Lupin, white

Seed of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). White lupin is a white-flowered grain legume cultivated for its seeds for animal feed and human consumption.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.1 100 % - 6 77.1 -94.6 377 5.6
Crude protein 33.4 37.9 % - 3.4 24.8 -46.1 318 3.5 23.8 -51.1 323
Crude fibre 12 13.7 % - 1.8 7.1 -18.2 259 2 8.2 -21.4 247
Crude fat 8.4 9.6 % - 1.7 3.7 -11.9 152 1.9 2.2 -14.3 134
Ash 3.5 4 % - 0.4 2.2 -5 244 0.4 2.4 -5.5 244
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.2 % - 0.2 0.01 -0.6 6 0.2 0.01 -0.7 6
NDF 19.3 21.9 % - 2.6 14.5 -27.4 76 2.8 16.4 -30.5 88
ADF 14.5 16.4 % - 2 9.9 -21.1 64 2.1 11.3 -23.3 76
Lignin 0.9 1 % - 0.4 0.3 -1.8 29 0.5 0.3 -2.2 38
Water insoluble cell walls 30.2 34.3 % - 2.3 27.2 -38.4 41 2.2 30.1 -39.8 40
Starch 7.1 8.1 % - 2.8 0 -14.6 127 3.1 0 -14 111
Total sugars 5.9 6.8 % - 1.1 3.6 -8.3 23 1.2 4.1 -10.4 25
Gross energy (kcal) 4460 5060 kcal/kg - 180 4270 -4700 23 60 4870 -5130 29
Gross energy (MJ) 18.7 21.2 MJ/kg - 0.8 17.9 -19.7 23 0.3 20.4 -21.5 29
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.7 3 g/kg - 1.4 0.9 -6 44 1.6 1 -8.7 36
Phosphorus 3.8 4.3 g/kg - 0.7 2.7 -5.1 51 0.8 1.3 -5.6 44
Phytate phosphorus 2.3 2.6 g/kg 60 % P 1 1 1
Magnesium 1.4 1.6 g/kg - 0.2 1.2 -1.8 16 0.2 1.3 -2 15
Potassium 10.2 11.5 g/kg - 1.6 7.7 -12.7 17 1.8 8.4 -14.9 16
Sodium 0.29 0.33 g/kg - 0.14 0.13 -0.55 13 0.16 0.16 -0.6 12
Chlorine 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.4 -0.5 3 0.5 -0.5 3
Sulfur 2.5 2.8 g/kg - 2.3 -2.5 2
Dietary cation-anion difference 106 120 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 260 295 mEq/kg -
Manganese 1154 1310 mg/kg - 1073 17 -3750 13 1218 19 -4135 12
Zinc 33 38 mg/kg - 6 23 -43 8 7 26 -48 7
Copper 7 8 mg/kg - 0.7 5 -12 7
Iron 62 70 mg/kg - 29 32 -115 11 33 34 -126 10
Selenium 0.07 0.09 mg/kg - 0.07 -0.1 2 0.08 -0.1 2
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.8 5.5 g/kg 6.3 % FA 1.2 5.5-8.5 5
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 4 0 -0 4 0-0 4
C18:0 stearic acid 1 1.1 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.6 0.5 -1.8 5 0.7 0.6 -2 5 0.7 0.6-2.2 5
C18:1 oleic acid 36.9 41.8 g/kg 48.6 % FA 6.3 43.5-58.8 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 14.2 16.1 g/kg 18.7 % FA 3.5 11.6 -21.2 5 3.9 13 -23 5 3 14-20.9 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 6.6 7.5 g/kg 8.7 % FA 1.2 6.2 -9.2 5 1.3 7 -10 5 1.6 7.4-11.2 5
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 1 % FA 0.9-1.1 4
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 3.1 3.5 g/kg 4.1 % FA 3.6-4.6 4
C22:0 behenic acid 2.3 2.6 g/kg 2.7 % FA 2.3 -2.8 4 2.5 -3 4 2.7-2.8 4
C22:1 erucic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 1.2 % FA 0.9 -1.8 4 1 -2 4 0.9-1.9 4
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 4 0 -0 4 0-0 4
Fatty acids 7.6 8.6 g/kg 90 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 7 8 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.05 0.06 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 140 160 IU/kg - 1 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.26 1.43 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.29 1.46 per kg -
PDIA Systali 57 64 g/kg -
PDI Systali 109 124 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 177 200 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.16 0.182 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 3280 3720 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2220 2520 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2270 2570 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 13.7 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 9.3 10.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 9.5 10.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 88.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 89.3 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 81 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 1.5 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 6.4 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.28 1.46 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.32 1.5 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 49 55 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 102 116 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 183 208 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.21 1.38 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.23 1.39 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 70 80 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 121 137 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 163 186 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.17 1.33 per kg - 1 1
UFV INRA 2007 1.16 1.32 per kg - 1 1
PDIA INRA 2007 46 52 g/kg - 38 12 -52 3 43 13 -161 12
PDIN INRA 2007 209 237 g/kg - 25 199 -291 12
PDIE INRA 2007 105 119 g/kg - 40 81 -219 12
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3120 3540 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.1 14.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.7 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90.6 % 1
N digestibility ruminants - 79.9 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 89 % 63.2-99.5 4
NDF digestibility ruminants - 88 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 86 % 13 61-95 17
Immediately degradable N (a) - 66 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 29 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.125 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 9 63-83 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 37 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 60 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.11 h-1 0.058-0.14 2
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.8 3.1 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.6 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3560 4050 kcal/kg - 250 3380 -3900 5 240 3740 -4330 5
ME growing pig (kcal) 3330 3780 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2200 2490 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3790 4300 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3490 3960 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2330 2650 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.9 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 14.1 -16.3 5 1 15.6 -18.1 5
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.9 15.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.2 10.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.9 18 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.8 11.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 79.9 % 4 74.2-84.5 5
Energy digestibility adult pig - 85 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 81.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 87 %
N digestibility growing pig - 82.8 % 80-88.6 4
N digestibility adult pig - 86.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 70.1 % 69.5-78.5 2
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.9 2.2 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (kcal) 2400 2720 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (kcal) 2340 2660 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (MJ) 10 11.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (MJ) 9.8 11.1 MJ/kg -
Available P broiler 0.9 1 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 84 %
Energy digestibility horse - 80.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.97 1.1 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 258 293 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3150 3580 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2760 3140 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.6 13.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 70.6 %
N digestibility rabbit - 96.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 16.3 18.5 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.8 12.5 -18.5 41 2 13.3 -23 66 0.4 3.9-5.7 66
Threonine 12.4 14.1 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1.3 9.8 -14.1 30 1.4 10.3 -17 57 0.4 3-4.5 57
Methionine 2.6 3 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 0.4 1.3 -3.4 35 0.5 1.5 -3.9 61 0.2 0.4-1.2 61
Cystine 5.5 6.3 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.7 3.1 -7.1 30 0.8 3.6 -8.7 55 0.3 1-2.3 55
Methionine + cystine 8.2 9.3 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.8 6.9 -9.1 26 0.8 7.5 -11.4 51 0.3 1.8-3.3 51
Tryptophan 2.3 2.7 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 1.7 -3.2 14 0.4 1.9 -3.6 39 0.1 0.5-1 39
Isoleucine 15.5 17.6 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 2.6 10.3 -17.3 26 2.9 11.2 -22.5 53 0.5 3.1-5 53
Valine 14.4 16.4 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 2 9.7 -16.1 27 2.2 10.7 -20.4 53 0.4 3.2-5 53
Leucine 24.3 27.6 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 3.1 17.9 -27.4 27 3.3 18.5 -34.2 54 0.5 5.7-8.2 54
Phenylalanine 13 14.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.8 11 -14.3 25 1.9 9.9 -18.8 52 0.3 3.1-4.7 52
Tyrosine 15.6 17.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.9 9.3 -19 21 3.2 10.1 -23.3 48 0.5 2.9-5 48
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 28.6 32.4 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 4.7 21.4 -33.2 16 5.2 19.9 -42 42 0.6 6.6-9.2 42
Histidine 7.3 8.3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1.1 6.1 -11.8 26 1.2 5.8 -13.2 53 0.3 1.9-3.5 53
Arginine 35.9 40.8 g/kg 10.8 g/16g N 7.9 26.1 -41.5 26 8.8 18.6 -59.4 53 1.3 7.7-12.5 53
Alanine 11.3 12.8 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.3 9.2 -13.9 22 1.4 9.9 -15.6 49 0.3 2.6-4.2 49
Aspartic acid 35.5 40.3 g/kg 10.6 g/16g N 5.4 26.7 -38.7 23 6 24.6 -52.3 50 0.7 8.4-11.5 50
Glutamic acid 69.3 78.7 g/kg 20.7 g/16g N 12 54.7 -83.5 23 13.2 44.7 -103 50 1.7 17.1-24.2 50
Glycine 13.2 15 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.6 9.9 -14.8 23 1.8 10.7 -18.7 50 0.3 3.2-4.6 50
Serine 17.9 20.3 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 3 12.8 -19.9 20 3.3 12.9 -25.4 47 0.6 4-6.1 47
Proline 14.1 16 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 2.4 9.8 -15.1 21 2.6 10.2 -20.4 48 0.4 3.1-4.5 48
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 13.4 15.2 g/kg 82 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 9.7 11 g/kg 78 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 76 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 76 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7 g/kg 76 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 13.4 15.2 g/kg 87 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 10.6 12.1 g/kg 74 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 20.8 23.6 g/kg 86 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 11.2 12.7 g/kg 86 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 13.9 15.8 g/kg 89 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 25.1 28.5 g/kg 88 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7.1 g/kg 86 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 33.3 37.8 g/kg 93 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.3 9.4 g/kg 73 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 30.5 34.6 g/kg 86 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 62.2 70.6 g/kg 90 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 9.7 11.1 g/kg 74 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 14.8 16.8 g/kg 83 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 11.8 13.4 g/kg 84 % 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.2 16.1 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.1 11.4 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 81 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.6 7.5 g/kg 81 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 13 14.8 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.8 13.4 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.6 23.4 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12.6 g/kg 85 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.9 14.7 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 24 27.2 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 81 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 32.3 36.7 g/kg 90 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.4 10.7 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 29.1 33.1 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 61.7 70 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.7 12.2 g/kg 81 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.6 16.6 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12.6 g/kg 79 %
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