Millet, pearl

Grain of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Other names: candle millet, dark millet, bajra, Indian millet, horse millet, bulrush millet, cattail millet.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.6 100 % - 2.1 84.8 -94.6 59 3.3
Crude protein 11.2 12.5 % - 2.1 5.8 -17 61 2.3 6.5 -19.3 92
Crude fibre 2.8 3.2 % - 1.8 0.9 -9.3 38 2 1 -10.4 44
Crude fat 4.3 4.8 % - 1.3 1.1 -7.4 52 1.4 1.2 -8.1 61
Ash 2.5 2.8 % - 1.5 0.5 -8.9 46 1.7 0.5 -9.9 60
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.6 % - 0.5 0.04 -1.6 14 0.6 0.04 -1.8 18
NDF 15.4 17.2 % - 4 10.5 -24.6 13 4.4 9.4 -27.6 15
ADF 4 4.5 % - 1.1 3 -6.3 18 1.3 2 -7.1 20
Lignin 0.9 1 % - 0.6 -1.2 2 0.6 -1.3 2
Water insoluble cell walls 14.6 16.3 % - 1 1
Starch 60.2 67.1 % - 5.7 48.4 -66.2 11 6.2 53.9 -76.4 11
Starch, enzymatic method 58.2 64.9 % - 54.4 -68.5 4 60.4 -74.5 4
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 1.7 -2.1 4 1.9 -2.3 4
Gross energy (kcal) 4090 4560 kcal/kg - 220 3600 -4530 21 230 4070 -5080 21
Gross energy (MJ) 17.1 19.1 MJ/kg - 0.9 15.1 -19 21 0.9 17 -21.2 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.7 0.1 -3.7 38 0.7 0.1 -4.2 53
Phosphorus 3 3.3 g/kg - 0.6 1.7 -4.9 36 0.6 1.9 -5.3 66
Phytate phosphorus 2 2.2 g/kg 68 % P 0.3 0.3 1.7 -2.7 21 4 60-76 21
Magnesium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 0.9 -1.7 19 0.2 0.9 -1.8 27
Potassium 3.7 4.1 g/kg - 0.7 2.3 -5.8 16 0.8 2.6 -6.3 39
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg - 0.02 -0.19 3 0.03 -0.2 4
Chlorine 0.04 0.05 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 1
Dietary cation-anion difference 30 34 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 97 109 mEq/kg -
Manganese 20 22 mg/kg - 14 7 -21 7 15 8 -62 11
Zinc 29 32 mg/kg - 8 20 -43 6 9 13 -60 33
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 3 4 -17 6 3 4 -19 31
Iron 52 58 mg/kg - 42 40 -79 4 47 32 -265 25
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.07 -0.3 2 0.08 -0.4 3
Iodine 0.05 0.05 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 7.1 7.9 g/kg 20.4 % FA 1.8 16.7-25 66
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA 0.1 0.3-0.8 66
C18:0 stearic acid 1.4 1.5 g/kg 3.9 % FA 1.1 1.8-8 66
C18:1 oleic acid 8.9 9.9 g/kg 25.7 % FA 2.5 20.2-30.6 66
C18:2 linoleic acid 15.5 17.3 g/kg 44.7 % FA 4 18.9-51.7 66
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.4 g/kg 3.7 % FA 0.7 2.2-5.8 66
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.3-1 66
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.5 3.9 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.03 0.03 1000 IU/kg - 1 1
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 1.2 1.4 mg/kg - 0.5 -2 2 0.5 -2.2 2
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.6 1.8 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 3.8 4.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Niacin 14.2 15.8 mg/kg - 1 1
Pantothenic acid 9.1 10.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin C 3.7 4.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.18 1.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.21 1.35 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 50 56 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 97 108 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -38 -42 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.23 0.256 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3050 3400 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2070 2310 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2130 2370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 43 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.8 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.6 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.19 1.33 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.23 1.37 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 46 51 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 95 106 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -36 -40 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.14 1.27 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.16 1.29 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 56 62 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 100 112 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -41 -46 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.06 1.18 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.14 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.16 1.29 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 58 65 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 80 89 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 96 107 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3020 3370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.9 13.3 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.6 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90.7 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 72.5 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 78 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 40 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 5 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 73 % 10-80 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.026-0.27 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 28 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 72 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 % 21-46 3
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 59 % 49-67 3
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.038-0.068 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.2 2.5 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.6 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1144 1276 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1269 1415 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 94 105 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -29 -33 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.3 4.8 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2.9 3.2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 77.2 86.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.39 3.78 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.77 1.98 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.67 1.87 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.9 2.12 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.3 1.45 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 57 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 64 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 8.1 9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 168 188 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -9 -10 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3370 3760 kcal/kg - 280 2570 -3430 11 300 2840 -3890 12
ME growing pig (kcal) 3270 3650 kcal/kg - 260 2490 -3280 9 280 2760 -3660 9
NE growing pig (kcal) 2590 2890 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3460 3860 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3350 3740 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2640 2950 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.7 14.2 MJ/kg - 1.2 10.8 -14.4 11 1.3 11.9 -16.3 12
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.1 15.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.4 13.8 MJ/kg - 1.1 10.4 -13.7 9 1.2 11.5 -15.3 9
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.7 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.1 11.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.8 12.1 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.3 14.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.5 16.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.9 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14 15.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.1 12.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 82.5 % 6.2 63.1-84.6 11
Energy digestibility adult pig - 84.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 85.1 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 87.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85.6 % 10.1 55.4-89.8 12
N digestibility adult pig - 90.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 88 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 60.4 % 39.8-61 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.3 1.5 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2840 3170 kcal/kg - 1 260 2740 -3450 5
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2800 3120 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.9 13.3 MJ/kg - 1 1.1 11.5 -14.5 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.9 13.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.7 13.1 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.7 0.8 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.7 0.8 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 87.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.26 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 79 88 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3260 3630 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3150 3510 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.6 15.2 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.6 15.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 79.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 69.7 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2180 2430 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.1 10.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 53.2 %
N digestibility salmonids - 81.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.7 3.1 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.5 2.4 -4.2 16 0.6 2.7 -5.1 22 0.5 1.7-3.7 24
Threonine 4.4 4.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.6 3.3 -5.3 16 0.6 3.7 -6.3 22 0.3 3.1-4.5 24
Methionine 3.9 4.3 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Cystine 2.7 3 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.6 0.8 -3.2 9 0.7 0.9 -3.6 13
Methionine + cystine 6.5 7.3 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N
Tryptophan 2 2.2 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.2-2 11
Isoleucine 4.9 5.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.8 3.1 -6.8 15 0.9 3.4 -7.5 22 0.7 3.5-6.1 23
Valine 6.1 6.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 0.9 4 -7.8 15 1 4.4 -8.9 22 0.4 4-5.9 23
Leucine 14.7 16.4 g/kg 13.1 g/16g N 2.1 7.9 -16.6 22 1 7.3-13.1 23
Phenylalanine 5.5 6.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -7.2 15 0.9 3.8 -8.1 22 0.5 3.2-5.6 23
Tyrosine 3.5 3.9 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.9 2.2 -5.8 10 1 2.5 -6.5 14 0.6 2-3.8 15
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.9 10 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.4 5.8 -11.1 11 1.6 6.4 -12.4 15 0.9 6.2-9.2 15
Histidine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.6 15 0.4 2.1 -4 22 0.3 1.9-3.3 23
Arginine 4.4 4.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.9 3.7 -6.9 11 1 4.1 -7.7 18 0.7 3.3-5.8 19
Alanine 10.6 11.8 g/kg 9.4 g/16g N 1.4 5.8 -10.7 9 1.6 6.4 -12 10 1.3 6.4-11.3 11
Aspartic acid 9 10.1 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.3 6.3 -10.9 8 1.5 7 -12.2 9 0.9 6.4-8.9 10
Glutamic acid 23.2 25.9 g/kg 20.7 g/16g N 4.1 13.3 -28.4 8 4.5 14.8 -31.8 9 1.7 16.2-22.2 10
Glycine 3.3 3.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -4.2 8 0.4 3.3 -4.7 12 0.6 2.3-4 13
Serine 5.3 6 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.8 -6.4 8 0.8 4.2 -7.2 12 0.8 3.8-6.9 13
Proline 6.6 7.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 0.6 6.5 -7.5 4 0.6 7 -8.4 5 0.5 5.5-6.9 6
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.6 g/kg 86 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.2 g/kg 87 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.6 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 90 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 86 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 92 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5 g/kg 91 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.1 g/kg 90 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 13.3 14.9 g/kg 91 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.7 g/kg 93 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.4 g/kg 87 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.1 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.6 g/kg 92 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 93 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 10.8 g/kg 91 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.7 g/kg 86 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 21.4 23.8 g/kg 92 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.7 g/kg 99 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.3 g/kg 89 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.1 g/kg 83 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.8 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 83 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 73 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.8 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 83 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.5 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13.4 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.2 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 80 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.6 g/kg 81 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.3 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19.1 21.3 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 80 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.6 g/kg 76 %
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