Linseed, whole

Whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Other names: full-fat linseed, full-fat flaxseed

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92 100 % - 1.9 88.4 -94.7 211 1.7
Crude protein 20.7 22.6 % - 1.8 13.4 -24.9 202 1.9 14.5 -27.5 168
Crude fibre 9.4 10.2 % - 2.8 3.8 -16.1 165 3.1 4 -17.4 142
Crude fat 34.3 37.3 % - 4.5 19.3 -41.9 60 4.9 21.1 -44.7 57
Ash 3.9 4.2 % - 0.8 2.3 -7 226 0.9 2.5 -7.9 212
NDF 21.6 23.5 % - 7.1 16.1 -49.1 15 7.7 17.3 -41.3 14
ADF 12.8 13.9 % - 2.2 7.5 -14.9 15 2.4 8.3 -17 17
Lignin 5.3 5.7 % - 1.2 2.7 -6.2 20 1.3 2.9 -8 23
Water insoluble cell walls 16.6 18 % - 1 1
Starch 5.5 6 % - 1 1
Total sugars 2.8 3 % - 2.6 -3.1 4
Gross energy (kcal) 5930 6450 kcal/kg - 220 5780 -6530 8 230 6210 -7020 9
Gross energy (MJ) 24.8 27 MJ/kg - 0.9 24.2 -27.3 8 1 26 -29.4 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.7 3 g/kg - 1.1 1.9 -5.3 11 1.2 2 -5.7 10
Phosphorus 5.8 6.3 g/kg - 0.8 4.8 -7.6 12 0.9 5.3 -8.5 11
Phytate phosphorus 4.1 4.4 g/kg 70 % P
Magnesium 3.6 4 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 8 8.7 g/kg - 1
Sodium 0.45 0.49 g/kg - 0.43 -0.48 2 1
Chlorine 0.4 0.4 g/kg - 0.3 -0.5 2 1
Sulfur 2.7 3 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 43 47 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 214 232 mEq/kg -
Manganese 29 32 mg/kg -
Zinc 46 50 mg/kg -
Copper 12 13 mg/kg -
Iron 151 164 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.04 % FA 0.05 0-0.1 5
C16:0 palmitic acid 20.7 22.5 g/kg 6.3 % FA 1.6 4.6-10.8 12
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.08 0-0.2 7
C18:0 stearic acid 13.6 14.8 g/kg 4.2 % FA 1.9 2.6-9.5 12
C18:1 oleic acid 63 68.5 g/kg 19.4 % FA 2.2 16.2-23.7 12
C18:2 linoleic acid 51.6 56.2 g/kg 15.9 % FA 1 1.4 13-18.5 14
C18:3 linolenic acid 180 196 g/kg 55.3 % FA 1 2.7 50.9-59.2 13
Fatty acids 32.6 35.4 g/kg 95 % fat 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin K 0.05 0.05 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg -
Niacin 14 15 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.56 1.69 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.56 1.7 per kg -
PDIA Systali 44 48 g/kg -
PDI Systali 89 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 72 78 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.295 0.32 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 4110 4470 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2740 2980 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2750 2990 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 17.2 18.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.5 12.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 76.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 80.2 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 59 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 7.7 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.6 1.74 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.61 1.76 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 38 42 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 85 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 76 83 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.48 1.61 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.47 1.6 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 53 57 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 97 105 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 63 69 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.44 1.56 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.4 1.53 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 43 47 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 133 145 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 71 77 g/kg - 1 59 -97 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3900 4240 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 16.3 17.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 78.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 73.3 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 61 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 78 % 70-84 2
Immediately degradable N (a) - 54 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 38 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.105 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.105 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 78.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 4.2 4.6 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4340 4710 kcal/kg - 3040 -5010 4 3340 -5510 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 4170 4530 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 3300 3590 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4490 4890 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4290 4660 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 3390 3690 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 18.1 19.7 MJ/kg - 12.7 -21 4 14 -23.1 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 17.5 19 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 13.8 15 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 18.8 20.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18 19.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 14.2 15.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73.1 % 50.9-83.9 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 75.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 75 % 57-83.6 3
OM digestibility adult pig - 79 %
N digestibility growing pig - 82.2 % 79.8-91 3
N digestibility adult pig - 86.7 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 78.9 % 44.5-90.3 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 12 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3540 3850 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 14.8 16.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 74 %
Energy digestibility horse - 71.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.19 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 158 172 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 4550 4940 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 4350 4730 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 19 20.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 18.2 19.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 76.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 74.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 8.1 8.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.4 5.9 -10.6 6 1.5 6.4 -11.4 8 0.4 3.4-4.7 8
Threonine 9.2 10 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 2 5.8 -12.3 6 2.2 6.3 -13.2 8 0.7 3.3-5.3 8
Methionine 4 4.4 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.2 3.6 -4.3 7 0.3 3.9 -4.6 9 0.2 1.6-2.2 9
Cystine 4 4.3 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.7 3.4 -4.2 7 0.7 3.7 -5.7 7 0.3 1.6-2.4 8
Methionine + cystine 8 8.7 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.9 6.9 -8.4 6 0.9 7.5 -10.3 7 0.3 3.2-4.3 7
Tryptophan 3.7 4.1 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1 1
Isoleucine 9.8 10.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2 6.5 -12.1 6 2.2 7.1 -13 8 0.7 3.7-5.3 8
Valine 10.8 11.8 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1.6 8 -13.1 6 1.8 8.7 -14.1 8 0.4 4.6-5.8 8
Leucine 13.2 14.3 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 2 10.4 -16.7 6 2.2 11.4 -18 8 0.6 5.8-7.2 8
Phenylalanine 11.1 12 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 2.2 8 -13.3 6 2.4 8.7 -14.6 8 0.7 4.6-6.1 8
Tyrosine 5.8 6.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 1.1 5 -6 3 1.2 5.3 -7.9 5 0.4 2.5-3.3 5
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 16.9 18.4 g/kg 8.1 g/16g N 3.2 14.1 -19.3 3 3.5 15.1 -22.4 5 1.2 7.1-9.4 5
Histidine 4.8 5.2 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 1 3.8 -6.5 6 1.1 4.1 -7 8 0.3 2-2.8 8
Arginine 20.8 22.6 g/kg 10 g/16g N 4.2 12.9 -26 6 4.6 14.1 -28 7 1.2 7.4-11.2 7
Alanine 9.6 10.5 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.8 7 -12.5 5 1.9 7.6 -13.4 6 0.5 4-5.6 6
Aspartic acid 20.9 22.8 g/kg 10.1 g/16g N 3.7 13 -25.1 6 4 14.2 -27 8 1.1 7.4-10.8 8
Glutamic acid 44.8 48.7 g/kg 21.6 g/16g N 8.4 40.4 -61.6 6 9.2 43.2 -66.2 8 3.3 19-27.5 8
Glycine 12.5 13.5 g/kg 6 g/16g N 2.1 8.8 -16 5 2.3 9.6 -17.2 7 0.7 5-7.1 7
Serine 10.5 11.4 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 1.6 7.8 -12.2 6 1.8 8.5 -13.4 8 0.5 4.5-5.6 8
Proline 7.7 8.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 7.2 -10.7 4 7.7 -11.7 4 3.6-6.1 4
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.1 g/kg 69 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.6 g/kg 66 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 2.8 g/kg 64 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 5.8 g/kg 66 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.6 g/kg 63 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.4 g/kg 60 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 6.8 g/kg 58 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9 g/kg 63 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.3 g/kg 61 % 56-64 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4 g/kg 63 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.4 11.3 g/kg 62 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 59 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.7 14.9 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.3 g/kg 60 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 12.1 13.2 g/kg 58 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 31.4 34.1 g/kg 70 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.3 g/kg 61 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.1 6.6 g/kg 58 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 5.8 g/kg 69 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.95 6.47 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 7.93 8.62 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 892 970 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0186 0.0202 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 10.91 11.86 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 5.52 6 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 6.14 6.67 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 7.93 8.62 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 902 981 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0186 0.0202 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 10.92 11.87 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 5.52 6 m²yr/kg -
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