Maize germ meal, oil < 5%

Byproduct of oil manufacture, obtained by extraction of maize germs (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent germs to which parts of the endosperm and outer skins may still adhere. This product has a low content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure followed by solvent extraction. Other name: corn germ meal (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 2.8 84.1 -97.1 667 2.6
Crude protein 24 27.3 % - 1.6 19.3 -27.9 100 1.7 20.6 -32 98
Crude fibre 8.9 10.1 % - 0.8 6.4 -11.4 649 0.9 7 -12.8 636
Crude fat 2.4 2.8 % - 0.7 0.6 -5 362 0.8 0.7 -5.6 352
Ash 3 3.4 % - 1 1.5 -7.5 275 1.1 1.6 -8 274
Insoluble ash 1.6 1.8 % - 1.8 -1.9 3
NDF 37.4 42.6 % - 9.2 25.7 -54.4 8 10.5 29.4 -61.1 10
ADF 10.4 11.8 % - 1.6 8.4 -12.8 7 1.9 9.8 -14.7 9
Lignin 2 2.3 % - 0.9 0.8 -4 14 1 0.9 -4.5 15
Water insoluble cell walls 38.2 43.6 % -
Starch 17.5 19.9 % - 2.6 9.6 -30.9 377 3 11 -32.9 372
Total sugars 1.2 1.4 % - 0.8 0.5 -3.1 26 0.9 0.6 -3.6 23
Gross energy (kcal) 4060 4630 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.4 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.6 g/kg - 0.6 0.1 -2.5 25 0.7 0.1 -2.8 25
Phosphorus 5.8 6.6 g/kg - 1.4 3.7 -8.7 28 1.6 4.2 -9.7 28
Phytate phosphorus 4.3 5 g/kg 75 % P 1
Magnesium 2.7 3.1 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 3.4 3.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.4 0.45 g/kg - 0.35 -0.75 4 0.41 -0.84 4
Chlorine 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
Sulfur 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 1 1
Dietary cation-anion difference -68 -78 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 68 78 mEq/kg -
Manganese 17 19 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 132 150 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 12 14 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 753 857 mg/kg - 1 1
Selenium 0.5 0.6 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.9 2.2 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.8 5.4 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.8 12.3 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 1.8 2.1 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 83 94 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.98 1.12 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.97 1.1 per kg -
PDIA Systali 94 107 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 140 160 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 48 55 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.325 0.37 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2640 3000 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1730 1970 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1700 1930 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11 12.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.2 8.2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 8.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 79.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 78.7 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.9 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1 1.14 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.99 1.13 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 81 93 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 130 148 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 60 68 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.92 1.04 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 110 126 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 155 177 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.95 1.08 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.05 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 114 129 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 177 202 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 154 176 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2600 2960 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.9 12.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 75.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 51 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 3 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 90 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.07 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 69.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.9 4.5 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.7 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2990 3400 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2800 3190 kcal/kg - 3150 -3420 2
NE growing pig (kcal) 1830 2080 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3130 3570 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2890 3290 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1930 2190 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.5 14.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.7 13.4 MJ/kg - 13.2 -14.3 2
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.1 14.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.1 9.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73.5 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 77 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 76.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 80 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.9 %
N digestibility adult pig - 72.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 68 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 25.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.2 1.3 g/kg 20 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1780 2030 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1740 1980 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.4 8.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 73 %
Energy digestibility horse - 69.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.75 0.85 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 178 202 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2970 3380 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2770 3150 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 73 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 67.2 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Threonine 8 9.2 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.3 7.4 -9.6 8 0.3 8.3 -9.3 7 0.2 3.4-3.8 8
Methionine 4 4.5 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.2 3.6 -4.6 8 0.08 1.6-1.8 8
Cystine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 8.3 9.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Tryptophan 1.8 2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.6 1.4 -2.9 5 1.6 -2 4 0.2 0.7-1 5
Isoleucine 7.4 8.4 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 8.4 -9.4 4
Valine 11.1 12.6 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.5 11 -14.9 5 12.6 -14.5 4
Leucine 17.4 19.9 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 1.3 16.6 -19.8 5 18.6 -22.6 4 1 6.7-9.3 5
Phenylalanine 8.3 9.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Tyrosine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 14 15.9 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N
Histidine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.6 5.6 -7.2 5 0.2 2.6-3 5
Arginine 10.2 11.6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N
Alanine 14.7 16.7 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 12.3 -16 4
Aspartic acid 13 14.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 32.3 36.8 g/kg 13.5 g/16g N 25.4 -35.7 4 11.5-13.6 4
Glycine 10.2 11.6 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Serine 9.5 10.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 7.2 -12.3 4 3.2-4.5 4
Proline 18.3 20.8 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.9 g/kg 61 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.5 g/kg 71 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 81 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 6.9 g/kg 73 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.4 g/kg 71 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 74 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 9 g/kg 72 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 13.3 15.2 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.7 7.6 g/kg 81 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5.1 g/kg 78 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 11.1 12.7 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 84 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.8 g/kg 84 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 11.9 g/kg 71 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.9 g/kg 60 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.3 27.7 g/kg 75 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.2 g/kg 63 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 8.2 g/kg 75 % 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 62 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 62 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 71 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.7 g/kg 54 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.9 g/kg 62 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.3 g/kg 67 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 66 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.1 8.1 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.5 13.1 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.5 g/kg 69 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.3 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.8 g/kg 68 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 63 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.7 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.9 g/kg 65 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 62 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19.7 22.4 g/kg 61 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.2 g/kg 62 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 59 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 11.7 13.3 g/kg 64 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 7.4 8.43 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.6 0.68 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 628 715 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0077 0.0087 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 20.63 23.49 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.28 0.32 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML