Lupin, blue

Seed of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Blue lupin is a blue-flowered grain legume cultivated for its seeds for animal feed and human consumption. Other names: narrowleaf lupin, narrow-leaved lupin.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.1 100 % - 1.9 82.6 -95.7 107 3.1
Crude protein 30 33.3 % - 2.8 19.4 -39.2 107 3 22.3 -44.5 126
Crude fibre 14.3 15.9 % - 2.1 10.1 -19.3 68 2.3 10.9 -22.2 74
Crude fat 5.4 5.9 % - 1 3 -7.8 90 1.1 0.8 -8.6 106
Ash 3.2 3.5 % - 0.5 2 -4.2 87 0.5 2.1 -4.7 103
Insoluble ash 0.07 0.08 % - 0.07 -0.09 2
NDF 21.4 23.8 % - 3.6 14.2 -34.6 32 4 15.8 -38.3 36
ADF 17.1 18.9 % - 2.9 12.1 -24.9 30 3.2 13.7 -27.6 33
Lignin 1 1.2 % - 0.9 0.09 -3.3 19 1 0.1 -3.7 20
Water insoluble cell walls 32.5 36 % -
Starch 4.2 4.7 % - 4.9 0 -14.5 29 5.4 0 -15.9 37
Starch, enzymatic method 0.4 0.4 % - 0.2 0 -0.4 6 0.2 0 -0.8 7
Total sugars 5.2 5.8 % - 1.3 4.1 -7.9 6 1.5 4.5 -8.8 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4360 4840 kcal/kg - 190 3970 -4490 11 180 4280 -4980 21
Gross energy (MJ) 18.3 20.3 MJ/kg - 0.8 16.6 -18.8 11 0.7 17.9 -20.8 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.5 2.8 g/kg - 0.6 1.3 -3.5 19 0.7 1.5 -4.2 21
Phosphorus 3.4 3.8 g/kg - 1 2.4 -5.9 13 1.1 2.7 -6.7 15
Phytate phosphorus 2 2.3 g/kg 60 % P 1 1 1
Magnesium 2 2.2 g/kg - 0.3 1.6 -2.8 11 0.4 1.8 -3.2 13
Potassium 10.6 11.7 g/kg - 1.9 6.6 -12.2 11 2.1 7.5 -13.6 13
Sodium 0.75 0.83 g/kg - 0.34 0.18 -1.07 13 0.38 0.2 -1.19 13
Chlorine 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 2.3 2.5 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 148 165 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 290 322 mEq/kg -
Manganese 59 65 mg/kg - 32 25 -110 13 35 27 -123 15
Zinc 39 43 mg/kg - 10 27 -64 11 12 30 -72 11
Copper 6 6 mg/kg - 2 3 -11 11 2 3 -13 11
Iron 60 66 mg/kg - 19 47 -109 12 21 50 -124 12
Selenium 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.02 0.08 -0.1 7 0.03 0.09 -0.2 7
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.04 0.03 -0.2 7 0.05 0.03 -0.2 7
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1 0-0 2
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1 0.03 0.2-0.3 6
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.3 5.9 g/kg 11 % FA 1 1.6 7.6-12.5 13
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.05 % FA 1 0.05 0-0.1 6
C18:0 stearic acid 3.3 3.7 g/kg 6.9 % FA 1 1.4 4.6-9.1 13
C18:1 oleic acid 16.3 18.1 g/kg 33.8 % FA 1 2.7 28.6-37.4 13
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.3 20.3 g/kg 38 % FA 1 6.2 28.6-48.3 13
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.7 3 g/kg 5.7 % FA 1 0.8 4.5-7.7 13
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1 % FA 1 0.2 0.7-1.3 13
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.3 0-0.7 5
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 1.1 1.2 g/kg 2.3 % FA 1 0.8 1.4-4.3 13
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3 0-0.8 5
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 0.8 % FA 1 0.8 0.2-2.3 6
Fatty acids 4.8 5.3 % 90 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4.8 5.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.5 2.8 mg/kg -
Niacin 32.4 36 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 1.4 1.6 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.04 0.04 mg/kg -
Choline 2733 3035 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 140 160 IU/kg - 1 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.18 1.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.19 1.32 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 42 47 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 96 107 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 155 173 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.194 0.215 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3090 3440 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2070 2300 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2100 2330 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 13.3 14.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.9 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 72 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.6 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.2 1.33 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.22 1.35 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 35 39 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 91 101 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 161 179 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.13 1.26 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.14 1.26 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 53 59 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 106 118 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 145 161 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.1 1.23 per kg - 1
UFL INRA 2007 1.14 1.26 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.09 1.21 per kg - 1
UFV INRA 2007 1.13 1.25 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 44 49 g/kg - 1 17 -54 4
PDIN INRA 2007 188 209 g/kg - 1 186 -211 4
PDIE INRA 2007 105 117 g/kg - 1 87 -122 4
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2970 3300 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.4 13.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.7 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.3 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.4 % 1
N digestibility ruminants - 79.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 89 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 88 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 85 % 8 69-93 7
Immediately degradable N (a) - 30 % 26 4-74 6
Potentially degradable N (b) - 66 % 23 22-86 6
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.305 h-1 0.223 0.071-0.64 6
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 % 13 62-98 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 23 % 8 12-33 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 74 % 8 67-86 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.109 h-1 0.027 0.068-0.135 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.8 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.4 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.9 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.6 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1103 1224 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1195 1327 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 98 109 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 152 169 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5 5.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.6 1.7 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 77.3 85.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.65 4.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2.16 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.84 2.05 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.07 2.3 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.44 1.6 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 13 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 17 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.8 8.7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 182 202 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 19 21 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3400 3780 kcal/kg - 3090 -3660 2 3430 -4110 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 3160 3510 kcal/kg - 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2000 2220 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3650 4050 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 3340 3700 kcal/kg - 1
NE adult pig (kcal) 2160 2400 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 15.9 MJ/kg - 12.9 -15.3 2 14.4 -17.2 3
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.2 15.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.3 14.7 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg - 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.5 9.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.4 9.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.7 17.4 MJ/kg - 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.3 17 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.4 15.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 14 15.5 MJ/kg - 1
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9 10 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 77.9 % 71.7-83.2 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 83.7 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 79.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 85.7 % 78.7-87.8 2
N digestibility growing pig - 84.2 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 89.2 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 87 % 86-87.3 3
Crude fat digestibility pig - 62.2 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 50 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.6 2.8 g/kg 75 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2070 2300 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (kcal) 2090 2310 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2030 2250 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (kcal) 2060 2280 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (MJ) 8.7 9.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.5 9.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (MJ) 8.6 9.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.8 0.9 g/kg 24 % P
Available P broiler 0.8 0.9 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 80.6 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.91 1.01 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 229 254 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2940 3270 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2590 2870 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.7 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.9 12.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.8 12 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 98 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2800 3110 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.7 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 64.2 %
N digestibility salmonids - 86.4 %
Digestible P salmonids 2.1 2.3 g/kg 62 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 15.2 16.8 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 1.7 9.2 -18.3 48 1.9 10.5 -20.8 56 0.4 4-5.9 56
Threonine 11.8 13.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.3 5.7 -13.3 39 1.5 6.5 -15.1 48 0.3 2.9-4.3 48
Methionine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 0.4 1.2 -2.7 37 0.4 1.3 -3.1 45 0.1 0.4-1 45
Cystine 5.4 6 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.1 -5.4 29 0.7 3.3 -6 36 0.2 1-1.9 36
Methionine + cystine 8 8.9 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1.1 4 -9 33 1.2 4.5 -10 40 0.3 1.4-3 40
Tryptophan 2.2 2.5 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.1 22 0.4 2.1 -3.6 28 0.09 0.7-1 28
Isoleucine 14 15.5 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 1.7 9 -16.1 36 1.9 9.9 -18.3 45 0.3 3.4-4.8 45
Valine 13.4 14.9 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.5 7.3 -14.7 36 1.6 8.4 -16.7 44 0.3 3.3-4.6 44
Leucine 22.2 24.7 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 2.8 11.3 -25 34 3.1 13 -27.6 42 0.5 5.8-7.8 42
Phenylalanine 11.9 13.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.9 6.7 -16.3 29 2.1 7.7 -18.5 37 0.3 3.1-4.7 37
Tyrosine 13.8 15.3 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.9 6.9 -15.8 29
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 25.6 28.5 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 3.3 12.7 -27.7 25 3.6 14.6 -31.9 33 0.5 6.4-8.6 33
Histidine 6.8 7.5 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 1 5.1 -10.3 35 1.1 5.8 -11.6 44
Arginine 29.6 32.9 g/kg 9.9 g/16g N 5.2 16.6 -40.5 34 5.7 19 -47.8 43 0.9 8.2-12.3 43
Alanine 10.6 11.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1.4 6.8 -14.1 26 1.5 7.8 -16 35 0.3 3-4 35
Aspartic acid 31.7 35.2 g/kg 10.6 g/16g N 4.8 16 -44.4 26 5.3 18.3 -50.3 35 0.6 8.2-11.3 35
Glutamic acid 61.3 68 g/kg 20.4 g/16g N 10.6 37.3 -86.6 26 11.6 42.8 -98.2 35 1.9 17.6-25 35
Glycine 12.3 13.7 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.7 7.5 -16.1 26 1.8 8.6 -18.3 34 0.2 3.9-4.8 34
Serine 16.2 18 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 2.9 8.4 -18.3 26 3.2 9.6 -21.1 35 0.6 3.7-6.2 35
Proline 12.7 14.1 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 2.5 7.8 -16.1 21 2.8 8.6 -18.7 29 0.5 3.2-4.7 29
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 13.2 14.7 g/kg 87 % 1 1 86-88 3
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 10.8 g/kg 83 % 1 1 81-85 3
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.5 g/kg 86 % 1 1 74-91 3
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.1 g/kg 86 % 1 1 81-91 3
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.6 g/kg 86 % 1 1 84-89 2
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 77 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 12.3 13.7 g/kg 88 % 1 1 85-90 3
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 11.2 12.4 g/kg 84 % 1 1 82-86 3
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 19.5 21.7 g/kg 88 % 1 1 86-89 3
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.7 11.9 g/kg 90 % 1 1 89-91 3
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 12.1 13.4 g/kg 88 % 1 1 86-90 3
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 22.8 25.3 g/kg 89 % 1 1 88-90 2
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7 g/kg 92 % 1 1 91-94 3
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 27.8 30.9 g/kg 94 % 1 1 93-94 3
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.6 g/kg 81 % 1 1 78-84 3
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.2 31.3 g/kg 89 % 1 1 86-91 3
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 55.2 61.3 g/kg 90 % 1 1 88-92 3
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 11.6 g/kg 85 % 1 1 84-88 3
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 14.1 15.7 g/kg 87 % 1 1 86-89 3
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 10.9 12.1 g/kg 86 % 1 1 84-89 3
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.2 14.7 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.6 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 81 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.2 g/kg 81 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.7 13 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 11 12.2 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 18.9 21 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.1 11.2 g/kg 85 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.4 12.7 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.5 23.9 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.1 g/kg 81 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 26.7 29.6 g/kg 90 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 9.8 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 26 28.9 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 54.5 60.5 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 10 11.1 g/kg 81 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.3 14.7 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 10 11.1 g/kg 79 %
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