Sunflower meal, oil < 5%, dehulled

Byproduct of oil manufacture obtained by extraction of dehulled or partially dehulled sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.). This product has a low content in residual oil and results from mechanical pressure followed by solvent extraction.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.4 100 % - 1 86.9 -94.7 2973 1.5
Crude protein 36.6 40.4 % - 1.4 32 -50.5 3093 1.5 36 -54.8 2984
Crude fibre 17.8 19.6 % - 1.6 14.1 -26.4 2986 1.8 15.5 -30 2903
Crude fat 1.2 1.4 % - 0.4 0.1 -4.5 2536 0.5 0.1 -5 2520
Ash 6.5 7.2 % - 0.5 5.4 -8.3 700 0.5 6.1 -9.1 679
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 0.1 0.03 -0.3 9 0.1 0.03 -0.3 8
NDF 31.4 34.8 % - 4.8 21.1 -41.3 63 5.3 22.3 -45 72
ADF 21 23.2 % - 3.5 15 -27.9 63 3.9 12 -29.8 73
Lignin 6.7 7.5 % - 1.4 4 -9.5 81 1.6 2.8 -10.8 92
Water insoluble cell walls 27.7 30.6 % - 24 -45 4
Starch 3.5 3.9 % - 2 0.9 -5.9 20 2.2 1 -8.2 20
Starch, enzymatic method 1 1.2 % - 0.6 -1.7 2
Total sugars 6.7 7.4 % - 1.1 4.7 -7.6 9 1.2 5.3 -9.1 13
Gross energy (kcal) 4180 4620 kcal/kg - 130 4020 -4870 23 140 4500 -5200 38
Gross energy (MJ) 17.5 19.4 MJ/kg - 0.6 16.8 -20.4 23 0.6 18.8 -21.8 38
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 4 4.4 g/kg - 0.8 2.2 -6.4 229 0.9 2.5 -7.2 222
Phosphorus 10.4 11.5 g/kg - 1.8 8 -18.7 261 2 9 -20.2 246
Phytate phosphorus 8.8 9.8 g/kg 85 % P 0.9 7.6 -10.1 6 1 1
Magnesium 5 5.6 g/kg - 1.1 3.5 -6.4 8 1.2 3.8 -7.2 7
Potassium 15.1 16.6 g/kg - 1.9 10.4 -17.4 23 2.1 11.5 -19.2 14
Sodium 0.08 0.08 g/kg - 0.15 0 -0.53 33 0.16 0 -0.6 13
Chlorine 1.2 1.4 g/kg - 0.2 0.8 -1.6 25 0.3 0.9 -1.8 9
Sulfur 4.4 4.9 g/kg - 0.1 4.3 -4.7 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 77 85 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 354 392 mEq/kg -
Manganese 40 45 mg/kg - 9 19 -122 14 10 21 -49 7
Zinc 85 94 mg/kg - 7 56 -110 14
Copper 29 32 mg/kg - 5 8 -77 28 6 9 -42 22
Iron 448 496 mg/kg - 697 149 -1870 6 1
Selenium 0.3 0.3 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0.01 % FA 0-0.02 3
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.04 0-0.1 8
C16:0 palmitic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 6.4 % FA 0.4 5.9-7.2 11
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-0.6 4
C18:0 stearic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 4.3 % FA 0.8 2.8-5.4 11
C18:1 oleic acid 1.9 2.1 g/kg 20.2 % FA 3.3 15.3-28 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 6.1 6.7 g/kg 65.2 % FA 4.7 59.3-73.6 18
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3 0-1 11
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.6 0.2-1.7 7
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.2 2
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:0 behenic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0-0.6 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1
Fatty acids 0.9 1 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 10.8 11.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 3.4 3.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 13.3 14.7 mg/kg -
Niacin 235 260 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 39.5 43.7 mg/kg -
Choline 2559 2830 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 0 0 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.78 0.86 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.71 0.79 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 79 87 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 123 136 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 195 215 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.29 0.321 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2190 2420 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1370 1510 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1250 1380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.2 10.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.7 6.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.3 5.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 67.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 67.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 76 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 59 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.8 0.88 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.74 0.82 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 67 74 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 114 126 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 205 226 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.73 0.81 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.66 0.73 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 95 105 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 139 154 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 178 196 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.76 0.84 per kg - 0.75 -0.9 4
UFL INRA 2007 0.76 0.84 per kg - 0.77 -0.93 4
UFV INRA 2007 0.69 0.76 per kg - 0.68 -0.87 4
UFV INRA 2007 0.68 0.76 per kg - 0.65 -0.83 4
PDIA INRA 2007 84 93 g/kg - 13 15 65 -103 7
PDIN INRA 2007 240 266 g/kg - 14 15 236 -279 7
PDIE INRA 2007 129 143 g/kg - 14 15 115 -156 7
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2170 2400 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 69.1 % 65.1-74.2 4
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 68.6 % 64.8-74.1 4
N digestibility ruminants - 76.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 89 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 61.2 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 8 59-82 9
Immediately degradable N (a) - 33 % 5-38 4
Potentially degradable N (b) - 60 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 0.069-0.23 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 34 % 6 24-38 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 44 % 6 35-51 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.085 h-1 0.048 0.042-0.172 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 58.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.9 7.6 g/kg 66 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.2 2.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 755 835 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 749 828 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 109 121 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 200 221 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.1 3.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 58.8 65 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.96 3.27 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.47 1.63 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.39 1.53 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.6 1.77 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.03 1.14 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.3 5.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 182 201 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 29 32 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2690 2970 kcal/kg - 330 2290 -3310 9 370 2510 -3600 10
ME growing pig (kcal) 2450 2710 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1450 1600 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2920 3230 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2630 2910 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1560 1730 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6 6.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.2 13.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11 12.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.5 7.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 64.3 % 8.3 53.3-76.6 10
Energy digestibility adult pig - 69.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 66.8 % 59-74.5 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 72.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 77.8 % 3.4 75.8-88.1 11
N digestibility adult pig - 81.7 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 % 3 79-88.1 7
Crude fat digestibility pig - 0 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2 2.2 g/kg 19 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3 3.3 g/kg 29 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1570 1740 kcal/kg - 1 300 1590 -2610 10
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1560 1720 kcal/kg - 1460 -1650 2 1570 -1790 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 6.6 7.3 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 6.5 7.2 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.8 2 g/kg 17 % P
Available P broiler 1.8 2 g/kg 17 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 73.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.79 0.88 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 276 306 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2640 2920 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2290 2530 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11 12.2 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 9.6 10.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 63.1 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 79.9 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2780 3080 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 66.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 86.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 13 14.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.2 9.2 -23.6 138 1.3 11.5 -18.2 114 0.3 2.8-4.4 133
Threonine 13.2 14.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.1 9.4 -17.3 63 1.2 12.7 -18.4 48 0.2 3-4.2 64
Methionine 8.2 9.1 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.8 5.1 -10.9 64 0.9 7.1 -11.6 47 0.2 1.5-2.6 63
Cystine 6.2 6.8 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 1 3.4 -9.1 61 1.1 5.2 -10 44 0.2 1.3-2.2 60
Methionine + cystine 14.4 15.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.7 8.5 -19.7 62 1.9 11.7 -21.6 45 0.4 3-4.8 60
Tryptophan 4.6 5.1 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.8 3.6 -6.7 27 0.9 4 -6.8 11 0.1 1-1.6 28
Isoleucine 15 16.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.6 9.6 -20.2 60 1.8 13.7 -21.9 44 0.3 3-4.7 61
Valine 18 19.9 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 2.1 11.3 -23.7 62 2.3 15.8 -25.8 46 0.4 3.8-5.7 63
Leucine 22.4 24.8 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 2.4 15.1 -30.2 60 2.6 20.6 -32.8 44 0.3 5.3-6.8 61
Phenylalanine 16.1 17.8 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.8 10.8 -22 60 1.9 14.5 -23.9 44 0.2 3.7-4.8 61
Tyrosine 8.4 9.3 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 1.3 5.7 -12.7 42 1.5 6.3 -12.7 27 0.3 1.7-3.2 44
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 24.5 27.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 2.5 18.8 -34.3 44 2.8 20.8 -33.9 28 0.5 5.5-8 44
Histidine 8.8 9.7 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 1.1 5.9 -12.2 55 1.2 8.5 -13.2 39 0.2 2.1-3 56
Arginine 30 33.2 g/kg 8.2 g/16g N 3.4 18 -42.3 52 3.8 28.5 -46 36 0.5 7.3-10.1 53
Alanine 15.6 17.3 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.9 11 -20.2 52 2.1 13.9 -21.9 37 0.3 3.7-5 54
Aspartic acid 32.2 35.6 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 3.6 21.6 -43.8 54 3.9 29.9 -47.6 38 0.5 7.8-9.7 55
Glutamic acid 70.3 77.8 g/kg 19.2 g/16g N 9.4 43 -101 52 10.3 65.7 -110 36 1.3 17-22.9 53
Glycine 20.6 22.8 g/kg 5.6 g/16g N 2.3 14.8 -27.6 58 2.5 19.4 -29.4 42 0.4 4.7-6.7 59
Serine 15.1 16.7 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.6 10.7 -20.9 57 1.8 14.1 -22.6 41 0.2 3.6-4.6 58
Proline 15.2 16.8 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 2.6 9.8 -26.1 38 2.9 14.6 -28.2 22 0.4 3.6-5.4 39
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 10.8 11.9 g/kg 83 % 10.3 -13.7 3 11.4 -14.9 3 4 77-89 7
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 10.8 11.9 g/kg 82 % 10.7 -11.7 3 11.7 -13.1 3 4 76-89 7
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.2 g/kg 91 % 3 86-96 7
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.6 g/kg 82 % 4.7 -5.1 3 5.2 -5.7 3 2 79-86 7
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 12.5 13.8 g/kg 87 % 12.4 -13 3 13.6 -14.3 3 2 86-91 6
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.3 g/kg 84 % 83-86 2
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 12.6 14 g/kg 84 % 4 79-93 7
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 14.9 16.4 g/kg 83 % 13.9 -16.9 3 15.2 -19 3 5 76-92 7
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 19 21 g/kg 85 % 20.9 -21.9 3 4 79-92 7
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 13.9 15.4 g/kg 87 % 5 80-94 7
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.2 g/kg 88 % 3 83-93 7
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 21.4 23.7 g/kg 87 % 4 84-94 6
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.2 g/kg 84 % 4 81-91 7
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 28.1 31 g/kg 94 % 27.6 -33.8 3 30.5 -37 3 1 92-97 7
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 12.7 14.1 g/kg 81 % 12.3 -13.1 3 13.4 -14.5 3 5 76-91 7
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 26.8 29.6 g/kg 83 % 26.8 -27.8 3 29.3 -31.3 3 4 78-91 7
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 63.3 70 g/kg 90 % 3 87-96 7
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 15.4 17.1 g/kg 75 % 14.5 -16.4 3 15.9 -18.4 3 4 70-81 7
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 12.5 13.8 g/kg 83 % 4 79-89 7
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 13.3 14.7 g/kg 87 % 12.7 -15 3 13.9 -16.9 3 5 82-92 5
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.6 11.8 g/kg 82 % 1 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 10 11.1 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.3 g/kg 92 % 1 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5 g/kg 73 % 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13.3 g/kg 84 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.3 g/kg 84 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.8 14.1 g/kg 85 % 1 1 1
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.9 16.5 g/kg 83 % 1 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 18.8 20.8 g/kg 84 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 14 15.5 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8 g/kg 86 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.3 23.5 g/kg 87 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.5 g/kg 77 % 1 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 27.3 30.2 g/kg 91 % 1 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 13 14.3 g/kg 83 % 1 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 25.8 28.5 g/kg 80 % 1 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 61.2 67.7 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.6 16.2 g/kg 71 % 1 1 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.8 13 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 14.3 15.8 g/kg 94 % 1 1 1
Origin Ukraine, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.06 4.5 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.42 2.68 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 554 613 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.006 0.0066 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 22.27 24.63 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0004 0.0005 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, low dehulling (32% CP), ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.4 2.65 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.34 2.59 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 239 265 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0045 0.005 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 19.57 21.64 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0003 0.0003 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, high dehulling (36% CP), ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.21 3.55 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 3.17 3.51 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 324 359 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0061 0.0068 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 26.53 29.34 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0004 0.0004 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML