.4 18 0.2 3.1-4 18
Valine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1 5.4 -7.8 5 0.3 3.9-4.6 5
Leucine 7.1 8 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.3 5.3 -10.7 18 1.5 5.8 -11.6 18 0.2 5.5-6.6 18
Phenylalanine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.9 3.1 -6.7 18 1 3.4 -7.2 18 0.2 3.3-4 18
Tyrosine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.5 -6.3 13 0.9 3.8 -6.8 13 0.1 3.6-4.1 13
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.7 9.8 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 1.7 6.6 -12.9 13 1.9 7.2 -14 13 0.2 7.1-7.8 13
Histidine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.3 -4.2 18 0.5 2.5 -4.5 18 0.2 2.1-2.8 18
Arginine 5.7 6.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.4 3.9 -10.1 18 1.6 4.3 -10.9 18 0.4 4.2-6 18
Alanine 4.8 5.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.9 3.6 -7.1 16 1 3.9 -7.7 16 0.2 3.7-4.5 16
Aspartic acid 10.4 11.7 g/kg 9.1 g/16g N 2.7 10 -17.1 5 3.1 11.3 -18.5 5 0.6 8.5-10.2 5
Glutamic acid 13.3 15 g/kg 11.6 g/16g N 1.8 8.6 -14.5 14 2 9.4 -16.3 14 0.9 9.3-12.6 14
Glycine 8.5 9.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 0.7 7.4 -10.3 18 0.8 8.3 -11.4 18 1 5.8-9.1 18
Serine 5.7 6.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 4.5 -7.3 17 1.1 5 -8 17 0.4 4.2-5.6 17
Proline 5.4 6.1 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 0.9 4.2 -7.4 15 1 4.7 -8 15 0.2 4.3-4.9 15
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 4.9 g/kg 60 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 61 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 71 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 63 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.5 g/kg 66 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 63 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 68 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 61 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 70 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 72 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 64 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.6 g/kg 68 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 58 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.4 g/kg 84 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 56 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 69 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 11 g/kg 74 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 38 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.8 g/kg 59 % 1
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