Wheat feed flour, durum

Byproduct of wheat flour or semolina production obtained by the milling of durum wheat grains (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87 100 % - 1.5 84.7 -91.3 23 2.4
Crude protein 14.3 16.5 % - 2 9.3 -18.1 28 2.3 10.7 -20.8 21
Crude fibre 1.5 1.7 % - 1.1 0.1 -3.7 20 1.3 0.1 -4.3 15
Crude fat 2.6 3 % - 1 0.8 -4.6 15 1.2 0.9 -5.3 11
Ash 1.7 2 % - 0.8 0.4 -3.8 22 0.9 0.5 -4.4 17
Insoluble ash 0.06 0.07 % -
NDF 9.2 10.6 % -
ADF 2.2 2.5 % -
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 8.6 9.9 % -
Starch 57.6 66.2 % - 6.8 45.7 -72.4 25 7.7 52.9 -83.3 18
Starch, enzymatic method 51.6 59.3 % -
Total sugars 5 5.7 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3950 4540 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.5 19 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.9 g/kg - 0.5 -1.1 4 0.6 -1.3 4
Phosphorus 4.2 4.8 g/kg - 0.4 3.3 -4.4 5 0.5 3.8 -5.1 5
Phytate phosphorus 3.4 3.9 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 5.8 6.7 g/kg -
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.4 1.7 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 45 52 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 135 156 mEq/kg -
Manganese 49 57 mg/kg -
Zinc 40 45 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 14 16 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.7 4.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.08 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 3.2 3.7 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 11.9 13.6 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.2 1.4 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.1 2.4 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 22.5 25.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.2 2.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.5 5.2 mg/kg -
Niacin 41.5 47.7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1517 1743 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3040 3490 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.04 1.2 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.05 1.2 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 82 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 18 20 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.127 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2750 3160 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1830 2110 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1840 2120 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.3 14.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.5 9.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.06 1.22 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.07 1.23 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 79 91 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 20 22 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1 1.15 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1 1.15 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 39 45 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 87 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 13 14 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.1 1.26 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.02 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.02 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 34 39 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 95 109 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 94 107 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2740 3150 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.5 13.2 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 70.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.2 3.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1022 1175 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1114 1281 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 84 96 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 13 15 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.8 5.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.7 1.9 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 76.9 88.4 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.42 3.93 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.79 2.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.69 1.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.93 2.22 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.33 1.53 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.2 8.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 154 177 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -2 -2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3570 4110 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3460 3970 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2650 3050 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3620 4160 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3490 4010 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2680 3080 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15 17.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.5 16.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.1 17.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 90.4 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.5 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 92.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 93.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85.7 %
N digestibility adult pig - 87.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 93.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 51.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.6 1.8 g/kg 38 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2960 3400 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2850 3280 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.4 14.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.9 13.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.1 1.2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.1 1.2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.2 %
Energy digestibility horse - 85.7 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.1 1.27 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 112 129 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3250 3740 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3100 3570 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.6 15.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 82.2 %
N digestibility rabbit - 79.5 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2160 2480 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9 10.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 54.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.1 3.7 -6.6 6 1.2 4.3 -7.2 6 0.6 2.5-3.9 6
Threonine 4.5 5.2 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 4.4 -5.7 3 5 -6.2 3 2.9-3.4 3
Methionine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N
Cystine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 3.5-3.9 3
Tryptophan 1.8 2.1 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 1.7 -1.9 2 2 -2.2 2
Isoleucine 4.6 5.3 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 3-3.8 3
Valine 6.5 7.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 4.4-4.6 3
Leucine 8.8 10.2 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 5.6-6.6 3
Phenylalanine 5.8 6.6 g/kg 4 g/16g N 3.7-4.4 3
Tyrosine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.7 11.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N
Histidine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 3.6 -4.1 3 4.1 -4.5 3
Arginine 8.7 10 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 8 -11.6 3 9.1 -12.7 3 5.3-6.9 3
Alanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 5.5 -7.4 3 6 -8.3 3 3.3-4.5 3
Aspartic acid 9.1 10.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 8.1 -11.1 3 9.2 -12.2 3 5.4-6.6 3
Glutamic acid 31.4 36.1 g/kg 21.9 g/16g N 29.2 -35.6 2 32 -39.8 2
Glycine 6.9 8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 6.2 -7.9 3 7.1 -8.7 3
Serine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N
Proline 9.5 11 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.9 g/kg 92 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 90 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 95 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 92 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 93 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 91 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.9 g/kg 94 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.8 g/kg 92 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.7 g/kg 95 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.4 g/kg 96 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 95 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 9.2 10.6 g/kg 95 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 96 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.6 g/kg 96 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 88 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.5 g/kg 90 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 30.7 35.2 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.3 g/kg 92 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.7 g/kg 94 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.7 g/kg 97 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 83 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 87 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.5 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 6 g/kg 91 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.9 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.9 g/kg 89 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.4 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.9 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.2 34.7 g/kg 96 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.8 g/kg 86 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.3 g/kg 89 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10.6 g/kg 97 %
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