Cassava, starch 66-70%

Dried cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz), containing 66-70% starch (as fed). Cassava roots are usually provided as chips, pellets or meal (ground chips).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.7 100 % - 2.8 82.6 -97.5 1003 2.6
Crude protein 2.5 2.9 % - 0.7 0.6 -6.1 476 0.8 0.7 -7 509
Crude fibre 3.8 4.3 % - 0.9 1.5 -7.9 875 1 1.8 -8.7 899
Crude fat 0.6 0.7 % - 0.3 0.2 -1.6 154 0.3 0.1 -1.9 186
Ash 3.9 4.5 % - 1.6 0.9 -8 700 1.9 1.1 -9.2 704
Insoluble ash 1.2 1.4 % - 1.3 -4.7 354 1.5 -5.4 283
NDF 7.8 8.9 % - 2.4 2.7 -11.7 24 2.7 3.1 -13.9 55
ADF 5.2 6 % - 1.7 1.6 -7.1 24 1.9 1.8 -8.9 52
Lignin 1.4 1.6 % - 0.8 -3.8 11 0.9 -4.2 41
Water insoluble cell walls 7.1 8.1 % - 1
Starch 68.4 77.9 % - 2.1 66 -70 828 2 71.3 -85 753
Total sugars 2.1 2.4 % - 0.9 0.4 -4.4 37 1 0.5 -5 41
Gross energy (kcal) 3510 4000 kcal/kg - 110 3340 -3920 22 100 3770 -4350 50
Gross energy (MJ) 14.7 16.8 MJ/kg - 0.5 14 -16.4 22 0.4 15.8 -18.2 50
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 0.8 0.2 -4.3 121 0.9 0.2 -5 128
Phosphorus 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.1 -1.8 111 0.4 0.2 -2 119
Phytate phosphorus 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P 25-29 2
Magnesium 0.7 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.2 -1.4 58 0.3 0.2 -1.8 60
Potassium 8.9 10.1 g/kg - 3.2 2.9 -20.2 70 3.7 3.4 -21.8 69
Sodium 0.35 0.4 g/kg - 0.33 0.06 -0.85 17 0.38 0.07 -1.4 17
Chlorine 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.05 0.2 -0.5 13 0.06 0.2 -0.4 11
Sulfur 2.7 3.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 65 74 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 235 268 mEq/kg -
Manganese 23 26 mg/kg - 9 20 -43 6
Zinc 32 36 mg/kg - 45 7 -116 5
Copper 4 4 mg/kg - 1 2 -6 6
Iron 146 166 mg/kg - 137 8 -351 6
Selenium 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.04 0.05 mg/kg - 1
Molybdenum 0.05 0.06 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.6 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 3.9 % FA 1 0.2-7.6 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.1 g/kg 1.7 % FA 1 0-3.3 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 31.9 % FA 1 28.6-35.1 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.7 % FA 1 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 2.9 % FA 1 2-3.7 2
C18:1 oleic acid 1.7 2 g/kg 35.2 % FA 1 33.2-37.1 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 16.4 % FA 1 14.6-18.1 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 7.6 % FA 1 4.2-11 2
Fatty acids 0.5 0.6 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 1 1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 3 4 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.95 1.08 per kg -
PDIA Systali 9 11 g/kg -
PDI Systali 59 67 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -76 -86 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.072 0.082 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2480 2820 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1660 1890 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1670 1910 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.9 7.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 86.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 82 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 56 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 83 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 78 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.95 1.09 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.97 1.1 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 9 10 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 60 69 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -78 -89 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.91 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.91 1.04 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 10 12 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 58 66 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -74 -84 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 10 11 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 18 20 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 63 72 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2500 2850 kcal/kg - 160 180 2740 -3090 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.5 11.9 MJ/kg - 0.7 0.7 11.5 -12.9 5
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 32.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 59 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 47 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 28 % 27-34 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.045 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 73 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.04 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 76 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 23 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 41.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.5 0.5 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.9 1 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3140 3580 kcal/kg - 130 2980 -3270 9 130 3360 -3680 9
ME growing pig (kcal) 3090 3520 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2480 2830 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3210 3660 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3140 3580 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2520 2870 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg - 0.5 12.5 -13.7 9 0.5 14.1 -15.4 9
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.9 14.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 89.4 % 2.2 84.6-91.3 9
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89 % 1.3 89-92.6 8
OM digestibility adult pig - 91 %
N digestibility growing pig - 30 % 17.8 22.4-78.9 9
N digestibility adult pig - 45.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.09 0.1 g/kg 10 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3060 3490 kcal/kg - 3300 -3490 4
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3060 3490 kcal/kg - 230 2950 -3530 4 260 3200 -3780 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg - 13.8 -14.6 4
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.8 4 1.1 13.4 -15.8 5
Available P cockerel 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 85 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.01 1.16 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 8 9 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2920 3330 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2890 3300 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 52.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 1 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -2.1 16 0.5 0.6 -2.4 16 0.6 2.3-4.9 16
Threonine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 4 0.3 0.5 -1.3 6 0.5 2.6-3.8 6
Methionine 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.2 0.2 -0.7 7 0.2 0.1 -0.8 7 0.4 0.8-1.9 9
Cystine 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.2 -0.5 4 0.2 -0.6 4 0.4 0.8-1.9 6
Methionine + cystine 0.9 1 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.4 -1.2 4 0.4 -1.3 4 0.9 1.7-3.8 6
Tryptophan 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 1
Isoleucine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.3 -1.2 6 0.4 0.3 -1.3 6 0.3 2.5-3.3 8
Valine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 5 0.4 0.5 -1.3 5 0.5 3.5-5.1 7
Leucine 1.3 1.5 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 0.6 0.5 -2.2 6 0.7 0.6 -2.5 6 0.7 4.2-6.1 8
Phenylalanine 0.9 1 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 0.3 -1.4 6 0.5 0.3 -1.6 6 0.5 2.3-3.9 8
Tyrosine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.5 1.6-2.7 5
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 0.8 4.3-6.2 5
Histidine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.5 0.3 -1.3 5 0.6 0.2 -1.5 5 1.5 1.3-4.9 7
Arginine 1 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.4 -1.6 6 0.5 -1.8 4 0.7 2.8-4.4 6
Alanine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -1.8 7 0.5 0.6 -2 7 1 3.8-6.8 9
Aspartic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.7 0.7 -2.8 7 0.8 0.8 -3.1 7 0.8 5.7-7.9 9
Glutamic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 11.6 g/16g N 1.1 1.4 -4.8 7 1.3 1.6 -5.3 7 3.5 6.5-17.5 9
Glycine 0.8 1 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 6 0.4 0.5 -1.4 6 0.4 3-4 8
Serine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 7 0.4 0.4 -1.4 7 0.7 1.7-4.2 9
Proline 1.2 1.3 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 53 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 50 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 56 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 50 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.5 g/kg 53 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.1 0.1 g/kg 55 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 53 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 53 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 54 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.5 g/kg 54 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.4 g/kg 51 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 53 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 48 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 51 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 56 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 1 g/kg 50 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 50 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 51 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 48 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 47 %
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