Wheat, durum

Grains of durum wheat (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Durum wheat is normally used for the production of pasta and semolina.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 2.3 79.1 -90.5 173 2.1
Crude protein 14.3 16.3 % - 1.3 10.2 -19.5 145 1.5 11.8 -21.5 165
Crude fibre 2.7 3 % - 0.5 2.1 -4.1 52 0.5 2.4 -4.6 52
Crude fat 1.8 2 % - 0.3 1.2 -2.8 35 0.3 1.3 -3.2 35
Ash 1.9 2.1 % - 0.3 1.4 -2.8 44 0.4 1.6 -3.2 68
NDF 13.9 15.9 % -
ADF 3.6 4.2 % - 3.1 -4.3 4
Lignin 1.1 1.3 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 10.2 11.7 % - 1
Starch 56.3 64.1 % - 3 48.1 -62.4 113 3.2 56.3 -70.1 107
Total sugars 2.8 3.2 % - 0.9 1.4 -3.8 12 1 1.7 -4.3 11
Gross energy (kcal) 3880 4420 kcal/kg - 1
Gross energy (MJ) 16.2 18.5 MJ/kg - 1
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.5 0.3 -1.6 15 0.5 0.3 -1.8 15
Phosphorus 3.4 3.9 g/kg - 0.5 3 -4.5 21 0.6 3.3 -5.3 21
Phytate phosphorus 2.2 2.5 g/kg 65 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 4.3 4.9 g/kg -
Sodium 0.1 0.11 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.5 1.7 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference -4 -4 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 92 105 mEq/kg -
Manganese 31 35 mg/kg -
Zinc 27 31 mg/kg -
Copper 4 5 mg/kg -
Iron 49 56 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.02 0.02 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.4 2.7 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 2 2.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 7.5 8.6 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 1.3 1.5 g/kg 75 % fat
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 1.6 mL/g 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.05 1.19 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.06 1.21 per kg -
PDIA Systali 31 36 g/kg -
PDI Systali 84 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 14 15 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.129 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2750 3140 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1840 2100 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1870 2130 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.7 8.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 86.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 84.1 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 76 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 77 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 90 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.07 1.21 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.08 1.23 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 26 30 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 81 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 16 18 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.01 1.15 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.02 1.16 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 89 102 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 8 9 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.03 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 35 39 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 95 108 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 96 110 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2750 3130 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 72.8 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 27 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 67 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 58 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 42 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.39 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 52 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 42 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.12 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 65.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.8 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.3 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3330 3790 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3210 3650 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2470 2810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3400 3870 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3260 3720 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2510 2860 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.9 15.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 87.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 88.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 90 %
N digestibility growing pig - 82.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 85.5 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 31.9 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2990 3410 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2890 3290 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.5 14.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
Available P broiler 2 2.2 g/kg 58 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.06 1.2 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 101 116 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3190 3630 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3040 3470 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.3 15.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 82.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 76.5 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Threonine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N
Cystine 3.1 3.6 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Tryptophan 1.6 1.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.2 5.9 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 6.1 7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.7 11 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4.5 5.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.5 13.1 g/kg 8 g/16g N
Histidine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 6.9 7.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 7.1 8.1 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 44 50.1 g/kg 30.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 7.2 8.1 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 15 17.1 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.4 g/kg 81 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 83 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 91 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 90 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 88 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.2 g/kg 89 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 86 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.2 g/kg 91 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 90 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 11.9 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 90 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 6.9 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 80 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.8 g/kg 83 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 42 47.8 g/kg 95 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 86 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.3 g/kg 89 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 14.3 16.3 g/kg 95 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 82 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.9 g/kg 82 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.3 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 87 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.2 g/kg 89 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 87 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.8 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.1 g/kg 90 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.1 11.5 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.5 g/kg 83 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.6 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.7 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 41.8 47.6 g/kg 95 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.4 g/kg 84 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.2 g/kg 88 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 14.1 16.1 g/kg 94 %
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