Alfalfa protein concentrate

Protein concentrate obtained by pressing the aerial part of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In one commercial process, fresh alfalfa is first pressed to obtain a green juice. This juice is then heated and steamed to produce a protein coagulate. This coagulate is separated from the liquid by centrifugation, and then dried. Alfalfa protein concentrate is used for its high content in protein and pigments (caroten, xanthophylls).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92.2 100 % - 0.9 88.4 -95.5 1450 1.3
Crude protein 52.2 56.6 % - 2.2 42.9 -57.6 1500 2.3 46.9 -62.7 1450
Crude fibre 1.9 2 % - 0.8 0.5 -4.6 136 0.8 0.5 -5 129
Crude fat 8.3 9 % - 1.8 5.2 -13.3 74 1.9 5.4 -14.4 68
Ash 9.9 10.8 % - 1.6 6.5 -13.9 655 1.7 7.2 -14.9 653
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.8 % - 0.6 0.2 -2 7 0.6 0.2 -2.1 7
NDF 17.2 18.6 % - 3.2 10.6 -22.6 13 3.5 11.5 -24.5 10
ADF 3.9 4.2 % - 0.9 1.7 -5.1 17 1 1.9 -5.6 13
Lignin 1.5 1.6 % - 0.6 0.5 -2.7 17 0.6 0.6 -2.9 13
Water insoluble cell walls 9.5 10.3 % - 9.4 -9.7 2 1
Starch 0.9 0.9 % - 0.2 0.5 -1.1 8 0.2 0.5 -1.2 8
Starch, enzymatic method 0.3 0.3 % - 1 1
Total sugars 0.7 0.7 % - 0.2 0.2 -1 8 0.2 0.2 -1.1 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4820 5230 kcal/kg - 130 4620 -4900 7 130 4830 -5240 13
Gross energy (MJ) 20.2 21.9 MJ/kg - 0.5 19.3 -20.5 7 0.5 20.2 -21.9 13
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 33.8 36.7 g/kg - 5.3 23 -50.8 91 5.7 24.8 -55.6 91
Phosphorus 8.5 9.2 g/kg - 1.5 5.1 -15.8 84 1.7 5.6 -16.8 84
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.5 g/kg 5 % P
Magnesium 1.4 1.5 g/kg - 0.1 1.2 -1.6 17 0.1 1.3 -1.7 17
Potassium 7 7.6 g/kg - 1.2 5.5 -10.1 17 1.3 5.9 -11 17
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg - 0.09 0.02 -0.6 40 0.1 0.02 -0.66 40
Chlorine 1.3 1.4 g/kg - 0.1 -1.8 3 0.1 -2 3
Sulfur 9.2 10 g/kg - 3.3 4.5 -12.3 8 3.5 4.9 -13.4 8
Dietary cation-anion difference -431 -467 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 146 159 mEq/kg -
Manganese 103 112 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 19 21 mg/kg - 10 11 -41 9 11 12 -44 8
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 3 10 -20 8 4 10 -21 8
Iron 538 583 mg/kg - 276 78 -828 8 300 84 -899 8
Selenium 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0.2 0.05 -0.6 5 0.2 0.06 -0.7 5
Cobalt 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.4 0.4 mg/kg - 0.2 0.1 -0.7 7 0.2 0.1 -0.8 7
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 0.7 % FA 0 -0.5 2 0 -0.5 2 0.7 0.1-1.9 7
C14:0 myristic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1.5 % FA 1.1 0.4-3.1 8
C16:0 palmitic acid 9.5 10.3 g/kg 16.6 % FA 2.9 8.5 -18.7 13 3 13.3-21.3 8
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1.2 0.2-3.8 8
C18:0 stearic acid 1.6 1.7 g/kg 2.8 % FA 0.5 1.4 -3.2 14 1.1 1.3-4.8 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.3 4.7 g/kg 7.6 % FA 1.1 1.4 -4.8 14 2.8 3.4-11.7 8
C18:2 linoleic acid 16.7 18.2 g/kg 29.3 % FA 1.8 9.8 -17.2 14 12.2 -18.5 3 7.4 17.6-40 8
C18:3 linolenic acid 20.5 22.2 g/kg 35.8 % FA 8.3 25.7-51.4 8
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.04 % FA 1
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 0.8 % FA 2.6 0 -9.8 14 0 -0.6 2 0.3 0.4-1.1 8
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0-0.4 8
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.04 % FA 0.07 0-0.2 8
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.07 % FA 0-0.2 3
C22:0 behenic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 0.9 % FA 0.7 0.3-2.3 8
C22:1 erucic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.09 % FA 0 -0.7 2 0 -0.8 2 0.1 0-0.4 8
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.07 % FA 0.2 0-0.5 8
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.01 % FA 0.03 0-0.09 8
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1 % FA 0.9 0-2.8 8
Fatty acids 5.7 6.2 g/kg 69 % fat 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 207 225 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 867 941 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin K 100 108 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2.6 2.9 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4.5 4.9 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 83.4 90.5 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B12 0.01 0.01 µg/kg - 1
Niacin 6 6.5 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Folic acid 0.7 0.8 mg/kg - 1
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1
Choline 1190 1291 mg/kg - 1
Xanthophylls 1318 1430 mg/kg - 191 678 -1929 850 207 736 -2063 781
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.36 1.47 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.39 1.51 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 347 376 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 388 420 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 80 87 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.25 0.271 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3540 3840 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2390 2600 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2440 2650 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 14.8 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.3 11.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 90.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 91.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 30 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.1 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.39 1.5 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.42 1.55 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 323 351 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 366 397 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 102 110 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.31 1.42 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.32 1.43 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 389 421 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 427 463 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 40 43 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.23 1.34 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.23 1.34 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.22 1.33 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.22 1.33 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 413 448 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 463 502 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 439 477 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3310 3590 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.9 15.1 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.9 15 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 92.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 93.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 80.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 95 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 84.4 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 25 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.3 6.8 g/kg 74 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 18.6 20.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.1 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1230 1335 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1337 1450 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 431 468 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 49 53 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5.9 6.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2 2.2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 72.6 78.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.74 4.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.02 2.19 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.91 2.07 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.12 2.3 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.47 1.6 Mcal/kg -
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 8.7 9.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 498 540 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 4 4 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3750 4070 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3420 3710 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2200 2390 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3870 4190 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3510 3800 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2280 2470 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.7 17 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.5 16.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.3 15.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.1 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.1 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.2 10 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16 17.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.2 17.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.5 15.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.7 15.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.5 10.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.5 10.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 77.7 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 80.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 80 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 82.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 86.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 80 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.5 2.8 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.8 4.1 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2730 2970 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2730 2970 kcal/kg - 2210 -3050 2 2390 -3270 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg - 9.3 -12.8 2 10 -13.7 2
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 6.8 7.3 g/kg 80 % P
Available P broiler 6.8 7.3 g/kg 80 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.02 1.11 per kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3950 4290 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3520 3820 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 16.5 17.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 14.7 16 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 81.9 %
N digestibility rabbit - 68.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 3640 3950 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 15.2 16.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 75.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 87.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 31.5 34.2 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.8 28.5 -35.5 13 3 31.2 -38.8 5 0.2 5.9-6.5 6
Threonine 25 27.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.9 22.8 -28.4 13 2 26.2 -31 5 0.1 4.8-5.2 6
Methionine 10.7 11.6 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.5 8.8 -11.2 13 0.6 10.8 -12.2 5 0.03 2-2.1 6
Cystine 5 5.4 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 0.7 3.9 -6.2 12 0.7 4.2 -5.8 5 0.1 0.8-1 6
Methionine + cystine 15.7 17 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.2 14 -16.5 12 1.3 15 -18 5 0.1 2.8-3.1 6
Tryptophan 8 8.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 3.5 4.1 -14.3 7 1 1
Isoleucine 26.3 28.6 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.7 24.2 -29.8 13 1.8 26.3 -30.5 5 0.2 5-5.6 6
Valine 31.2 33.9 g/kg 6 g/16g N 1.9 29.1 -33.4 13 2 31.6 -36.5 5
Leucine 46.2 50.1 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 3.4 42.9 -54.6 13 3.6 45.9 -55.6 5 0.2 8.8-9.3 6
Phenylalanine 31.1 33.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.4 28.1 -34.4 13 2.5 31.6 -37.6 5 0.2 5.8-6.3 6
Tyrosine 22.3 24.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.7 18.9 -24.9 13 1.8 22.2 -27.2 5 0.2 4.2-4.7 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 53.4 57.9 g/kg 10.2 g/16g N 3.9 47.7 -59.3 13 4.1 54.1 -64.7 5
Histidine 13.2 14.3 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.9 11.4 -13.9 13 1 12.7 -15.2 5 0.07 2.4-2.5 6
Arginine 31.3 34 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.3 29 -35.6 13 2.5 32.4 -38.9 5
Alanine 30.7 33.3 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 2.1 28.1 -33.5 9 2.2 30.1 -35.9 5 0.1 5.8-6 6
Aspartic acid 50.1 54.3 g/kg 9.6 g/16g N 3.3 46.7 -54.5 13 3.6 50.7 -59.5 5 0.2 9.5-10 6
Glutamic acid 55 59.6 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 3.9 51.3 -68.8 13 4.2 55.8 -66.4 5 0.3 10.4-11.1 6
Glycine 27.1 29.4 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 2 24.6 -29.5 9 2.1 26.3 -32.2 5 0.1 5-5.4 6
Serine 21.9 23.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1.2 15.6 -24 13 1.3 23.1 -26.2 5
Proline 23.4 25.3 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.3 18.6 -25.4 13 1.3 24.2 -27.6 5
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 25.1 27.2 g/kg 80 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 19.7 21.3 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 9.9 g/kg 85 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.2 g/kg 78 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 13 14.1 g/kg 83 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 6.9 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 21.7 23.5 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 25.4 27.5 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 39 42.3 g/kg 84 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 26.5 28.7 g/kg 85 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 18.7 20.3 g/kg 84 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 45.2 49 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 11 12 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 27.8 30.2 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 24.6 26.7 g/kg 80 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 40.7 44.2 g/kg 81 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 47.9 51.9 g/kg 87 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 21.2 23 g/kg 78 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 17.9 19.4 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 19.2 20.8 g/kg 82 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 28.2 30.6 g/kg 89 % 89-91 4
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.4 22.1 g/kg 81 % 80-83 4
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10 g/kg 86 % 85-87 4
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.1 g/kg 58 % 52-66 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.1 13.1 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.3 g/kg 83 % 81-86 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.4 23.2 g/kg 81 % 80-82 4
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.1 27.2 g/kg 80 % 78-82 4
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 39.1 42.4 g/kg 85 % 83-86 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 26.2 28.4 g/kg 84 % 83-85 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.8 21.5 g/kg 89 % 88-90 4
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 45.9 49.8 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12 g/kg 84 % 84-86 4
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 28.2 30.6 g/kg 90 % 89-91 4
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 24.7 26.8 g/kg 80 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 42.5 46.1 g/kg 85 % 84-86 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 45.2 49.1 g/kg 82 % 81-84 4
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.9 22.7 g/kg 77 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.7 g/kg 79 % 77-81 4
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 18.3 19.9 g/kg 78 % 78-81 4
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 30.21 32.77 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 16.92 18.36 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 747 810 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0046 0.005 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 15.55 16.87 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML