Cowpea seed

Seed of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Cowpea is a grain legume popular as human food in Africa and in some regions of Asia and the Americas. Other names: black-eyed pea, black-eyed bean, asparagus bean.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.7 100 % - 5.2 80.7 -97.3 43 4.8
Crude protein 22.4 25 % - 1.7 19.1 -25.1 37 1.7 20.9 -27.5 48
Crude fibre 4.2 4.7 % - 1.2 1.2 -5.6 21 1.3 1.3 -6.6 24
Crude fat 1.4 1.5 % - 0.4 0.6 -2.3 35 0.5 0.7 -2.6 47
Ash 3.9 4.3 % - 0.9 2.9 -6.9 42 0.9 3.1 -7.4 52
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 0.06 0.02 -0.2 11 0.07 0.02 -0.3 14
NDF 12.7 14.1 % - 3.3 8.7 -19.3 9 3.6 9.7 -21.2 8
ADF 5.6 6.2 % - 1.2 3.6 -6.9 9 1.3 4 -8 9
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % - 0.1 0.3 -0.6 7 0.1 0.3 -0.7 7
Water insoluble cell walls 13 14.5 % -
Starch 42.2 47 % - 5.5 36.4 -49.6 8 6 40.7 -55.5 8
Total sugars 4.2 4.6 % - 0.3 -6.3 4 0.4 -7.1 4
Gross energy (kcal) 3910 4350 kcal/kg - 270 3720 -4120 9 270 4140 -4970 12
Gross energy (MJ) 16.3 18.2 MJ/kg - 1.1 15.6 -17.2 9 1.1 17.3 -20.8 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.7 0.3 -2.5 27 0.8 0.3 -4 32
Phosphorus 3.3 3.7 g/kg - 1.3 0.2 -4.9 30 1.5 0.2 -5.4 37
Phytate phosphorus 2.4 2.7 g/kg 72 % P 0.03 -2.8 2 1
Magnesium 2.1 2.3 g/kg - 0.4 1.5 -3.3 19 0.5 1.6 -3.6 20
Potassium 13.4 15 g/kg - 2.2 11.1 -19.7 18 2.4 12.8 -21.5 18
Sodium 0.11 0.12 g/kg - 0.07 -0.18 3 0.08 -0.19 3
Manganese 18 20 mg/kg - 13 -28 4 14 -32 4
Zinc 34 38 mg/kg - 8 23 -40 4 9 24 -46 5
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 4 5 -11 4 4 6 -14 5
Iron 379 422 mg/kg - 96 -1356 4
Cobalt 0.3 0.4 mg/kg - 0.01 -1 3 0.01 -1 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 2 % FA 1 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 2 2.2 g/kg 17.7 % FA 1 14.6-20.7 2
C18:0 stearic acid 1.1 1.2 g/kg 9.9 % FA 1 7.3-12.4 2
C18:1 oleic acid 2.1 2.4 g/kg 19.1 % FA 1 18.9-19.2 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 2.6 2.9 g/kg 22.9 % FA 1 20.7-25.1 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.2 2.5 g/kg 19.6 % FA 1 18.2-21 2
Fatty acids 1.1 1.3 g/kg 82 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 8 9 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4 5 mg/kg - 1 1
Niacin 96 106 mg/kg - 25 -174 2 29 -184 2
Pantothenic acid 14 16 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin C 858 956 mg/kg - 1 931 -981 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.12 1.25 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.15 1.28 per kg -
PDIA Systali 38 42 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 92 102 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 87 97 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.258 0.288 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2900 3230 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1970 2190 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2020 2250 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.1 13.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.2 9.2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.4 9.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 91.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 81 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 65 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.4 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.13 1.26 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.17 1.3 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 31 35 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 87 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 91 102 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.08 1.21 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.1 1.23 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 48 54 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 100 112 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 79 88 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.08 1.21 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.09 1.22 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 33 37 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 142 158 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 89 99 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2860 3190 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12 13.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 92.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90.6 %
N digestibility ruminants - 78.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 95 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 88 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 86 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 79 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 63 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 19 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 77 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.081 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 62.5 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.3 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3420 3810 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3240 3620 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2370 2640 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3550 3960 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3340 3730 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2440 2720 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 16 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.6 15.1 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.9 11 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.9 16.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.2 11.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.6 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 90.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89.5 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 93 %
N digestibility growing pig - 91.5 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 94.9 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 17.6 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2870 3200 kcal/kg - 2860 -3370 3
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12 13.4 MJ/kg - 12 -14.1 3
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 85 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.96 1.07 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 175 195 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3160 3520 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2930 3270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 81 %
N digestibility rabbit - 82.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 14.6 16.3 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.7 10.9 -15.1 11 1.8 11.5 -18 11 0.5 5.2-7.1 14
Threonine 8.6 9.5 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1.1 6.1 -8.6 6 1.2 6.5 -10 7 0.6 3-5.3 9
Methionine 3.3 3.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.4 -3.7 9 0.5 2.5 -4.1 9 0.1 1.2-1.6 11
Cystine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 0.3 1.9 -2.8 8 0.3 2.1 -3.1 8 0.1 0.8-1.4 10
Methionine + cystine 5.8 6.4 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 4.9 -6 8 0.4 5.5 -7 8 0.2 2.2-2.8 10
Tryptophan 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 0.9-1.3 2
Isoleucine 8.9 10 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.1 7.3 -9 6 1.2 8 -12 7 0.7 2.8-5.2 8
Valine 10.5 11.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 1.1 9.7 -13 7 0.6 3.4-5.5 9
Leucine 16.7 18.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 2.7 11.7 -20 7 1.6 5.8-11.3 9
Phenylalanine 12.3 13.7 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N 1.2 10.5 -14 7 0.6 4.4-6.4 9
Tyrosine 6.8 7.5 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1 5.5 -7.3 5 1.1 5.8 -9 6 0.3 2.6-3.6 8
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 19 21.2 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 2.2 15.4 -19.5 5 2.3 16.3 -23 6 0.4 8-9.1 8
Histidine 7.4 8.2 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1.1 6.2 -9.2 6 1.2 6.8 -10.3 7 0.9 2.4-5.1 9
Arginine 15.1 16.8 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 3.7 9.1 -18.6 6 4.1 9.7 -22 7 1.3 5-8.7 9
Alanine 9.3 10.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 8.7 -9.5 6 0.7 9.3 -11 7 0.5 3.4-5.1 7
Aspartic acid 23.4 26.1 g/kg 10.4 g/16g N 4.3 16.4 -27 6 4.7 17.3 -31.2 7 1.4 9.2-12.7 7
Glutamic acid 35.4 39.5 g/kg 15.8 g/16g N 6.1 24.4 -37.5 6 6.7 25.8 -47 7 1.8 14.1-18.7 7
Glycine 8.8 9.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.5 5.7 -9.4 6 1.7 6 -11 7 0.5 3.1-4.8 9
Serine 10.9 12.2 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 2.1 6.5 -11.6 6 2.3 6.9 -14 7 0.6 3.8-5.6 7
Proline 10.2 11.4 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.6 8.6 -12.4 5 1.7 9.6 -13.6 6 0.8 3.8-5.7 6
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