Millet, pearl

Grain of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Other names: candle millet, dark millet, bajra, Indian millet, horse millet, bulrush millet, cattail millet.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.7 100 % - 3.7 84.8 -94.6 56 3.4
Crude protein 11.2 12.5 % - 2.1 5.8 -17 59 2.4 6.5 -19.3 90
Crude fibre 2.8 3.1 % - 1.8 0.9 -9.3 37 2 1 -10.4 43
Crude fat 4.4 4.9 % - 1.3 1.1 -7.4 50 1.4 1.2 -8.1 59
Ash 2.5 2.8 % - 1.5 0.5 -8.9 44 1.7 0.5 -9.9 57
Insoluble ash 1 1.1 % - 1.3 0.04 -4.7 16 1.4 0.04 -5.3 21
NDF 15.4 17.2 % - 4 10.5 -24.6 13 4.4 9.4 -27.6 15
ADF 4 4.5 % - 1.1 3 -6.3 18 1.3 2 -7.1 20
Lignin 0.9 1 % - 0.6 -1.2 2 0.6 -1.3 2
Water insoluble cell walls 8.3 9.3 % - 1 1
Starch 60.2 67.1 % - 5.7 48.4 -66.2 11 6.2 53.9 -76.4 11
Total sugars 2 2.2 % - 1.7 -2.1 4 1.9 -2.3 4
Gross energy (kcal) 4090 4560 kcal/kg - 220 3600 -4530 21 230 4070 -5080 21
Gross energy (MJ) 17.1 19.1 MJ/kg - 0.9 15.1 -19 21 0.9 17 -21.2 21
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.5 0.5 g/kg - 0.7 0.1 -3.7 38 0.7 0.1 -4.2 52
Phosphorus 3 3.3 g/kg - 0.5 1.7 -4.9 36 0.6 1.9 -5.3 65
Phytate phosphorus 2 2.3 g/kg 68 % P 0.3 0.3 1.7 -2.7 21 4 60-76 21
Magnesium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 0.9 -1.7 19 0.2 0.9 -1.8 26
Potassium 4.6 5.1 g/kg - 5.4 2.3 -36.4 17 6 2.6 -41.3 39
Sodium 0.08 0.08 g/kg - 0.02 -0.19 3 0.03 -0.2 3
Manganese 19 21 mg/kg - 14 7 -21 7 16 8 -62 10
Zinc 30 33 mg/kg - 7 20 -43 6 8 22 -60 32
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 3 4 -17 6 3 4 -19 30
Iron 51 57 mg/kg - 43 40 -79 4 48 32 -265 24
Cobalt 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.07 -0.3 2 0.08 -0.4 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.5 3.9 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.03 0.03 1000 IU/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 1 1 mg/kg - 0.5 -2 2 0.5 -2 2
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4 4 mg/kg - 1 1
Niacin 14 16 mg/kg - 1 1
Pantothenic acid 9 10 mg/kg - 1 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.08 1.21 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.09 1.22 per kg -
PDIA Systali 50 56 g/kg -
PDI Systali 95 106 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -34 -38 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.23 0.256 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2860 3190 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1910 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1920 2140 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 12 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 8 9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 84.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 82 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 43 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 66 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.8 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 10.7 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.5 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.1 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.12 1.25 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 46 51 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 93 103 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -33 -36 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.04 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.04 1.16 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 56 62 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 98 109 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -38 -42 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.06 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 58 65 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 80 89 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 94 105 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2840 3170 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.9 13.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.5 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.3 %
N digestibility ruminants - 68.7 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 78 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 40 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 5 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 73 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.055 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 28 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 72 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 59 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.7 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.4 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3040 3390 kcal/kg - 280 2570 -3430 11 300 2840 -3890 12
ME growing pig (kcal) 2960 3300 kcal/kg - 260 2490 -3280 9 280 2760 -3660 9
NE growing pig (kcal) 2400 2680 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3180 3550 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3090 3450 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2470 2750 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.7 14.2 MJ/kg - 1.2 10.8 -14.4 11 1.3 11.9 -16.3 12
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.4 13.8 MJ/kg - 1.1 10.4 -13.7 9 1.2 11.5 -15.3 9
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.1 11.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.3 14.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.9 14.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 74.3 % 6.2 63.1-84.6 11
Energy digestibility adult pig - 77.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 77.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 81 %
N digestibility growing pig - 74.4 % 10.1 55.4-89.8 12
N digestibility adult pig - 81.9 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 60.5 % 39.8-61 3
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2840 3170 kcal/kg - 1 260 2740 -3450 5
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2770 3090 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.9 13.3 MJ/kg - 1 1.1 11.5 -14.5 5
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.26 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 79 88 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3260 3630 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3150 3510 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.6 15.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 79.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 69.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.7 3.1 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.5 2.4 -4.2 16 0.6 2.7 -5.1 22 0.4 2.1-3.7 23
Threonine 4.4 4.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.6 3.3 -5.3 16 0.6 3.7 -6.3 22 0.3 3.2-4.5 23
Methionine 3.9 4.3 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N
Cystine 2.7 3 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.6 0.8 -3.2 9 0.7 0.9 -3.6 13
Methionine + cystine 6.5 7.3 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N
Tryptophan 2 2.2 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.2-2 10
Isoleucine 4.9 5.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.8 3.1 -6.8 15 0.9 3.4 -7.5 22 0.7 3.5-6.1 22
Valine 6.1 6.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 0.9 4 -7.8 15 1 4.4 -8.9 22 0.4 4-5.9 22
Leucine 14.7 16.4 g/kg 13.1 g/16g N 2.1 7.9 -16.6 22
Phenylalanine 5.5 6.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -7.2 15 0.9 3.8 -8.1 22 0.5 3.2-5.4 22
Tyrosine 3.5 3.9 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.9 2.2 -5.8 10 1 2.5 -6.5 14 0.6 2-3.8 14
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.9 10 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.4 5.8 -11.1 11 1.6 6.4 -12.4 15 0.9 6.2-9.2 15
Histidine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -3.6 15 0.4 2.1 -4 22 0.3 1.9-3.3 22
Arginine 4.4 4.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.9 3.7 -6.9 11 1 4.1 -7.7 18 0.6 3.7-5.8 18
Alanine 10.6 11.8 g/kg 9.4 g/16g N 1.5 5.8 -10.7 9 1.6 6.4 -12 10
Aspartic acid 9 10.1 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.3 6.3 -10.9 8 1.5 7 -12.2 9 0.9 6.5-8.9 9
Glutamic acid 23.2 25.9 g/kg 20.7 g/16g N 4.1 13.3 -28.4 8 4.5 14.8 -31.8 9
Glycine 3.3 3.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -4.2 8 0.4 3.3 -4.7 12 0.5 2.5-4 12
Serine 5.3 6 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.8 -6.4 8 0.8 4.2 -7.2 12 0.4 3.8-5 12
Proline 6.6 7.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 0.6 6.5 -7.5 4 0.6 7 -8.4 5 0.5 5.5-6.7 5
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.8 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 83 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 73 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.8 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 83 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.5 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13.4 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.3 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.2 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 80 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.6 g/kg 81 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.3 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19 21.2 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 80 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.8 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.6 g/kg 76 %
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