Cassava, starch 66-70%

Dried cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz), containing 66-70% starch (as fed). Cassava roots are usually provided as chips, pellets or meal (ground chips).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.7 100 % - 1.6 82.6 -97.5 1006 2.6
Crude protein 2.5 2.9 % - 0.7 0.6 -6.1 479 0.8 0.7 -7 512
Crude fibre 3.8 4.3 % - 0.9 1.5 -8.2 876 1.1 1.8 -9.2 900
Crude fat 0.6 0.7 % - 0.3 0.2 -1.6 155 0.3 0.1 -1.9 187
Ash 3.9 4.5 % - 1.6 0.9 -8 703 1.9 1.1 -9.2 707
Insoluble ash 1.2 1.4 % - 1.3 0 -4.7 354 1.5 0 -5.4 283
NDF 7.8 8.9 % - 2.3 2.7 -11.7 26 2.7 3.1 -13.9 56
ADF 5.2 6 % - 1.7 1.6 -7.1 26 1.9 1.8 -8.9 53
Lignin 1.4 1.6 % - 0.8 0 -3.8 13 0.9 0 -4.2 42
Water insoluble cell walls 7.1 8.1 % - 1
Starch 68.7 78.3 % - 2.1 66 -70 828 2 71.3 -85 753
Starch, enzymatic method 65.8 75 % - 4 60.5 -75.6 19 4.4 67.9 -84.7 23
Total sugars 2.1 2.4 % - 0.9 0.4 -4.4 37 1 0.5 -5 41
Gross energy (kcal) 3510 4010 kcal/kg - 110 3340 -3920 22 100 3770 -4350 50
Gross energy (MJ) 14.7 16.8 MJ/kg - 0.5 14 -16.4 22 0.4 15.8 -18.2 50
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 0.8 0.2 -4.3 121 0.9 0.2 -5 128
Phosphorus 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.1 -1.8 111 0.4 0.2 -2 119
Phytate phosphorus 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P 25-29 2
Magnesium 0.7 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.2 -1.4 58 0.3 0.2 -1.8 60
Potassium 8.8 10 g/kg - 3.2 2.9 -20.2 71 3.7 3.4 -21.8 69
Sodium 0.35 0.4 g/kg - 0.33 0.06 -0.85 18 0.38 0.07 -1.4 17
Chlorine 0.2 0.3 g/kg - 0.05 0.2 -0.5 13 0.06 0.2 -0.4 11
Sulfur 2.7 3.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 63 72 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 234 266 mEq/kg -
Manganese 23 26 mg/kg - 9 20 -43 6
Zinc 32 36 mg/kg - 45 7 -116 5
Copper 4 4 mg/kg - 1 2 -6 6
Iron 146 166 mg/kg - 137 8 -351 6
Selenium 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.04 0.05 mg/kg - 1
Molybdenum 0.05 0.06 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.6 % FA
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 3.9 % FA 1 0.2-7.6 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 1.5 % FA 1 0-3.3 3
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 31.6 % FA 1 28.6-35.1 3
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 2.4 % FA 1 0.7-4.1 2
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 2.8 % FA 1 2-3.7 3
C18:1 oleic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 35.9 % FA 1 33.2-37.5 3
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 15.7 % FA 1 14.5-18.1 3
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 7.7 % FA 1 4.2-11 3
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 0.5 0.6 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 1.7 1.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 1 1.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 3.1 3.5 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 1 1.2 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.95 1.08 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 9 11 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 59 67 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -76 -86 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.072 0.082 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2480 2820 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1660 1890 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1670 1910 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.9 7.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 56 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 78 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 83 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.95 1.09 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.97 1.1 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 9 10 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 60 69 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -78 -89 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.91 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.91 1.04 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 10 12 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 58 66 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -74 -84 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg - 1.07 -1.23 3
PDIA INRA 2007 10 11 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 18 20 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 63 72 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2500 2850 kcal/kg - 160 180 2740 -3090 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.5 11.9 MJ/kg - 0.7 0.7 11.5 -12.9 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.5 11.9 MJ/kg - 157
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 32.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 59 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 47 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 28 % 27-34 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.045 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 73 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.04 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 76 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 23 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 41.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.5 0.5 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.9 1 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 937 1068 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1029 1173 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 59 67 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -78 -89 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5.4 6.2 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.9 2.2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 72 82.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.05 3.48 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.55 1.76 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.46 1.66 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.68 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.11 1.27 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 40 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 42 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.6 7.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 106 121 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -13 -15 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3140 3580 kcal/kg - 130 2980 -3270 9 130 3360 -3680 9
ME growing pig (kcal) 3090 3530 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2480 2830 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3210 3660 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3140 3580 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2520 2870 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg - 0.5 12.5 -13.7 9 0.5 14.1 -15.4 9
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.9 14.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.9 14.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.2 15 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 89.4 % 2.2 84.6-91.3 9
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89 % 1.3 89-92.6 8
OM digestibility adult pig - 90.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 28.9 % 17.8 22.4-78.9 9
N digestibility adult pig - 44.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.09 0.1 g/kg 10 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.1 0.2 g/kg 15 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3080 3510 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3080 3510 kcal/kg - 230 2950 -3530 4 260 3200 -3780 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg - 13.8 -14.6 4
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.9 14.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.8 4 1.1 13.4 -15.8 5
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 14.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 85.2 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.02 1.16 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 8 9 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2920 3330 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2890 3300 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 52.5 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1590 1810 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.6 7.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 45.1 %
N digestibility salmonids - 54.5 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 1 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -2.1 17 0.5 0.6 -2.4 16 0.6 2.3-4.9 16
Threonine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 4 0.3 0.5 -1.3 6 0.5 2.6-3.8 6
Methionine 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.2 0.2 -0.7 7 0.2 0.1 -0.8 7 0.4 0.8-1.9 9
Cystine 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.2 -0.5 4 0.2 -0.6 4 0.4 0.8-1.9 6
Methionine + cystine 0.9 1 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.4 -1.2 4 0.4 -1.3 4 0.9 1.7-3.8 6
Tryptophan 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 1
Isoleucine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.3 -1.2 6 0.4 0.3 -1.3 6 0.3 2.5-3.3 8
Valine 1.1 1.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 5 0.4 0.5 -1.3 5 0.5 3.5-5.1 7
Leucine 1.3 1.5 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 0.6 0.5 -2.2 6 0.7 0.6 -2.5 6 0.7 4.2-6.1 8
Phenylalanine 0.9 1 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 0.3 -1.4 6 0.5 0.3 -1.6 6 0.5 2.3-3.9 8
Tyrosine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.5 1.6-2.7 5
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 0.8 4.3-6.2 5
Histidine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.5 0.3 -1.3 5 0.6 0.2 -1.5 5 1.5 1.3-4.9 7
Arginine 1 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.4 -1.6 6 0.5 -1.8 4 0.7 2.8-4.4 6
Alanine 1.3 1.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -1.8 7 0.5 0.6 -2 7 1 3.8-6.8 9
Aspartic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.7 0.7 -2.8 7 0.8 0.8 -3.1 7 0.8 5.7-7.9 9
Glutamic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 11.6 g/16g N 1.1 1.4 -4.8 7 1.3 1.6 -5.3 7 3.5 6.5-17.5 9
Glycine 0.8 1 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 6 0.4 0.5 -1.4 6 0.4 3-4 8
Serine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 7 0.4 0.4 -1.4 7 0.7 1.7-4.2 9
Proline 1.2 1.3 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 64 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 69 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.4 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.3 0.4 g/kg 76 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.2 g/kg 84 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 0.2 0.3 g/kg 29 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 74 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 75 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 62 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 66 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 64 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 76 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 91 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 85 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 85 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 3 g/kg 90 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 85 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 0.7 0.8 g/kg 86 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 87 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 53 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 50 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 56 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 50 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.5 g/kg 53 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.1 0.1 g/kg 55 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 53 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 53 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 54 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.5 g/kg 54 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.4 g/kg 51 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 53 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 48 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 51 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 56 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 1 g/kg 50 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 50 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 51 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 48 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 47 %
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