Wheat distillers grains, starch < 7%, dried

Byproduct of alcohol (ethanol) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. This process uses the whole grain without bran separation, resulting in distillers grains containing less starch (< 7% as fed) than those resulting from a process where the bran is separated before starch extraction and reintroduced at the end. Other names and alternative spellings: wheat DDGS, wheat distillers' grains, wheat distiller's grains.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91.3 100 % - 2.9 80.8 -96.1 393 2.6
Crude protein 32.7 35.9 % - 2.5 24.2 -43.6 461 2.7 27.7 -46.3 387
Crude fibre 7.1 7.8 % - 0.9 4.1 -10.9 350 0.9 4.4 -11.4 284
Crude fat 4.9 5.4 % - 1 2.3 -8.4 185 1.1 2.6 -9.9 171
Ash 5.1 5.6 % - 0.9 3.4 -8 279 0.9 3.6 -8.6 246
Insoluble ash 0.2 0.2 % - 0.03 -0.3 2 0.03 -0.3 2
NDF 32 35.1 % - 6.9 20.5 -48.8 46 7.6 21.8 -52.8 45
ADF 12.8 14 % - 3.4 7.3 -19.8 48 3.7 8 -21.4 46
Lignin 4.9 5.4 % - 2.1 1.7 -9.9 34 2.3 1.9 -10.5 32
Water insoluble cell walls 31.3 34.3 % - 2.7 25.6 -34.4 11 2.9 26.9 -36.5 9
Starch 3.8 4.1 % - 1.5 0.8 -6.9 362 1.6 0.8 -7.8 315
Total sugars 2.7 3 % - 1.8 0.01 -6.4 17 1.9 0.01 -6.9 18
Gross energy (kcal) 4480 4910 kcal/kg - 100 4780 -5150 15
Gross energy (MJ) 18.8 20.5 MJ/kg - 0.4 20 -21.5 15
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.6 1.7 g/kg - 0.8 0.6 -4.6 42 0.9 0.7 -5.2 40
Phosphorus 8 8.7 g/kg - 1.5 5 -11.8 60 1.6 5.7 -12.7 58
Phytate phosphorus 1.2 1.3 g/kg 15 % P 0.6 0.4 -2.3 10 0.7 0.4 -2.4 10 7 4-24 10
Magnesium 3.1 3.4 g/kg - 0.8 2.2 -4.5 6 0.9 2.4 -4.8 6
Potassium 11.4 12.5 g/kg - 2.3 8.5 -17 20 2.5 9.4 -18.7 19
Sodium 4.03 4.41 g/kg - 3.83 0.16 -15.7 80 4.19 0.18 -17.05 77
Chlorine 1.8 2 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -2.4 23 0.4 0.2 -2.6 22
Sulfur 5.1 5.6 g/kg - 2 3.4 -9.1 7 2.2 3.7 -9.7 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 95 104 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 415 454 mEq/kg -
Manganese 68 74 mg/kg - 17 40 -94 6 18 43 -101 6
Zinc 118 130 mg/kg - 67 -168 2 72 -187 2
Copper 9 10 mg/kg - 9 -9 2 10 -10 2
Iron 128 140 mg/kg - 61 82 -261 10 67 90 -290 10
Iodine 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.7 6.2 g/kg 17.8 % FA 1
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 1
C18:1 oleic acid 4.8 5.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA 1
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.9 19.6 g/kg 56.4 % FA 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.9 2.1 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.2 3.5 g/kg 65 % fat
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1 1.1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.97 1.06 per kg -
PDIA Systali 85 93 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 133 146 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 140 153 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.221 0.242 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2730 2990 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1760 1930 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1700 1860 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.4 12.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.4 8.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 7.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 70 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 67 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.03 1.12 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1 1.09 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 73 80 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 123 134 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 151 165 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.95 1.05 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.91 1 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 101 111 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 148 162 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 122 133 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.97 1.06 per kg - 0.07 0.91 -1.09 8 0.07 0.96 -1.19 9
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.01 per kg - 0.08 0.83 -1.06 8 0.09 0.88 -1.16 9
PDIA INRA 2007 90 99 g/kg - 35 28 -135 8 38 31 -143 9
PDIN INRA 2007 218 238 g/kg - 20 174 -237 8 22 189 -250 9
PDIE INRA 2007 136 149 g/kg - 30 82 -179 8 32 89 -189 9
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2690 2940 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.2 12.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.8 % 3.7 70.5-82.2 9
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.8 %
N digestibility ruminants - 76.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 % 13.3 54-93.6 12
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 % 13 48-86 13
Immediately degradable N (a) - 42 % 19 20-75 12
Potentially degradable N (b) - 53 % 18 21-74 12
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.071 h-1 0.059 0.02-0.233 12
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 69 % 8 55-79 12
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 48 % 11 37-69 12
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 44 % 10 24-53 12
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.037 0.023-0.155 12
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.4 5.9 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.9 0.9 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3000 3290 kcal/kg - 280 2660 -3560 10 300 2820 -3870 10
ME growing pig (kcal) 2780 3040 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1750 1910 kcal/kg - 220 1570 -2180 8 230 1660 -2380 8
DE adult pig (kcal) 3190 3490 kcal/kg - 280 2830 -3610 8 290 3000 -3930 8
ME adult pig (kcal) 2900 3180 kcal/kg - 310 2440 -3390 8 340 2590 -3690 8
NE adult pig (kcal) 1870 2050 kcal/kg - 160 1780 -2240 8 170 1890 -2400 8
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.6 13.8 MJ/kg - 1.2 11.2 -14.9 10 1.3 11.8 -16.2 10
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.6 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.3 8 MJ/kg - 0.9 6.6 -9.1 8 1 6.9 -10 8
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.3 14.6 MJ/kg - 1.2 11.8 -15.1 8 1.2 12.5 -16.4 8
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.2 13.3 MJ/kg - 1.3 10.2 -14.2 8 1.4 10.8 -15.4 8
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.8 8.6 MJ/kg - 0.7 7.5 -9.4 8 0.7 7.9 -10.1 8
Energy digestibility growing pig - 67 % 6.5 56.3-77.4 11
Energy digestibility adult pig - 71.2 % 5.7 59.7-77.1 8
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 71.1 % 12.4 51.7-87.8 10
N digestibility adult pig - 74.5 % 11.4 56.3-86.5 8
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 55.8 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2020 2220 kcal/kg - 170 2010 -2440 9 180 2150 -2630 9
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1980 2170 kcal/kg - 160 1910 -2370 8 170 2040 -2500 8
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.5 9.3 MJ/kg - 0.7 8.4 -10.2 9 0.7 9 -11 9
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.1 MJ/kg - 0.7 8 -9.9 8 0.7 8.5 -10.5 8
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 71 %
Energy digestibility horse - 68.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.77 0.84 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 257 282 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3170 3470 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2890 3160 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 70.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 69.6 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.9 7.5 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 2.4 2.2 -11.4 43 2.7 2.4 -12.7 40 0.6 0.8-3.3 43
Threonine 10.2 11.2 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -13.7 30 1.2 9.3 -14.3 28 0.3 2.7-4.1 31
Methionine 5.1 5.5 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.9 4 -7 29 0.9 4.4 -8 27 0.2 1.3-2 30
Cystine 6.5 7.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1.4 3.3 -9.7 29 1.5 3.7 -11.1 26 0.3 1.1-3 30
Methionine + cystine 11.5 12.6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 2.4 7.3 -16.7 28 2.6 8 -19.1 27 0.4 2.4-4.7 29
Tryptophan 3.4 3.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -4 16 0.4 3 -4.4 15 0.09 0.8-1.1 16
Isoleucine 11.3 12.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1.3 10.1 -15.2 28 1.4 11.1 -16.6 26 0.1 3.2-4 29
Valine 14.2 15.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.7 12.6 -19.2 28 1.8 13.8 -20.9 25 0.1 4-4.6 29
Leucine 21.2 23.2 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 2.5 17.7 -27.7 28 2.7 19.4 -30.1 25 0.2 5.8-6.9 29
Phenylalanine 14.6 16 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 2 12.8 -20.4 27 2.2 13.9 -22.2 25 0.2 4.2-4.9 28
Tyrosine 9.7 10.6 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.2 8.5 -12.4 15 1.3 9.3 -13.5 13 0.1 2.8-3.1 15
