Maize flour, crude fibre 2-10%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting principally of particles of endosperm with fragments of germs and outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.4 100 % - 3.5 83.2 -98.2 157 3.3
Crude protein 9.1 10.4 % - 0.8 6.6 -11.9 178 0.9 7.6 -12.6 155
Crude fibre 4.5 5.1 % - 1.1 2 -9.1 115 1.3 2.2 -9.8 90
Crude fat 6.8 7.7 % - 1.6 1.8 -10.5 146 1.8 2.1 -12.1 132
Ash 2.2 2.5 % - 0.7 0.8 -8.9 308 0.8 1 -10.1 319
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.06 0 -0.1 11 0.07 0 -0.2 11
NDF 19.5 22.3 % - 5.7 12.3 -34.6 41 6.5 13.7 -40.4 50
ADF 5.4 6.1 % - 1.9 4 -14.2 45 2.2 4.5 -16.3 54
Lignin 0.9 1.1 % - 0.5 0.3 -2.3 49 0.6 0.3 -3.3 56
Water insoluble cell walls 22.2 25.4 % - 1 1
Starch 48.8 55.8 % - 6.2 31.8 -67.1 167 7 37.9 -75.7 150
Total sugars 2.4 2.8 % - 1.2 0.7 -5.3 30 1.3 0.8 -6 31
Gross energy (kcal) 4120 4710 kcal/kg - 200 4000 -4690 11 200 4560 -5280 12
Gross energy (MJ) 17.2 19.7 MJ/kg - 0.8 16.8 -19.6 11 0.8 19.1 -22.1 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.7 0.1 -2.6 44 0.8 0.1 -2.9 54
Phosphorus 4.4 5 g/kg - 1.3 2 -8 41 1.4 2.3 -9 51
Phytate phosphorus 3.3 3.7 g/kg 75 % P
Magnesium 1.8 2.1 g/kg - 0.4 1.2 -2.5 11 0.5 1.4 -2.8 21
Potassium 5.5 6.3 g/kg - 1.2 4 -7.2 10 1.3 4.6 -8.4 20
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg - 0.08 0 -0.3 11 0.09 0 -0.34 21
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.4 -1.2 11 0.3 0 -1.4 21
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.09 0.9 -1.1 5 0.1 1 -1.3 15
Dietary cation-anion difference 64 73 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 126 145 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 14 mg/kg - 4 9 -20 7 4 10 -23 17
Zinc 37 42 mg/kg - 6 27 -45 7 7 31 -53 17
Copper 2 3 mg/kg - 0.8 2 -5 7 1 1 -5 17
Iron 94 108 mg/kg - 26 66 -101 7 30 74 -182 17
Selenium 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.2 0.09 -0.5 6 0.2 0.1 -0.6 6
Molybdenum 0.6 0.7 mg/kg - 0.7 0.8 0 -2 10
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.7 7.7 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.6 10.2-11.8 6
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 1.2 1.3 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.4-1.9 6
C18:1 oleic acid 16.7 19.1 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 37.9 43.4 g/kg 59.5 % FA 1.9 58.5-63 6
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 1 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.2 0.5 -1 6 0.2 0.6 -1.2 6 0.3 1.3-2.1 6
Fatty acids 6.4 7.3 g/kg 94 % fat 0.9 93-96 5
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.11 1.27 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.13 1.29 per kg -
PDIA Systali 41 47 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 87 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -42 -48 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.273 0.313 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2930 3350 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1960 2240 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1990 2270 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.2 9.4 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82.5 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 47 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 68 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 57 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.13 1.3 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.15 1.32 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 86 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -41 -47 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.07 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.08 1.23 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 47 54 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 90 103 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -45 -51 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.08 1.24 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.08 1.23 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 48 55 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 68 78 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 82 94 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2890 3310 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.8 %
N digestibility ruminants - 66.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76.4 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.3 3.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3230 3700 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3140 3590 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2460 2810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3490 4000 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3370 3850 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2620 3000 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.5 15.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.1 15 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.1 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11 12.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 78.4 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 84.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 81.4 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 88 %
N digestibility growing pig - 72.4 % 67-73 4
N digestibility adult pig - 89.9 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 67.2 % 59-85 4
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 20 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2960 3390 kcal/kg - 150 2890 -3330 7 150 3250 -3740 7
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2890 3310 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.4 14.2 MJ/kg - 0.6 12.1 -13.9 7 0.6 13.6 -15.6 7
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 81 %
Energy digestibility horse - 77.7 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.03 1.18 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 61 69 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3190 3650 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3100 3550 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.3 15.3 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 77.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 66.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.6 2.9 -5.4 17 0.6 2.5 -5 16 0.7 2-4.7 18
Threonine 3.5 4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -4.2 11 0.4 3.3 -4.6 10 0.4 3.4-4.7 12
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.2 1.4 -1.9 11 0.2 1.5 -2.2 10 0.2 1.4-2.2 12
Cystine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.2 1.7 -2.2 9 0.2 1.9 -2.5 7 0.3 1.7-2.6 9
Methionine + cystine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.3 3.2 -3.9 9 0.3 3.6 -4.4 7 0.4 3.2-4.4 9
Tryptophan 0.6 0.7 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N
Isoleucine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.4 2.8 -3.8 10 0.4 3.3 -4.4 9 0.5 2.7-4.3 11
Valine 4.5 5.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.5 3.8 -5.5 10 0.5 4.7 -6.3 8 0.6 4.6-6.1 10
Leucine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -11.5 10 1.2 9.5 -13.1 9 1.6 8.4-12.9 11
Phenylalanine 4 4.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.4 3.8 -5.1 10 0.5 4.3-5.7 10
Tyrosine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.3 2.8 -4.3 7 0.8 3-4.9 8
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 7 8 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 0.3 6.6 -9.5 7 1.2 7.3-10.6 7
Histidine 2.8 3.2 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.7 2.2 -3.7 10 0.8 1.6 -4.2 9 0.8 1.3-4.1 11
Arginine 5.3 6.1 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 1 3.8 -7.1 10 1.2 4 -7.6 9 1.1 3.2-7.2 11
Alanine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 7 g/16g N 0.5 5.6 -7.8 10 0.5 7.1 -8.8 9 0.9 5.8-8.4 11
Aspartic acid 6.6 7.5 g/kg 7.2 g/16g N 0.6 5.6 -9.2 10 0.6 6.4 -8.6 9 0.7 6.3-8.4 11
Glutamic acid 14.9 17.1 g/kg 16.4 g/16g N 2.3 13.5 -19.2 10 2.6 15.2 -22 9 2.7 14.7-21.8 11
Glycine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.1 -4.9 10 0.4 3.6 -5.2 9 0.4 3.7-5.1 11
Serine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.5 3.7 -5.2 10 0.6 4.2 -5.7 9 0.5 4-5.5 11
Proline 4.4 5.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 93 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 85 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 95 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 89 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 92 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 93 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.4 g/kg 95 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 92 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.8 g/kg 99 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 92 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 93 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.4 g/kg 92 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 92 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 91 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 98 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.8 g/kg 90 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 14.6 16.7 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 88 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 91 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.3 g/kg 84 %
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