Wheat feed flour

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum).  It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.6 100 % - 1.4 83.8 -96.3 506 2.2
Crude protein 13.3 15.1 % - 1.9 9.1 -18.3 593 2.2 8.4 -20.5 514
Crude fibre 1 1.1 % - 0.5 0.1 -2.9 140 0.6 0.1 -3.3 107
Crude fat 2.4 2.7 % - 0.8 0.6 -4.2 139 0.9 0.7 -4.4 107
Ash 1.5 1.7 % - 0.6 0.4 -2.7 185 0.6 0.5 -3.1 152
Insoluble ash 0.06 0.07 % - 0.03 -0.09 2 1
NDF 7.2 8.2 % - 3.1 4.8 -13.6 7 3.6 5 -15.8 8
ADF 1.5 1.7 % - 0.9 0.4 -2.6 6 1 0.4 -3.2 7
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % - 0.1 0.3 -0.7 9 0.1 0.3 -0.8 10
Water insoluble cell walls 6.6 7.5 % - 1 1.8 -12.7 2
Starch 61.1 69.7 % - 6.5 44.6 -79.1 548 7.3 51.1 -83.2 463
Starch, enzymatic method 54.8 62.5 % -
Total sugars 4.9 5.6 % - 1 1.3 -4.9 10
Gross energy (kcal) 3950 4510 kcal/kg - 210 3830 -4110 3 230 3870 -4980 16
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 18.9 MJ/kg - 0.9 16 -17.2 3 1 16.2 -20.8 16
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.4 0.7 -2 7 0.4 0.8 -2.1 8
Phosphorus 3.8 4.4 g/kg - 1.1 1.6 -4.9 11 1.3 1.8 -5.8 12
Phytate phosphorus 3.1 3.5 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 5.4 6.2 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg - 0 -0.15 4 0 -0.17 4
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 1
Dietary cation-anion difference 34 39 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 125 143 mEq/kg -
Manganese 50 57 mg/kg -
Zinc 40 45 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 14 16 mg/kg - 15 -16 2
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.4 3.9 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.7 12.2 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.1 1.3 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1.9 2.2 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 22.7 25.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.2 2.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.2 mg/kg -
Niacin 41.8 47.7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1528 1743 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3060 3490 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.06 1.21 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.07 1.22 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 30 34 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 80 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 8 9 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.128 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2790 3180 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1870 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1880 2150 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.4 14.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.5 9.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.08 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.25 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 26 29 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 9 11 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 36 41 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 85 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 4 4 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.12 1.28 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.04 1.19 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.14 1.3 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.04 1.19 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 32 36 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 88 100 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 93 106 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2790 3180 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.6 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 69.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.9 3.3 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1042 1189 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1140 1301 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 83 95 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 3 3 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5 5.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 78 89 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.45 3.94 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.81 2.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2.22 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.34 1.53 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.4 8.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 153 174 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -3 -4 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3670 4180 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3550 4060 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2740 3130 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3700 4220 kcal/kg - 1
ME adult pig (kcal) 3570 4080 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2760 3150 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.3 17.5 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.9 17 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.5 17.7 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 15 17.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 92.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 93.5 % 1
OM digestibility growing pig - 94.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 95.6 % 1
N digestibility growing pig - 87.1 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88.5 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 95.1 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.1 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.1 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.4 1.6 g/kg 38 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3070 3500 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2960 3380 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.9 14.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.4 14.1 MJ/kg - 1
Available P cockerel 1 1.1 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1 1.1 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 104 119 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3300 3760 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3160 3600 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 15.7 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 15.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.3 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 78.9 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2120 2420 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.9 10.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 53.7 %
N digestibility salmonids - 82.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.3 2.8-3.9 7
Threonine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.5 3.7 -4.9 7 0.6 3.8 -5.7 7 0.1 2.8-3.1 7
Methionine 2 2.3 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3 7 0.5 1.9 -3.5 7 0.2 1.4-1.9 7
Cystine 2.7 3.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.5 3 -4.3 6 0.1 2-2.3 6
Methionine + cystine 4.7 5.3 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.9 4.9 -7.7 6
Tryptophan 1.6 1.8 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 1.3 -1.8 3 1.5 -2 3
Isoleucine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 3.9 -5.7 5 0.8 4.4 -6.5 5 0.3 3.1-3.8 5
Valine 6 6.8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4.8 -6.7 5 0.9 5.4 -7.7 5 0.4 3.8-4.7 5
Leucine 8.3 9.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 0.9 7.4 -9.9 5 1 8.4 -11.3 5 0.3 5.9-6.6 5
Phenylalanine 5.4 6.2 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.7 5.1 -6.7 5 0.7 5.7 -7.6 5 0.2 4-4.4 5
Tyrosine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.2 10.5 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 3.5 4 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 3 -3.6 4 3.4 -4.1 4 2.2-2.7 4
Arginine 7.5 8.6 g/kg 5.7 g/16g N 1.2 5.1 -8 5 1.4 5.7 -9.1 5 0.7 4-5.7 5
Alanine 5.6 6.3 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 4.1 -5.6 5 0.7 4.6 -6.4 5
Aspartic acid 8 9.1 g/kg 6 g/16g N 7 -8.1 4 8.1 -9.2 4
Glutamic acid 31.4 35.8 g/kg 23.7 g/16g N
Glycine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Serine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.7 5.3 -7.1 5 0.8 6.2 -8.1 5 0.2 4.1-4.7 5
Proline 8.8 10.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.3 g/kg 94 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 92 % 89-92 4
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 96 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 93 % 93-94 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 95 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 92 % 90-93 3
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 95 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 93 % 89-93 4
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 96 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 97 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.1 g/kg 96 % 92-98 4
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 10.1 g/kg 96 % 94-97 4
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 97 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.3 8.4 g/kg 97 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 89 % 80-91 4
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.3 8.4 g/kg 92 % 87-92 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 30.9 35.2 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.8 g/kg 94 % 89-96 4
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.2 g/kg 95 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.8 g/kg 97 % 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 90 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 86 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 88 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 91 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.5 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 92 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 87 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.4 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.5 g/kg 86 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.3 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.6 7.5 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.4 34.6 g/kg 97 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.3 g/kg 87 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 90 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.8 g/kg 98 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.94 1.07 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.88 1 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 105 120 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0026 0.003 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 11.41 13.02 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML