Lupin, blue

Seed of blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Blue lupin is a blue-flowered grain legume cultivated for its seeds for animal feed and human consumption. Other names: narrowleaf lupin, narrow-leaved lupin.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.3 100 % - 3.3 82.6 -95.7 89 3
Crude protein 30.3 33.5 % - 2.8 19.4 -39.2 89 3 22.3 -44.5 108
Crude fibre 14.2 15.7 % - 2.1 10.1 -19.3 63 2.3 10.9 -22.2 69
Crude fat 5.4 6 % - 0.9 3.4 -7.8 73 1 0.8 -8.6 88
Ash 3.2 3.5 % - 0.5 2 -4.1 69 0.5 2.1 -4.5 85
Insoluble ash 0.2 0.2 % - 1 0.07 -0.5 3
NDF 21.3 23.6 % - 3.6 14.2 -34.6 28 4 15.8 -38.3 31
ADF 16.9 18.7 % - 2.8 12.1 -23.3 27 3.1 13.7 -26.1 30
Lignin 1 1.1 % - 0.6 0.09 -2.1 16 0.7 0.1 -2.3 17
Water insoluble cell walls 32.4 35.9 % -
Starch 4.3 4.8 % - 4.9 0 -14.5 28 5.5 0 -15.9 36
Total sugars 5.2 5.8 % - 1.3 4.1 -7.9 6 1.5 4.5 -8.8 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4380 4850 kcal/kg - 190 3970 -4490 11 180 4280 -4980 21
Gross energy (MJ) 18.3 20.3 MJ/kg - 0.8 16.6 -18.8 11 0.7 17.9 -20.8 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.6 2.8 g/kg - 0.7 1.7 -3.5 12 0.8 1.9 -4.2 14
Phosphorus 3.4 3.8 g/kg - 1 2.4 -5.9 13 1.1 2.7 -6.7 15
Phytate phosphorus 2.1 2.3 g/kg 60 % P 1 1 1
Magnesium 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.5 1.6 -2.8 4 0.5 1.8 -3.2 6
Potassium 9.1 10.1 g/kg - 1.9 6.6 -11.5 4 2.1 7.5 -13 6
Sodium 0.45 0.5 g/kg - 0.26 0.18 -0.88 6 0.29 0.2 -1 6
Chlorine 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 2.3 2.5 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 97 107 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 239 265 mEq/kg -
Manganese 40 44 mg/kg - 13 25 -62 6 14 27 -70 8
Zinc 42 46 mg/kg - 27 -64 4 30 -72 4
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 3 -11 4 3 -13 4
Iron 70 77 mg/kg - 28 47 -109 5 31 50 -124 5
Selenium 0.08 0.09 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.3 % FA 1 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.4 3.7 g/kg 6.9 % FA 1 1
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1 1
C18:0 stearic acid 1.8 1.9 g/kg 3.6 % FA 1 1
C18:1 oleic acid 15.6 17.3 g/kg 31.9 % FA 1 1
C18:2 linoleic acid 22.8 25.3 g/kg 46.7 % FA 1 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.3 2.6 g/kg 4.8 % FA 1 1
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1 % FA 1 1
C22:0 behenic acid 1 1.1 g/kg 1.8 % FA 1 1
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 1 1
Fatty acids 4.9 5.4 g/kg 90 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 5 5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 3 3 mg/kg -
Niacin 33 36 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 1 2 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.04 0.04 mg/kg -
Choline 2741 3035 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 140 160 IU/kg - 1 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.21 1.34 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.24 1.37 per kg -
PDIA Systali 60 66 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 114 126 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 138 153 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.164 0.182 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3170 3510 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2140 2370 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2180 2410 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 13.3 14.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.9 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 78 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.7 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.5 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.24 1.37 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.26 1.4 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 50 56 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 106 117 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 146 162 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.17 1.3 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.18 1.31 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 74 82 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 127 140 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 124 137 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.14 1.26 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.13 1.25 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 63 69 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 196 217 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 124 137 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3040 3370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.7 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.1 % 1
N digestibility ruminants - 79.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 89 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 88 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 79 % 14 50-93 8
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 13 62-98 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 37 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 60 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.11 h-1 0.068-0.135 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.8 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.4 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.5 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3420 3790 kcal/kg - 3090 -3660 2 3430 -4110 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 3180 3520 kcal/kg - 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2020 2240 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3760 4160 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 3430 3800 kcal/kg - 1
NE adult pig (kcal) 2230 2470 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 15.9 MJ/kg - 12.9 -15.3 2 14.4 -17.2 3
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.3 14.7 MJ/kg - 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.5 9.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.7 17.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.4 15.9 MJ/kg - 1
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 78.2 % 71.7-83.2 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 85.7 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 80.1 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 88 % 79-88 2
N digestibility growing pig - 84.5 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 91.1 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 87 % 86-87.3 3
Crude fat digestibility pig - 62.5 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (kcal) 2090 2310 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (kcal) 2060 2280 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (MJ) 8.7 9.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (MJ) 8.6 9.5 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 81 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.91 1.01 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 231 256 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2960 3280 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2610 2890 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.9 12.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 97.9 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2680 2970 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids, extruded (kcal) 3370 3730 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids, extruded (MJ) 14.1 15.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 61.2 %
Energy digestibility salmonids, extruded - 77 %
N digestibility salmonids - 85.5 %
N digestibility salmonids, extruded - 96.2 %
Digestible P salmonids, extruded 2.1 2.3 g/kg 62 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 15.3 16.9 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.7 9.2 -18.3 47 1.8 10.5 -20.8 55 0.4 4-5.9 55
Threonine 11.8 13.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.3 5.7 -13.3 39 1.5 6.5 -15.1 48 0.3 2.9-4.3 48
Methionine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 0.4 1.2 -2.7 37 0.4 1.3 -3.1 45 0.1 0.4-1 45
Cystine 5.4 6 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.1 -5.4 29 0.7 3.3 -6 36 0.2 1-1.9 36
Methionine + cystine 8 8.9 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1.1 4 -9 33 1.2 4.5 -10 40 0.3 1.4-3 40
Tryptophan 2.2 2.5 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.1 22 0.4 2.1 -3.6 28 0.09 0.7-1 28
Isoleucine 14.1 15.6 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 1.7 9 -16.1 36 1.9 9.9 -18.3 45 0.3 3.4-4.8 45
Valine 13.5 14.9 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.5 7.3 -14.7 36 1.6 8.4 -16.7 44 0.3 3.3-4.6 44
Leucine 22.4 24.8 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 2.8 11.3 -25 34 3.1 13 -27.6 42 0.5 5.8-7.8 42
Phenylalanine 11.9 13.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.9 6.7 -16.3 29 2.1 7.7 -18.5 37 0.3 3.1-4.7 37
Tyrosine 13.9 15.4 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.9 6.9 -15.8 29
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 25.9 28.6 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 3 16.9 -27.7 19 3.2 18.7 -31.9 27
Histidine 6.8 7.6 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 1 5.1 -10.3 35 1.1 5.8 -11.6 44
Arginine 30 33.2 g/kg 9.9 g/16g N 5.2 16.6 -40.5 34 5.7 19 -47.8 43 0.9 8.2-12.3 43
Alanine 10.7 11.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1.4 6.8 -14.1 26 1.5 7.8 -16 35 0.3 3-4 35
Aspartic acid 32 35.4 g/kg 10.6 g/16g N 4.8 16 -44.4 26 5.3 18.3 -50.3 35 0.6 8.2-11.3 35
Glutamic acid 61.8 68.4 g/kg 20.4 g/16g N 10.6 37.3 -86.6 26 11.6 42.8 -98.2 35 1.9 17.6-25 35
Glycine 12.4 13.7 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.7 7.5 -16.1 26 1.8 8.6 -18.3 34 0.2 3.9-4.8 34
Serine 16.3 18.1 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 2.9 8.4 -18.3 26 3.2 9.6 -21.1 35 0.6 3.7-6.2 35
Proline 12.8 14.1 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 2.5 7.8 -16.1 21 2.8 8.6 -18.7 29 0.5 3.2-4.7 29
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 13.3 14.8 g/kg 87 % 1 1 86-88 3
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 10.9 g/kg 83 % 1 1 81-85 3
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.5 g/kg 86 % 1 1 74-91 3
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.2 g/kg 86 % 1 1 81-91 3
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.7 g/kg 86 % 1 1 84-89 2
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 12.4 13.7 g/kg 88 % 1 1 85-90 3
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 11.3 12.5 g/kg 84 % 1 1 82-86 3
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 19.7 21.8 g/kg 88 % 1 1 86-89 3
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.8 11.9 g/kg 90 % 1 1 89-91 3
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 12.2 13.5 g/kg 88 % 1 1 86-90 3
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 23 25.5 g/kg 89 % 1 1 88-90 2
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7 g/kg 92 % 1 1 91-94 3
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 28.1 31.1 g/kg 94 % 1 1 93-94 3
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.6 g/kg 81 % 1 1 78-84 3
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.4 31.4 g/kg 89 % 1 1 86-91 3
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 55.7 61.7 g/kg 90 % 1 1 88-92 3
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 11.7 g/kg 85 % 1 1 84-88 3
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 14.3 15.8 g/kg 87 % 1 1 86-89 3
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 11 12.2 g/kg 86 % 1 1 84-89 3
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.3 14.7 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.6 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 4.8 g/kg 81 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.2 g/kg 81 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.8 13.1 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12.2 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 19 21.1 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11.2 g/kg 85 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.5 12.8 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.7 24 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.1 g/kg 81 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 27 29.9 g/kg 90 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.9 9.8 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 26.2 29 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 55 60.9 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 10 11.1 g/kg 81 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.4 14.8 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 10.1 11.2 g/kg 79 %
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