Maize germ meal, oil < 5%

Byproduct of oil manufacture, obtained by extraction of maize germs (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent germs to which parts of the endosperm and outer skins may still adhere. This product has a low content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure followed by solvent extraction. Other name: corn germ meal (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 1.6 84.1 -97.1 665 2.6
Crude protein 23.7 27 % - 1.6 19.3 -27.9 104 1.7 20.6 -32 102
Crude fibre 8.9 10.1 % - 0.8 6.4 -11.4 655 0.9 7 -13.1 642
Crude fat 2.4 2.7 % - 0.7 0.6 -5 357 0.8 0.7 -5.6 347
Ash 3 3.4 % - 0.9 1.7 -7.5 271 1 1.8 -8 270
Insoluble ash 1.6 1.8 % - 1.8 -1.9 3
NDF 37.4 42.6 % - 9.2 25.7 -54.4 8 10.5 29.4 -61.1 10
ADF 10.4 11.9 % - 1.6 8.4 -12.8 7 1.9 9.8 -14.7 9
Lignin 2 2.3 % - 0.9 0.8 -4 14 1 0.9 -4.5 15
Water insoluble cell walls 38.3 43.6 % -
Starch 17.8 20.3 % - 2.5 9.6 -30.9 376 2.8 11.2 -32.9 371
Starch, enzymatic method 16.6 18.9 % -
Total sugars 0.9 1 % - 0.4 0.5 -2 22 0.5 0.6 -2.2 19
Gross energy (kcal) 4060 4620 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.4 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.6 0.1 -2.5 24 0.7 0.1 -2.8 24
Phosphorus 5.8 6.6 g/kg - 1.4 3.7 -8.7 24 1.6 4.2 -9.7 24
Phytate phosphorus 4 4.6 g/kg 70 % P 1 67-73 2
Magnesium 2.7 3.1 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 3.4 3.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.4 0.45 g/kg - 0.35 -0.75 4 0.41 -0.84 4
Chlorine 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
Sulfur 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 1 1
Dietary cation-anion difference -68 -78 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 68 78 mEq/kg -
Manganese 17 19 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 68 77 mg/kg - 1 1
Copper 12 14 mg/kg - 1 1
Iron 753 857 mg/kg - 1 1
Selenium 0.5 0.6 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.9 2.2 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 4.7 5.4 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.7 12.2 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1.8 2 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 82.5 94 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1 1.14 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.99 1.13 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 93 106 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 140 159 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 46 53 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.324 0.37 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2680 3050 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1760 2000 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1740 1980 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11 12.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.2 8.2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 8.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 80.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 79.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.9 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.02 1.16 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.01 1.15 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 81 92 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 129 147 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 57 65 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.96 1.09 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.94 1.07 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 109 125 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 154 176 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 30 34 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.97 1.1 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.95 1.08 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.05 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 113 128 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 176 200 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 154 175 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2630 3000 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.9 12.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11 12.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 75.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 51 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 3 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 90 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.07 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 69 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.9 4.5 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.7 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 964 1098 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1030 1173 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 148 168 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 36 41 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.3 4.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 66.8 76.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.13 3.56 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.59 1.82 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.71 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.73 1.97 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.16 1.32 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 45 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 53 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.8 7.8 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 214 243 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 4 4 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2840 3240 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2670 3040 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1770 2020 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3010 3430 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2770 3160 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1870 2130 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.5 14.2 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.9 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.7 13.4 MJ/kg - 13.2 -14.3 2
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.4 8.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.1 14.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 14.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.1 9.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 70 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 74.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 72.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 76.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.2 %
N digestibility adult pig - 72.4 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 68 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 60 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.1 1.3 g/kg 20 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.7 2 g/kg 30 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1780 2020 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1740 1980 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.4 8.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.4 8.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Available P cockerel 1.4 1.6 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.4 1.6 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 72.5 %
Energy digestibility horse - 69.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.75 0.85 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 175 200 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2960 3380 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2770 3150 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 73 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 67.1 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2440 2780 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 10.2 11.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 60 %
N digestibility salmonids - 85.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.1 8 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Threonine 8 9.1 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.3 7.4 -9.6 8 0.3 8.3 -9.3 7 0.2 3.4-3.8 8
Methionine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.2 3.6 -4.6 8 0.2 4 -4.5 7 0.08 1.6-1.8 8
Cystine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 8.2 9.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Tryptophan 1.7 2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.6 1.4 -2.9 5 1.6 -2 4 0.2 0.7-1 5
Isoleucine 7.4 8.4 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N
Valine 11 12.5 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Leucine 17.3 19.7 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 1.3 16.6 -19.8 5 18.6 -22.6 4 1 6.7-9.3 5
Phenylalanine 8.2 9.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N
Tyrosine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 13.9 15.8 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N
Histidine 6.6 7.6 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.6 5.6 -7.2 5 0.2 2.6-3 5
Arginine 10.2 11.6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N
Alanine 14.5 16.6 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 12.3 -16 4
Aspartic acid 12.9 14.7 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 32 36.5 g/kg 13.5 g/16g N 25.4 -35.7 4 11.5-13.6 4
Glycine 10.1 11.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Serine 9.5 10.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 7.2 -12.3 4 3.2-4.5 4
Proline 18 20.6 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.9 g/kg 61 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 71 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 81 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.9 g/kg 73 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.4 g/kg 71 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 74 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 9 g/kg 72 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 13.2 15.1 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.5 g/kg 81 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 78 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 11 12.6 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 84 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.5 9.7 g/kg 84 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.3 11.8 g/kg 71 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 60 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.1 27.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.2 g/kg 63 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8.1 g/kg 75 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 12.9 14.7 g/kg 71 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 62 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 62 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 71 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 54 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 62 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.3 g/kg 67 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.5 g/kg 66 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 8 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.4 13 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.5 g/kg 69 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 66 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.4 10.7 g/kg 68 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 63 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.6 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.8 g/kg 65 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.1 g/kg 62 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19.5 22.3 g/kg 61 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 62 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 59 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 11.6 13.2 g/kg 64 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.87 3.27 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.59 0.68 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 192 219 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0032 0.0036 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 13.84 15.76 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML