Feather meal

Animal byproduct obtained by hydrolysing, drying and grinding poultry feathers. Note: it is recommended to check the regulatory status of this product before using it for livestock feeding.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92 100 % - 2.6 79.6 -96.4 135 3.9
Crude protein 78.7 85.5 % - 6.1 60.6 -90.3 148 6.2 69.7 -98.1 156
Crude fibre 1.3 1.4 % - 1.9 0.3 -10.1 24 2.1 0.3 -10.6 24
Crude fat 8.5 9.2 % - 3.1 1.4 -15.1 61 3.4 1.5 -16.3 65
Ash 5.4 5.9 % - 4.2 1.2 -18.4 121 4.6 1.2 -20.8 136
Insoluble ash 0.3 0.3 % - 0.03 0.2 -0.3 6 0.03 0.2 -0.3 6
NDF 6.7 7.3 % - 1 1
ADF 5.1 5.5 % - 2.6 1.9 -10 8 2.8 2 -10.6 8
Lignin 0 0 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 5.9 6.4 % -
Starch 0 0 % - 1 1
Starch, enzymatic method 0 0 % -
Total sugars 0.3 0.3 % - 0.2 -0.5 4 0.2 -0.6 4
Gross energy (kcal) 5170 5620 kcal/kg - 240 4900 -6070 22 200 5330 -6420 26
Gross energy (MJ) 21.6 23.5 MJ/kg - 1 20.5 -25.4 22 0.9 22.3 -26.9 26
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 12.2 13.3 g/kg - 5 2.2 -21.7 26 5.4 2.2 -22.6 28
Phosphorus 8.2 8.9 g/kg - 4.2 1.5 -24.7 26 4.6 1.6 -25.6 28
Phytate phosphorus 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Magnesium 0.8 0.8 g/kg - 1.1 0.3 -4 11 1.2 0.3 -4.5 11
Potassium 1.2 1.4 g/kg - 0.4 0.7 -2 15 0.4 0.8 -2.4 12
Sodium 1.21 1.32 g/kg - 0.33 0.2 -1.8 15 0.35 0.89 -2.26 12
Chlorine 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.5 0.6 -2.3 12 0.6 0.7 -2.4 9
Sulfur 16.7 18.2 g/kg - 0.8 15.9 -18 6 0.6 17.4 -19 6
Dietary cation-anion difference -1013 -1102 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 31 33 mEq/kg -
Manganese 15 16 mg/kg - 5 7 -19 10 6 7 -21 8
Zinc 127 138 mg/kg - 19 96 -143 10 20 106 -157 8
Copper 9 10 mg/kg - 2 6 -13 10 2 7 -14 7
Iron 493 536 mg/kg - 187 222 -758 10 202 246 -833 7
Selenium 0.7 0.8 mg/kg - 0.05 0.6 -0.7 5 0.05 0.7 -0.8 5
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg - 1 1
Iodine 0.6 0.6 mg/kg - 0.07 0.5 -0.6 5 0.07 0.5 -0.7 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.3 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.8 0.8 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.4 1.1-2.2 6
C16:0 palmitic acid 13.9 15.1 g/kg 33 % FA 4.3 24.3-35 6
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 2.6 2.9 g/kg 6.2 % FA 0.2 6-6.4 5
C18:0 stearic acid 5.4 5.9 g/kg 12.9 % FA 2.3 8.3-14 6
C18:1 oleic acid 16.4 17.8 g/kg 38.8 % FA 2.6 33.6-40.1 6
C18:2 linoleic acid 2.1 2.3 g/kg 5 % FA 4 3-13.2 6
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA 1
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 4.2 4.6 g/kg 50 % fat 0.4 49-50 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 7.2 7.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 3 3.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 79.75 86.72 µg/kg -
Niacin 20.8 22.6 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 9.3 10.2 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.08 0.09 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 883 960 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.1 1.19 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.04 1.13 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 418 454 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 451 490 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 200 217 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.542 0.59 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3020 3280 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1930 2100 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1840 2000 kcal/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 80.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 34 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 28 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0.7 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.13 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.08 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 407 443 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 442 480 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 211 229 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.04 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.97 1.06 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 433 471 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 465 506 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 182 198 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.03 1.12 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.95 1.04 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 459 499 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 581 632 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 465 505 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2900 3150 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.1 13.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.8 % 4.1 72-82.7 6
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.8 %
N digestibility ruminants - 74.1 % 5.9 69-85.2 6
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 80 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 0 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 34 % 5 22-39 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 18 % 3 14-22 6
Potentially degradable N (b) - 25 % 17 10-48 6
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.121 h-1 0.105 0.002-0.25 6
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 29 % 10 16-41 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 15 % 3 10-19 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 20 % 15 6-46 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.126 h-1 0.125 0.002-0.27 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 7.4 8 g/kg 90 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 6.7 7.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.7 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1023 1113 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1042 1133 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 449 488 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 208 226 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 0.9 0.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0.3 0.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 65.4 71.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 4.5 4.89 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.52 2.74 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 2.39 2.6 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.61 2.83 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.87 2.03 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 65 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 67 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.2 7.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 623 677 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 26 28 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4030 4390 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3630 3950 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2250 2450 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4030 4390 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3630 3950 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2240 2430 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 16.2 17.7 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE growing pig (MJ) 16.9 18.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 16 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 15.2 16.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9 9.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.4 10.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.2 17.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16.9 18.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.6 15.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 15.2 16.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.9 9.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.4 10.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 78 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 78 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 77.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 77.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 78 %
N digestibility adult pig - 78 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 77 % 76.2-77.9 4
Crude fat digestibility pig - 72.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 6.1 6.7 g/kg 75 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 6.1 6.7 g/kg 75 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2720 2960 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2720 2960 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.4 12.4 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 7 7.6 g/kg 85 % P
Available P broiler 7 7.6 g/kg 85 % P
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 5230 5690 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 4850 5270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 21.9 23.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 20.3 22.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 100 %
N digestibility rabbit - 39.7 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4470 4860 kcal/kg - 3250 -5340 3 3420 -5650 3
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.7 20.4 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.7 20.4 MJ/kg - 13.6 -22.4 3 14.3 -23.7 3
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 86.5 % 57.4-88 3
N digestibility salmonids - 86.9 % 58-87 3
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 16.9 18.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 3.6 9.8 -25.1 28 3.9 10.5 -28.5 37 0.4 1.2-3.2 41
Threonine 36.6 39.8 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 5.2 26.1 -51 25 5.6 28 -56.7 37 0.6 3.3-7 40
Methionine 5.3 5.8 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 1.5 3 -9.8 26 1.6 0.4 -10.7 37 0.1 0.4-1.1 40
Cystine 35.3 38.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 7 27.5 -50 21 7.6 6.6 -51.6 31 0.5 3.4-5.7 34
Methionine + cystine 40.6 44.2 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 8.1 33.4 -55.7 21 8.7 7 -58.3 30 0.6 4-6.4 33
Tryptophan 4.7 5.1 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N 7.3 4 -6.2 8 7.9 4.4 -27.4 8 0.1 0.5-0.8 11
Isoleucine 38.9 42.3 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 4.2 33.1 -49 22 4.4 37.6 -54.5 34 0.5 3.5-6.8 37
Valine 57.6 62.6 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N 10.3 41.4 -77 24 11.1 45.3 -85.7 36 1.2 4.8-10.6 39
Leucine 62.9 68.4 g/kg 8 g/16g N 4.8 55.6 -78.7 24 4.9 64.2 -85.5 36 0.6 6.9-9.5 39
Phenylalanine 37.3 40.6 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.7 33.3 -46.1 21 2.7 38.4 -49.1 33 0.4 3.5-5.5 36
Tyrosine 21.7 23.6 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 2.6 16.7 -27.3 15 2.8 18.4 -29.4 25 0.8 2.1-6.8 29
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 59 64.2 g/kg 7.5 g/16g N 4.2 52.2 -69.6 14 4.1 56.9 -74.9 23 0.8 6.4-10.3 27
Histidine 6.6 7.2 g/kg 0.8 g/16g N 2.6 2.6 -13.6 23 2.8 2.8 -14.9 35 0.3 0.3-1.7 38
Arginine 53.5 58.1 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 7.2 36.5 -77 23 7.6 39.2 -85.7 35 0.9 4.6-10.6 38
Alanine 37.1 40.4 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 5.1 32.9 -57.9 20 5.4 35.7 -63.4 31 0.6 3.8-6.8 33
Aspartic acid 52.5 57.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 3.2 47.8 -60.7 20 3.1 52.6 -65.6 29 0.2 6-7.2 31
Glutamic acid 82.5 89.7 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 11 69.3 -101 19 11.7 73.3 -112 30 1.1 8.3-12.2 32
Glycine 58.1 63.2 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 4.9 50.7 -70.9 20 5 53.7 -77.6 32 0.7 5.9-8.4 35
Serine 87.7 95.4 g/kg 11.1 g/16g N 12.2 68.1 -107 20 13 73.9 -117 31 1.3 8-13.5 33
Proline 75.3 81.8 g/kg 9.6 g/16g N 5.5 68.8 -95.8 17 5.5 75.2 -101 28 0.7 8.1-11.6 30
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 11 11.9 g/kg 65 % 10.3 -12 2 11 -12.8 2 62-71 4
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 28.6 31.1 g/kg 78 % 26.4 -30.7 2 28.2 -32.8 2 72-80 4
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.1 g/kg 71 % 60-81 4
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 24.8 26.9 g/kg 70 % 66-74 3
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 29.6 32.2 g/kg 70 % 65-75 3
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.7 g/kg 72 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 33.6 36.5 g/kg 86 % 30.7 -35.4 2 32.7 -37.8 2 85-88 4
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 47.7 51.8 g/kg 83 % 81-83 4
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 52.1 56.7 g/kg 83 % 55.8 -59.3 2 82-84 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 31.9 34.7 g/kg 86 % 84-86 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 16.4 17.9 g/kg 76 % 69-80 4
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 51.1 55.5 g/kg 82 % 54.7 -57.6 2 80-83 3
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.1 g/kg 71 % 65-78 4
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 44.9 48.8 g/kg 84 % 35.4 -47.9 2 37.8 -51.1 2 83-88 4
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 29.4 31.9 g/kg 79 % 77-81 4
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 33.3 36.2 g/kg 63 % 57-69 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 59.9 65.1 g/kg 73 % 59.4 -69.4 2 63.4 -74.2 2 68-76 4
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 47.2 51.3 g/kg 81 % 80-83 4
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 71.5 77.7 g/kg 82 % 65.3 -77.2 2 69.7 -82.4 2 78-83 4
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 58.2 63.3 g/kg 77 % 54.3 -67 2 57.9 -71.6 2 75-79 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.3 g/kg 56 % 1 52-60 4
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 19 20.6 g/kg 52 % 1 43-60 4
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 61 % 1 46-71 4
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.2 16.6 g/kg 43 % 1 26-52 4
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.2 20.8 g/kg 46 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 46 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 27.6 30 g/kg 71 % 1 63-76 4
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 37.6 40.9 g/kg 65 % 1 54-73 4
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 41.3 44.9 g/kg 66 % 1 55-71 4
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 26 28.3 g/kg 70 % 1 58-78 4
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13 g/kg 55 % 1 50-60 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 40.2 43.7 g/kg 65 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4 g/kg 56 % 1 51-61 4
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 35.6 38.7 g/kg 67 % 1 58-72 4
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 23.7 25.7 g/kg 64 % 1 56-70 4
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.5 19.1 g/kg 33 % 1 23-42 4
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 49.3 53.6 g/kg 60 % 1 56-64 4
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 36.9 40.2 g/kg 64 % 1 52-70 3
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 53.7 58.4 g/kg 61 % 1 49-66 4
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 40.4 43.9 g/kg 54 % 1 40-61 3
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