Wheat feed flour, durum

Byproduct of wheat flour or semolina production obtained by the milling of durum wheat grains (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87 100 % - 2.7 84.7 -91.3 21 2.5
Crude protein 14.8 17.1 % - 2.1 9.3 -18.1 26 2.4 10.7 -20.8 19
Crude fibre 1.5 1.7 % - 1.1 0.1 -3.7 20 1.3 0.1 -4.3 15
Crude fat 2.7 3.2 % - 1 0.8 -4.6 15 1.2 0.9 -5.3 11
Ash 1.8 2.1 % - 0.8 0.4 -3.8 21 1 0.5 -4.4 16
NDF 9.3 10.7 % -
ADF 2.2 2.5 % -
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 8.7 10 % -
Starch 57.5 66 % - 7.2 45.7 -72.4 23 8.2 52.9 -83.3 16
Total sugars 5 5.7 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3960 4550 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 19.1 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.5 -1.1 4 0.6 -1.3 4
Phosphorus 4.4 5 g/kg - 0.4 3.3 -4.4 5 0.5 3.8 -5.1 5
Phytate phosphorus 3.5 4 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 6 6.9 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.4 1.7 g/kg -
Manganese 49 57 mg/kg -
Zinc 40 45 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.9 4.5 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 3.3 3.8 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 12.4 14.2 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.2 2.5 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 23 26 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg -
Niacin 42 48 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1517 1743 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3040 3490 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.13 1.29 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.15 1.33 per kg -
PDIA Systali 33 38 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 85 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 18 21 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.128 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2930 3360 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1980 2280 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2030 2330 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.3 14.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.5 9.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.14 1.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.18 1.35 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 82 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 21 24 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.09 1.25 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.11 1.27 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 40 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 90 104 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 13 15 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.1 1.26 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 35 41 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 98 113 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 98 113 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2900 3340 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 74.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 70.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.3 3.8 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3580 4110 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3460 3980 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2650 3050 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3620 4160 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3490 4020 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2680 3080 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15 17.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.5 16.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.2 17.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 90.3 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.5 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 92.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 94 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85.6 %
N digestibility adult pig - 87.4 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 93.3 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 53 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.1 1.3 g/kg 25 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2950 3390 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2840 3270 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.3 14.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.9 13.7 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89 %
Energy digestibility horse - 85.7 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.11 1.27 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 117 134 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3250 3740 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3100 3560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.6 15.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 82.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 79.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.8 6.7 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.1 3.7 -6.6 6 1.2 4.3 -7.2 6 0.6 2.5-3.9 6
Threonine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 4.4 -5.7 3 5 -6.2 3 2.9-3.4 3
Methionine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N
Cystine 3 3.4 g/kg 2 g/16g N 3.4 -3.7 3
Methionine + cystine 5.3 6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 3.5-3.9 3
Tryptophan 1.9 2.2 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 1.7 -1.9 2
Isoleucine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 3-3.8 3
Valine 6.7 7.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 4.4-4.6 3
Leucine 9.1 10.5 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 10.3 -11.3 3 5.6-6.6 3
Phenylalanine 5.9 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 6.8 -7.6 3 3.7-4.4 3
Tyrosine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.9 11.4 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N
Histidine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 3.6 -4.1 3
Arginine 9.2 10.6 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 8 -11.6 3 9.1 -12.7 3 5.3-6.9 3
Alanine 6.5 7.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 5.5 -7.4 3 6 -8.3 3 3.3-4.5 3
Aspartic acid 9.6 11 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 8.1 -11.1 3 9.2 -12.2 3 5.4-6.6 3
Glutamic acid 31.5 36.2 g/kg 21.2 g/16g N 29.2 -35.6 2 32 -39.8 2 17.4-21.5 2
Glycine 7.2 8.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 6.2 -7.9 3 7.1 -8.7 3
Serine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N
Proline 9.9 11.3 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.2 g/kg 92 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.9 g/kg 90 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.5 g/kg 95 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 92 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.6 g/kg 93 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 2 g/kg 91 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5.1 g/kg 94 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7 g/kg 92 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 95 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.5 g/kg 96 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.3 g/kg 95 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 9.4 10.8 g/kg 95 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.4 g/kg 96 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 10.2 g/kg 96 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.6 g/kg 88 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 10 g/kg 90 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 30.8 35.4 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.6 g/kg 92 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.9 g/kg 94 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 11 g/kg 97 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.5 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.2 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 87 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.7 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.3 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 91 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 10.1 g/kg 89 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.9 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.3 34.8 g/kg 96 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 86 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.6 g/kg 89 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.9 g/kg 96 %
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