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 24.3 26.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 3.6 21.4 -32.7 15 3.9 23.4 -35.7 13 0.2 7-7.7 15
Histidine 6.8 7.4 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 5.2 -9.4 27 1.1 5.7 -10.2 25 0.2 1.7-2.2 27
Arginine 14 15.3 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.4 13.1 -18.4 25 1.5 14.2 -20.1 23 0.3 3.7-4.6 26
Alanine 11.9 13.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.3 11.2 -16.2 25 1.4 12 -17.7 22 0.2 3.3-4.1 26
Aspartic acid 16.2 17.8 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.8 14.1 -21.5 24 1.9 15.5 -22.5 21 0.3 4.3-5.6 25
Glutamic acid 84.2 92.2 g/kg 25.7 g/16g N 11.2 68.1 -114 22 12.1 73.8 -120 19 1.5 22.6-28.5 22
Glycine 13 14.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.6 11.4 -17.8 24 1.8 12.5 -19.2 21 0.2 3.7-4.4 25
Serine 14.5 15.9 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.7 11.9 -20.3 25 1.9 13 -21.2 22 0.3 3.8-5 26
Proline 20.7 22.7 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 4.9 g/kg 65 % 8 64-83 7
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 8.9 g/kg 79 % 9 60-87 10
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.6 g/kg 83 % 14 46-87 10
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 81 % 11 56-90 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 9.5 10.4 g/kg 82 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3 g/kg 80 % 9 63-88 10
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 9 9.9 g/kg 80 % 10 55-83 10
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 11.5 12.5 g/kg 81 % 10 58-87 10
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 17.9 19.6 g/kg 84 % 8 66-91 10
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 12.9 14.1 g/kg 88 % 6 75-93 10
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 8.8 g/kg 83 % 7 70-91 9
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 21 22.9 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.1 g/kg 82 % 9 64-90 10
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 12.1 13.3 g/kg 87 % 8 69-92 10
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 10 g/kg 76 % 10 56-83 9
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12.6 13.8 g/kg 77 % 12 49-82 9
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 75.5 82.7 g/kg 90 % 6 75-93 9
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 10.3 11.3 g/kg 79 % 9 60-86 9
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 12.2 13.4 g/kg 84 % 11 57-85 9
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 17.9 19.6 g/kg 86 % 6 78-95 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.4 g/kg 46 % 15 24-71 16
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.1 6.7 g/kg 60 % 10 42-76 19
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 74 % 7 57-84 19
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.3 g/kg 61 % 12 30-77 19
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.4 g/kg 67 % 3 63-74 11
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 65 % 14 43-78 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 8.6 g/kg 70 % 9 47-84 19
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.4 g/kg 67 % 11 47-85 19
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.7 17.2 g/kg 74 % 8 55-86 19
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.9 13 g/kg 81 % 8 64-90 19
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.1 g/kg 67 % 11 51-77 8
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 18.4 20.1 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 4.9 g/kg 66 % 10 48-83 19
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.4 g/kg 68 % 11 42-81 19
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.2 g/kg 63 % 10 42-79 18
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.5 g/kg 48 % 13 27-68 18
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 69.1 75.7 g/kg 82 % 7 65-92 18
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.4 g/kg 59 % 5 50-66 10
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.8 10.8 g/kg 68 % 9 51-81 18
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 16.8 18.4 g/kg 81 % 7 64-91 18
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 9.57 10.48 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.02 2.21 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 603 660 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0082 0.009 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.92 6.49 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.98 1.07 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML