Alfalfa protein concentrate

Protein concentrate obtained by pressing the aerial part of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In one commercial process, fresh alfalfa is first pressed to obtain a green juice. This juice is then heated and steamed to produce a protein coagulate. This coagulate is separated from the liquid by centrifugation, and then dried. Alfalfa protein concentrate is used for its high content in protein and pigments (caroten, xanthophylls).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92.2 100 % - 1.5 88.4 -95.5 1426 1.3
Crude protein 52.2 56.6 % - 2.2 42.9 -57.6 1476 2.3 46.9 -62.7 1426
Crude fibre 1.9 2.1 % - 0.8 0.5 -4.6 136 0.8 0.5 -5 129
Crude fat 8.4 9.1 % - 1.8 5.2 -13.3 73 1.9 5.4 -14.4 67
Ash 9.9 10.8 % - 1.6 6.5 -13.9 654 1.7 7.2 -14.9 652
Insoluble ash 0.7 0.8 % - 0.6 0.2 -2 7 0.6 0.2 -2.1 7
NDF 17 18.4 % - 3.2 10.6 -22.6 13 3.5 11.5 -24.5 10
ADF 3.8 4.1 % - 0.9 1.7 -5.1 17 1 1.9 -5.6 13
Lignin 1.4 1.5 % - 0.6 0.5 -2.7 17 0.6 0.6 -2.9 13
Water insoluble cell walls 9.5 10.3 % - 9.4 -9.7 2 1
Starch 0.9 0.9 % - 0.2 0.5 -1.1 8 0.2 0.5 -1.2 8
Total sugars 0.7 0.7 % - 0.2 0.2 -1 8 0.2 0.2 -1.1 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4830 5240 kcal/kg - 130 4620 -4900 7 130 4830 -5240 13
Gross energy (MJ) 20.2 21.9 MJ/kg - 0.5 19.3 -20.5 7 0.5 20.2 -21.9 13
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 33.8 36.7 g/kg - 5.3 23 -50.8 91 5.7 24.8 -55.6 91
Phosphorus 8.5 9.2 g/kg - 1.5 5.1 -15.8 84 1.7 5.6 -16.8 84
Phytate phosphorus 0.4 0.5 g/kg 5 % P
Magnesium 1.4 1.5 g/kg - 0.1 1.2 -1.6 17 0.1 1.3 -1.7 17
Potassium 7 7.6 g/kg - 1.2 5.5 -10.1 17 1.3 5.9 -11 17
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg - 0.09 0.02 -0.6 40 0.1 0.02 -0.66 40
Chlorine 1.3 1.4 g/kg - 0.1 -1.8 3 0.1 -2 3
Sulfur 9.2 10 g/kg - 3.3 4.5 -12.3 8 3.5 4.9 -13.4 8
Dietary cation-anion difference -431 -467 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 146 159 mEq/kg -
Manganese 103 112 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 19 21 mg/kg - 10 11 -41 9 11 12 -44 8
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 3 10 -20 8 4 10 -21 8
Iron 538 583 mg/kg - 277 78 -828 8 300 84 -899 8
Selenium 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0.2 0.05 -0.6 5 0.2 0.06 -0.7 5
Iodine 0.4 0.4 mg/kg - 0.2 0.1 -0.7 7 0.2 0.1 -0.8 7
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 2.7 3 g/kg 4.7 % FA 2.1 -3.8 2 2.3 -3.9 2 3 1.9-9.6 6
C16:0 palmitic acid 10 10.9 g/kg 17.2 % FA 2.9 8.5 -18.7 13 2.1 13.1-20.1 15
C18:0 stearic acid 1.5 1.6 g/kg 2.6 % FA 0.5 1.4 -3.2 14 0.3 2.2-3.5 15
C18:1 oleic acid 2.1 2.3 g/kg 3.6 % FA 1.1 1.4 -4.8 14 1.3 -3.9 3 1.7 1.7-7.3 15
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.4 11.3 g/kg 17.9 % FA 1.8 9.8 -17.2 14 1.5 15-19.8 15
C18:3 linolenic acid 28.3 30.7 g/kg 48.6 % FA 5.3 28.3 -48 15 5.2 35.6-55.3 16
Fatty acids 5.8 6.3 g/kg 69 % fat 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 207 225 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 867 940 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin K 100 108 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 5 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 83 90 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B12 0.01 0.01 µg/kg - 1
Niacin 6 6 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Folic acid 0.7 0.8 mg/kg - 1
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1
Choline 1190 1291 mg/kg - 1
Xanthophylls 1311 1422 mg/kg - 190 678 -1929 824 205 736 -2063 758
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.36 1.48 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.39 1.51 per kg -
PDIA Systali 347 376 g/kg -
PDI Systali 387 420 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 80 87 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.25 0.271 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 3550 3850 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2400 2600 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2450 2660 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 14.8 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 10 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.3 11.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 90.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 91.8 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 30 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 6.1 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 9.8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 6.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.4 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.39 1.51 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.43 1.55 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 323 350 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 366 397 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 102 110 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.31 1.42 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.32 1.44 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 388 421 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 427 463 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 40 43 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.23 1.34 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.22 1.33 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 413 448 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 463 502 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 439 476 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3320 3600 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.9 15.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 92.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 93.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 80.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 95 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 84.8 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 25 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.3 6.8 g/kg 74 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 18.6 20.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.1 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3700 4010 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3380 3670 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2180 2360 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3830 4150 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3470 3760 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2260 2450 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.5 16.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.1 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.1 9.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16 17.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.5 15.8 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.5 10.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 76.6 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 79.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 78.8 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 82 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 86.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 80 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2740 2980 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2740 2980 kcal/kg - 2210 -3050 2 2390 -3270 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg - 9.3 -12.8 2 10 -13.7 2
Available P cockerel 6.8 7.3 g/kg 80 % P
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 31.5 34.2 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.8 28.5 -35.5 13 3 31.2 -38.8 5 0.2 5.9-6.5 6
Threonine 25 27.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.9 22.8 -28.4 13 2 26.2 -31 5 0.1 4.8-5.2 6
Methionine 10.7 11.6 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.5 8.8 -11.2 13 0.6 10.8 -12.2 5 0.03 2-2.1 6
Cystine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 0.9 g/16g N 0.7 3.9 -6.2 12 0.7 4.2 -5.8 5 0.1 0.8-1 6
Methionine + cystine 15.6 17 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1.2 14 -16.5 12 1.3 15 -18 5 0.1 2.8-3.1 6
Tryptophan 8 8.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 3.5 4.1 -14.3 7 1 1
Isoleucine 26.3 28.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1.7 24.2 -29.8 13 1.8 26.3 -30.5 5 0.2 5-5.6 6
Valine 31.2 33.8 g/kg 6 g/16g N 1.9 29.1 -33.4 13 2 31.6 -36.5 5
Leucine 46.2 50.1 g/kg 8.9 g/16g N 3.4 42.9 -54.6 13 3.6 45.9 -55.6 5 0.2 8.8-9.3 6
Phenylalanine 31.1 33.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.4 28.1 -34.4 13 2.5 31.6 -37.6 5 0.2 5.8-6.3 6
Tyrosine 22.3 24.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.7 18.9 -24.9 13 1.8 22.2 -27.2 5 0.2 4.2-4.7 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 53.4 57.9 g/kg 10.2 g/16g N 3.9 47.7 -59.3 13 4.1 54.1 -64.7 5
Histidine 13.2 14.3 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.9 11.4 -13.9 13 1 12.7 -15.2 5 0.07 2.4-2.5 6
Arginine 31.3 33.9 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.3 29 -35.6 13 2.5 32.4 -38.9 5
Alanine 30.7 33.3 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 2.1 28.1 -33.5 9 2.2 30.1 -35.9 5 0.1 5.8-6 6
Aspartic acid 50 54.3 g/kg 9.6 g/16g N 3.3 46.7 -54.5 13 3.6 50.7 -59.5 5 0.2 9.5-10 6
Glutamic acid 54.9 59.6 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 3.9 51.3 -68.8 13 4.2 55.8 -66.4 5 0.3 10.4-11.1 6
Glycine 27 29.3 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 2 24.6 -29.5 9 2.1 26.3 -32.2 5 0.1 5-5.4 6
Serine 21.9 23.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1.2 15.6 -24 13 1.3 23.1 -26.2 5
Proline 23.3 25.3 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.3 18.6 -25.4 13 1.3 24.2 -27.6 5
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 28.2 30.5 g/kg 89 % 89-91 4
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.4 22.1 g/kg 81 % 80-83 4
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10 g/kg 86 % 85-87 4
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.1 g/kg 58 % 52-66 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.1 13.1 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.2 g/kg 83 % 81-86 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.3 23.1 g/kg 81 % 80-82 4
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.1 27.2 g/kg 80 % 78-82 4
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 39 42.4 g/kg 85 % 83-86 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 26.1 28.4 g/kg 84 % 83-85 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.8 21.4 g/kg 89 % 88-90 4
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 45.9 49.8 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12 g/kg 84 % 84-86 4
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 28.2 30.5 g/kg 90 % 89-91 4
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 42.4 46 g/kg 85 % 84-86 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 45.2 49 g/kg 82 % 81-84 4
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.6 g/kg 79 % 77-81 4
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 18.3 19.8 g/kg 78 % 78-81 4
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