Wheat feed flour

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum).  It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.7 100 % - 2.4 83.8 -96.3 445 2.3
Crude protein 13.4 15.2 % - 2 9.1 -18.3 532 2.2 8.4 -20.5 453
Crude fibre 1 1.1 % - 0.5 0.2 -2.9 125 0.6 0.3 -3.3 92
Crude fat 2.4 2.7 % - 0.8 0.6 -4.2 123 0.9 0.7 -4.4 91
Ash 1.5 1.8 % - 0.6 0.4 -2.7 162 0.7 0.5 -3.1 129
Insoluble ash 0.06 0.07 % - 0.03 -0.09 2 1
NDF 7.3 8.3 % - 3.1 4.8 -13.6 7 3.6 5 -15.8 8
ADF 1.5 1.8 % - 0.9 0.4 -2.6 6 1 0.4 -3.2 7
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % - 0.1 0.3 -0.7 9 0.1 0.3 -0.8 10
Water insoluble cell walls 6.7 7.7 % - 1 1.8 -12.7 2
Starch 60.9 69.5 % - 6.6 44.6 -79.1 496 7.5 51.1 -83.2 412
Total sugars 4.9 5.6 % - 1 1.3 -4.9 10
Gross energy (kcal) 3960 4510 kcal/kg - 210 3830 -4110 3 230 3870 -4980 16
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 18.9 MJ/kg - 0.9 16 -17.2 3 1 16.2 -20.8 16
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.4 0.7 -2 7 0.4 0.8 -2.1 8
Phosphorus 3.9 4.4 g/kg - 1.1 1.6 -4.9 11 1.3 1.8 -5.8 12
Phytate phosphorus 3.1 3.5 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 5.5 6.2 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg - 0 -0.15 4 0 -0.17 4
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 1
Dietary cation-anion difference 35 40 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 126 144 mEq/kg -
Manganese 50 57 mg/kg -
Zinc 40 45 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 14 16 mg/kg - 15 -16 2
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.4 3.9 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.8 12.3 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.1 1.3 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 1.9 2.2 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 23 26 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg -
Niacin 42 48 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1528 1743 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3060 3490 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.15 1.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.18 1.35 per kg -
PDIA Systali 30 34 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 83 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 5 6 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.128 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2970 3390 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2020 2310 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2080 2370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.4 14.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.5 9.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 90.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 88.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.17 1.33 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.2 1.37 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 26 30 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 80 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 7 8 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.11 1.27 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.14 1.29 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 36 41 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 87 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 1 1 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.12 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.14 1.3 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 32 36 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 88 101 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 97 110 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2950 3370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 91.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 74.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 69.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.9 3.3 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3660 4180 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3550 4050 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2740 3120 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3700 4220 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 3570 4070 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2760 3150 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.3 17.5 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.9 17 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.5 17.6 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.9 17 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 92.6 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 93.4 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 94.7 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 95 % 1
N digestibility growing pig - 87 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88.5 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 95 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.3 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.1 g/kg 25 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3060 3500 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2960 3370 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg - 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 105 120 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3290 3760 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3160 3600 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 15.7 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 15.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.2 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 79 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.3 2.8-3.9 7
Threonine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.5 3.7 -4.9 7 0.6 3.8 -5.7 7 0.1 2.8-3.1 7
Methionine 2 2.3 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3 7 0.5 1.9 -3.5 7 0.2 1.4-1.9 7
Cystine 2.7 3.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.5 3 -4.3 6 0.1 2-2.3 6
Methionine + cystine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.8 4.7 -6.7 6 0.9 4.9 -7.7 6
Tryptophan 1.6 1.9 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 1.3 -1.8 3 1.5 -2 3
Isoleucine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 3.9 -5.7 5 0.8 4.4 -6.5 5 0.3 3.1-3.8 5
Valine 6 6.8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4.8 -6.7 5 0.9 5.4 -7.7 5 0.4 3.8-4.7 5
Leucine 8.4 9.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 0.9 7.4 -9.9 5 1 8.4 -11.3 5 0.3 5.9-6.6 5
Phenylalanine 5.4 6.2 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.7 5.1 -6.7 5 0.7 5.7 -7.6 5 0.2 4-4.4 5
Tyrosine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.2 10.5 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 3 -3.6 4 3.4 -4.1 4 2.2-2.7 4
Arginine 7.6 8.7 g/kg 5.7 g/16g N 1.2 5.1 -8 5 1.4 5.7 -9.1 5 0.7 4-5.7 5
Alanine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 8.1 9.2 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 31.4 35.8 g/kg 23.5 g/16g N
Glycine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Serine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.7 5.3 -7.1 5 0.8 6.2 -8.1 5 0.2 4.1-4.7 5
Proline 8.9 10.1 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 94 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 92 % 89-92 4
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 96 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 93 % 93-94 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5.1 g/kg 95 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 92 % 90-93 3
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 95 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 93 % 89-93 4
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.2 g/kg 96 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 97 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.1 g/kg 96 % 92-98 4
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 10.1 g/kg 96 % 94-97 4
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 97 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.5 g/kg 97 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 89 % 80-91 4
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.5 g/kg 92 % 87-92 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 30.9 35.2 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.9 g/kg 94 % 89-96 4
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 95 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.9 g/kg 97 % 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2.1 g/kg 90 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 86 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 88 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.4 g/kg 91 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 92 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 87 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.5 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 86 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.4 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.3 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.6 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.4 34.6 g/kg 97 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 87 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 90 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.9 g/kg 98 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.94 1.08 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.69 0.78 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 107 122 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0026 0.003 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.98 1.12 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.33 0.38 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML