Maize flour, crude fibre 2-10%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting principally of particles of endosperm with fragments of germs and outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.4 100 % - 2.1 83.2 -98.2 159 3.3
Crude protein 9.1 10.4 % - 0.9 5.3 -11.9 180 1 6.1 -12.6 157
Crude fibre 4.2 4.9 % - 1.3 2 -10 117 1.4 2.2 -10.7 92
Crude fat 6.8 7.8 % - 1.7 1.7 -10.5 148 1.9 2 -12.1 134
Ash 2.2 2.5 % - 0.7 0.8 -8.9 309 0.8 1 -10.1 320
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.06 0 -0.1 11 0.07 0 -0.2 11
NDF 18.5 21.1 % - 5.7 12.3 -34.6 41 6.5 13.7 -40.4 50
ADF 5.1 5.8 % - 1.9 4 -14.2 45 2.2 4.5 -16.3 54
Lignin 0.9 1 % - 0.5 0.3 -2.3 49 0.6 0.3 -3.3 56
Water insoluble cell walls 21.3 24.4 % - 1 1
Starch 49.3 56.4 % - 6.3 31.8 -67.1 169 7.1 37.9 -75.7 152
Starch, enzymatic method 45.8 52.4 % - 1
Total sugars 2.4 2.8 % - 1.2 0.7 -5.3 30 1.3 0.8 -6 31
Gross energy (kcal) 4120 4710 kcal/kg - 200 4000 -4690 11 200 4560 -5280 12
Gross energy (MJ) 17.2 19.7 MJ/kg - 0.8 16.8 -19.6 11 0.8 19.1 -22.1 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.7 0.1 -2.6 44 0.8 0.1 -2.9 54
Phosphorus 4.4 5 g/kg - 1.3 2 -8 41 1.4 2.3 -9 51
Phytate phosphorus 3.3 3.7 g/kg 75 % P
Magnesium 1.8 2.1 g/kg - 0.4 1.2 -2.5 11 0.5 1.4 -2.8 21
Potassium 5.5 6.3 g/kg - 1.2 4 -7.2 10 1.3 4.6 -8.4 20
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg - 0.08 0 -0.3 11 0.09 0 -0.34 21
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.4 -1.2 11 0.3 0 -1.4 21
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.09 0.9 -1.1 5 0.1 1 -1.3 15
Dietary cation-anion difference 64 73 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 126 145 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 14 mg/kg - 4 9 -20 7 4 10 -23 17
Zinc 37 42 mg/kg - 6 27 -45 7 7 31 -53 17
Copper 2 3 mg/kg - 0.8 2 -5 7 1 1 -5 17
Iron 94 108 mg/kg - 26 66 -101 7 30 74 -182 17
Selenium 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.2 0.09 -0.5 6 0.2 0.1 -0.6 6
Molybdenum 0.6 0.7 mg/kg - 0.7 0.8 0 -2 10
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.7 7.7 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 1.2 1.3 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 16.7 19.1 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 38.1 43.5 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.2 0.5 -1 6 0.2 0.6 -1.2 6 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 6.4 7.3 % 94 % fat 0.9 93-96 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.2 0.2 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 6.3 7.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2 2.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0.8 1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 2.1 2.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 41.7 47.7 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 215 245 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.16 1.32 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.18 1.35 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 41 47 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 88 101 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -43 -50 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.273 0.313 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3010 3450 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2040 2330 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2080 2380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.2 9.4 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 47 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 68 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 57 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.18 1.35 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.21 1.38 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 87 99 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -43 -49 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.12 1.28 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.13 1.29 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 47 53 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 91 104 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -46 -53 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.08 1.24 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.12 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.08 1.23 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.13 1.29 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 48 55 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 68 78 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 83 95 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2970 3400 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.4 14.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 68.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 % 10 25-67 33
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.3 3.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1120 1281 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1235 1412 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 83 95 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -33 -37 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.8 5.5 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.9 2.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 78.8 90.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.42 3.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.82 2.09 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.72 1.97 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.93 2.2 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.33 1.52 Mcal/kg -
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.9 9.1 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 153 175 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -10 -11 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3270 3740 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3180 3640 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2490 2850 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3520 4030 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3400 3880 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2640 3020 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.7 15.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.3 15.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.7 16.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.1 12.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 79.5 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 85.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 82.4 % 82-88 4
OM digestibility adult pig - 88.2 %
N digestibility growing pig - 73.3 %
N digestibility adult pig - 89.9 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 67.5 % 59-85 4
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 20 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.3 1.5 g/kg 30 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2990 3420 kcal/kg - 150 2890 -3330 7 150 3250 -3740 7
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2920 3340 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.5 14.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.1 1.2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.1 1.2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 81.2 %
Energy digestibility horse - 78.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.04 1.19 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 61 70 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3200 3660 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3110 3560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 77.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 67.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2200 2510 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.2 10.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 53.4 %
N digestibility salmonids - 79.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.5 4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.6 2.9 -5.4 17 0.6 2.5 -5 16 0.7 2-4.7 18
Threonine 3.5 4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -4.2 11 0.4 3.3 -4.6 10 0.4 3.4-4.7 12
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.2 1.4 -1.9 11 0.2 1.5 -2.2 10 0.2 1.4-2.2 12
Cystine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.2 1.7 -2.2 9 0.2 1.9 -2.5 7 0.3 1.7-2.6 9
Methionine + cystine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.3 3.2 -3.9 9 0.3 3.6 -4.4 7 0.4 3.2-4.4 9
Tryptophan 0.6 0.6 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -3.8 10 0.4 3.3 -4.4 9 0.5 2.7-4.3 11
Valine 4.5 5.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.5 3.8 -5.5 10 0.5 4.7 -6.3 8 0.6 4.6-6.1 10
Leucine 9.5 10.9 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -11.5 10 1.2 9.5 -13.1 9 1.6 8.4-12.9 11
Phenylalanine 4 4.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.4 3.8 -5.1 10 0.5 4.3-5.7 10
Tyrosine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.3 2.8 -4.3 7 0.8 3-4.9 8
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 7 8 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 0.3 6.6 -9.5 7 1.2 7.3-10.6 7
Histidine 2.8 3.2 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.7 2.2 -3.7 10 0.8 1.6 -4.2 9 0.8 1.3-4.1 11
Arginine 5.3 6.1 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 1 3.8 -7.1 10 1.2 4 -7.6 9 1.1 3.2-7.2 11
Alanine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 7 g/16g N 0.5 5.6 -7.8 10 0.5 7.1 -8.8 9 0.9 5.8-8.4 11
Aspartic acid 6.6 7.5 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 0.6 5.6 -9.2 10 0.6 6.4 -8.6 9 0.7 6.3-8.4 11
Glutamic acid 14.9 17 g/kg 16.4 g/16g N 2.3 13.5 -19.2 10 2.6 15.2 -22 9 2.7 14.7-21.8 11
Glycine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.1 -4.9 10 0.4 3.6 -5.2 9 0.4 3.7-5.1 11
Serine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.5 3.7 -5.2 10 0.6 4.2 -5.7 9 0.5 4-5.5 11
Proline 4.4 5.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 78 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 77 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 76 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 78 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 81 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.1 g/kg 80 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 83 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.7 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.7 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 79 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6.1 g/kg 80 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12.9 14.7 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 77 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.1 g/kg 81 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 93 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 85 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 95 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 89 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 92 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 93 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 95 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 92 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.8 g/kg 99 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 92 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 93 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.4 g/kg 92 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 92 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.5 g/kg 91 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 98 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.8 g/kg 90 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 14.6 16.7 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 88 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.3 g/kg 91 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 84 %
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