Cassava, starch 70-74%

Dried cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz), containing 70-74% starch (as fed). Cassava roots are usually provided as chips, pellets or meal (ground chips).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.5 100 % - 2.3 82.7 -97.5 1826 2.2
Crude protein 2.5 2.8 % - 0.7 0.6 -6.1 482 0.8 0.7 -7 516
Crude fibre 3 3.4 % - 0.7 1.5 -7.9 1642 0.8 1.6 -8.7 1663
Crude fat 0.6 0.7 % - 0.3 0.1 -1.6 161 0.3 0.1 -1.9 192
Ash 2.7 3.1 % - 1.2 0.9 -8 1088 1.3 1 -8.9 1091
Insoluble ash 0.6 0.7 % - 0.9 0 -4.4 378 1 0 -5.3 308
NDF 6.7 7.6 % - 2.5 2.7 -11.7 20 2.8 3.1 -13.9 51
ADF 4.2 4.8 % - 1.7 1.6 -7.1 20 2 1.8 -8.9 48
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 0.8 0.05 -3.8 10 0.9 0.06 -4.2 40
Water insoluble cell walls 5.9 6.8 % - 1
Starch 71.8 82.1 % - 1.7 70 -74 1686 1.5 71.3 -86.9 1576
Total sugars 2.4 2.7 % - 1.2 0.4 -4.8 31 1.3 0.5 -5.5 35
Gross energy (kcal) 3550 4060 kcal/kg - 100 3420 -3920 18 90 3770 -4350 46
Gross energy (MJ) 14.9 17 MJ/kg - 0.4 14.3 -16.4 18 0.4 15.8 -18.2 46
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.3 1.4 g/kg - 0.8 0.2 -4.3 114 0.9 0.2 -5 121
Phosphorus 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.1 -1.8 111 0.4 0.2 -2 119
Phytate phosphorus 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P 25-29 2
Magnesium 0.7 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.2 -1.4 59 0.3 0.2 -1.8 61
Potassium 8.8 10 g/kg - 3.2 2.9 -20.2 72 3.7 3.4 -21.8 71
Sodium 0.38 0.44 g/kg - 0.33 0.11 -0.85 17 0.38 0.12 -1.4 17
Chlorine 0.2 0.3 g/kg - 0.07 0.1 -0.5 18 0.08 0.1 -0.4 16
Sulfur 2.7 3.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 67 77 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 235 268 mEq/kg -
Manganese 20 23 mg/kg - 9 6 -22 8 10 7 -43 8
Zinc 29 33 mg/kg - 33 7 -31 6 38 7 -116 7
Copper 4 4 mg/kg - 2 2 -6 7 2 2 -7 8
Iron 126 144 mg/kg - 136 5 -351 7
Selenium 0.06 0.07 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.6 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 3.9 % FA 1 0.2-7.6 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 1.7 % FA 1 0-3.3 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.5 1.8 g/kg 31.9 % FA 1 28.6-35.1 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.7 % FA 1 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 2.9 % FA 1 2-3.7 2
C18:1 oleic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 35.2 % FA 1 33.2-37.1 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 16.4 % FA 1 14.6-18.1 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 7.6 % FA 1 4.2-11 2
Fatty acids 0.5 0.6 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 1 1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 3 4 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.98 1.12 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.99 1.14 per kg -
PDIA Systali 9 10 g/kg -
PDI Systali 59 68 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -77 -88 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.072 0.082 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2560 2920 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1720 1970 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1750 2000 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.2 8.2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.3 8.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 87.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 83.7 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 56 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 83 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 78 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.99 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.01 1.15 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 9 10 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 61 69 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -79 -91 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.95 1.08 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.96 1.09 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 10 11 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 58 67 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -75 -86 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.97 1.11 per kg - 1.11 -1.24 3
UFV INRA 2007 0.98 1.12 per kg - 1.12 -1.28 3
PDIA INRA 2007 10 11 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 17 20 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 65 74 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2580 2950 kcal/kg - 160 180 2740 -3090 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.8 12.3 MJ/kg - 0.7 0.7 11.5 -12.9 5
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.2 % 2.8 87.9-95.1 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.1 % 3.3 84.4-92.8 5
N digestibility ruminants - 34.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 59 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 47 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 28 % 27-34 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.045 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 73 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.04 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 76 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 23 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.08 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 41.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.5 0.5 g/kg 50 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3270 3740 kcal/kg - 260 2990 -3500 8 290 3360 -4030 8
ME growing pig (kcal) 3220 3680 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2610 2980 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3320 3790 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3250 3710 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2620 3000 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.7 15.7 MJ/kg - 1.1 12.5 -14.7 8 1.2 14.1 -16.9 8
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.5 15.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.9 12.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.9 15.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.6 15.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11 12.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 92.2 % 6.7 84.6-99.4 6
Energy digestibility adult pig - 93.4 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 93 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 94 %
N digestibility growing pig - 30 %
N digestibility adult pig - 40.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.09 0.1 g/kg 10 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3220 3680 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3220 3680 kcal/kg - 230 2950 -3530 4 260 3200 -3780 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.5 15.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 13.5 15.4 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.8 4 1.1 13.4 -15.8 5
Available P cockerel 0.2 0.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 86 %
Energy digestibility horse - 83.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.05 1.2 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 8 9 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3010 3440 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2980 3410 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.6 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.5 14.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 84.9 %
N digestibility rabbit - 56.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 0.9 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -2.1 16 0.5 0.6 -2.4 16 0.6 2.3-4.9 16
Threonine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 5 0.3 0.5 -1.3 7 0.5 2.6-3.8 7
Methionine 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.2 0.2 -0.7 9 0.2 0.1 -0.8 9 0.4 0.8-1.9 11
Cystine 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.2 0.2 -0.7 6 0.3 0.2 -0.8 6 0.6 0.8-2.7 8
Methionine + cystine 0.8 1 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.4 0.4 -1.2 6 0.5 0.4 -1.4 6 1 1.7-4.7 8
Tryptophan 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 0.2 -0.4 4 0.2 -0.4 2 0.5-1.2 4
Isoleucine 0.7 0.8 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.3 0.3 -1.2 6 0.4 0.3 -1.3 6 0.3 2.5-3.3 8
Valine 1.1 1.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.2 5 0.4 0.5 -1.3 5 0.5 3.5-5.1 7
Leucine 1.3 1.5 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 0.6 0.5 -2.2 6 0.7 0.6 -2.5 6 0.7 4.2-6.1 8
Phenylalanine 0.9 1 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 0.3 -1.4 6 0.5 0.3 -1.6 6 0.5 2.3-3.9 8
Tyrosine 0.6 0.7 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.5 1.6-2.7 5
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 0.8 4.3-6.2 5
Histidine 1 1.2 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.5 0.3 -1.3 5 0.6 0.2 -1.5 5 1.5 1.3-4.9 7
Arginine 1 1.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 0.4 -1.6 6 0.5 -1.8 4 0.7 2.8-4.4 6
Alanine 1.2 1.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 0.5 -1.8 7 0.5 0.6 -2 7 1 3.8-6.8 9
Aspartic acid 1.6 1.9 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.7 0.7 -2.8 7 0.8 0.8 -3.1 7 0.8 5.7-7.9 9
Glutamic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 11.6 g/16g N 1.1 1.4 -4.8 7 1.3 1.6 -5.3 7 3.5 6.5-17.5 9
Glycine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 6 0.4 0.5 -1.4 6 0.4 3-4 8
Serine 0.8 0.9 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.3 0.4 -1.3 7 0.4 0.4 -1.4 7 0.7 1.7-4.2 9
Proline 1.1 1.3 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 53 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 50 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 56 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.2 0.3 g/kg 50 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 53 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.1 0.1 g/kg 55 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 53 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.6 g/kg 53 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 54 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.5 g/kg 54 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.3 0.4 g/kg 51 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 53 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 48 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 51 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 56 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 50 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 50 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 51 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.4 g/kg 48 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 47 %
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