Sunflower hulls

Byproduct of the processing of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) for the manufacture of sunflower oil and other sunflower-based products, consisting of the outer envelopes obtained after the dehulling step of the process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 91 100 % - 1.2 87.4 -93.5 127 1.9
Crude protein 5.2 5.7 % - 1.1 3.5 -8.6 84 1.2 3.8 -9.6 88
Crude fibre 52.3 57.5 % - 2.4 46.5 -57.8 129 2.5 50.7 -62.7 127
Crude fat 4.1 4.5 % - 1.1 1.8 -10.7 29 1.2 2.5 -6.9 27
Ash 3 3.3 % - 0.5 2.1 -4.1 71 0.5 2.3 -4.6 78
Insoluble ash 0.2 0.3 % -
NDF 73.2 80.4 % - 4.7 56.9 -80.5 33 5.1 63.3 -90.2 39
ADF 56.2 61.7 % - 3.9 47.3 -66.2 35 4.2 52.6 -72.4 43
Lignin 20.1 22.1 % - 2.2 14.6 -25.1 36 2.4 16.2 -27.5 42
Water insoluble cell walls 76.8 84.4 % - 1 78.8 -90.1 2
Starch 1.9 2.1 % - 1.1 0.7 -3.9 8 1.2 0.8 -4.3 7
Starch, enzymatic method 0.3 0.4 % - 0.1 -0.7 3 1
Total sugars 1.4 1.5 % - 0.3 -4.2 3 0.3 -4.5 4
Gross energy (kcal) 4370 4800 kcal/kg - 170 4250 -4530 7 170 4670 -5230 8
Gross energy (MJ) 18.3 20.1 MJ/kg - 0.7 17.8 -18.9 7 0.7 19.5 -21.9 8
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 3.7 4.1 g/kg - 1 2.1 -6.6 32 1.1 2.3 -7.3 32
Phosphorus 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.3 0.3 -2 28 0.4 0.3 -2.2 28
Phytate phosphorus 0.7 0.7 g/kg 85 % P
Magnesium 2.4 2.6 g/kg - 1.3 -3.4 2 1.4 -3.8 2
Potassium 9.8 10.8 g/kg - 2 6.9 -14.5 24 2.2 7.7 -16.1 24
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg - 0.03 0.03 -0.17 24 0.04 0.03 -0.19 24
Chlorine 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.2 0.6 -1.2 21 0.2 0.7 -1.3 21
Sulfur 3.5 3.9 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 11 12 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 230 253 mEq/kg -
Manganese 14 16 mg/kg - 4 -23 2 5 -26 2
Zinc 21 23 mg/kg - 11 -30 2 13 -33 2
Copper 9 10 mg/kg - 5 -13 2 5 -14 2
Iron 125 137 mg/kg - 121 -126 2 134 -140 2
Selenium 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.7 0.8 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0.01 % FA 0-0.02 3
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.04 0-0.1 8
C16:0 palmitic acid 2 2.1 g/kg 6.4 % FA 0.4 5.9-7.2 11
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.06 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-0.6 4
C18:0 stearic acid 1.3 1.4 g/kg 4.3 % FA 0.8 2.8-5.4 11
C18:1 oleic acid 6.2 6.8 g/kg 20.2 % FA 3.3 15.3-28 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 19.8 21.8 g/kg 65.2 % FA 1 1 4.7 59.3-73.6 18
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3 0-1 11
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.6 0.2-1.7 7
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.06 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.2 2
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:0 behenic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0-0.6 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1
Fatty acids 3 3.3 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 12.1 13.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 34.3 37.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 3.2 3.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 13.1 14.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 202 222 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 10.1 11.1 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Biotin 1.2 1.4 mg/kg -
Choline 2528 2778 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 0 0 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.27 0.29 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.15 0.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 11 12 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 42 47 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -23 -26 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.357 0.392 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 860 950 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 470 520 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 270 300 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1.9 2.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 0.4 0.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 26.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 25.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 51 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.29 0.32 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.18 0.2 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 10 10 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 42 46 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -23 -26 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.22 0.24 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.12 0.13 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 13 15 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 44 49 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -25 -28 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.17 0.18 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.28 0.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.07 0.08 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.17 0.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 11 12 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 33 37 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 29 32 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 920 1010 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 2.4 2.6 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 3.8 4.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 28.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 26.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 35.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 84 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 49.2 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 51 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 22 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 46 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.105 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 66 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.1 2.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 279 306 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 182 200 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 -19 -21 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 10 10 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 -0.1 -0.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0.3 0.3 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 34.2 37.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 1.49 1.64 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.52 0.57 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 0.47 0.52 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.45 0.49 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0 0 Mcal/kg -
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 2 2.2 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 52 57 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -0.02 -0.02 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 1010 1110 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 950 1040 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 420 460 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1600 1760 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1470 1610 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 700 770 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 4.2 4.7 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 4 4.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 1.7 1.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 6.7 7.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 6.1 6.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 2.9 3.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 23.2 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 36.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 20.4 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 33.7 %
N digestibility growing pig - 21 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 88.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 81 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 77.5 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.1 0.2 g/kg 19 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0.2 0.2 g/kg 29 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 680 750 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 640 700 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 2.9 3.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 2.7 2.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.1 0.1 g/kg 17 % P
Available P broiler 0.1 0.1 g/kg 17 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 41 %
Energy digestibility horse - 40 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.27 0.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 0 0 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 890 970 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 850 930 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.7 4.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.6 3.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 20.3 %
N digestibility rabbit - 53.7 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2170 2380 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.1 10 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 49.7 %
N digestibility salmonids - 71.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.9 3.2 g/kg 5.6 g/16g N 4.3-5.7 3
Threonine 2.3 2.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.7 -3 2 1.9 -3.3 2 3.9-7 2
Methionine 1.2 1.4 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.7 -1.4 3 0.8 -1.6 3 1.6-3.1 3
Cystine 1 1.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.7 -1.2 2 0.8 -1.3 2 1.6-2.8 2
Methionine + cystine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.4 -2.4 2 1.5 -2.7 2 3.1-5.7 2
Tryptophan 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Isoleucine 1.8 2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 3.4-3.9 2
Valine 1.8 2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1.4 -2 2 1.6 -2.2 2 3.4-4.5 2
Leucine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 2 2.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Tyrosine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N
Histidine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Arginine 2.3 2.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Alanine 2.5 2.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 2.9 3.1 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 4.4 4.9 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N
Glycine 3.1 3.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 2 2.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.4 g/kg 43 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 48 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 66 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.4 g/kg 38 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.2 1.3 g/kg 54 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 49 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 61 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 56 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 62 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 66 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1 g/kg 61 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.5 g/kg 64 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 58 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 74 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.4 g/kg 51 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.8 g/kg 58 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 69 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 35 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 54 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.2 g/kg 54 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 58 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 54 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 68 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.6 g/kg 57 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 63 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.5 0.6 g/kg 59 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.3 g/kg 65 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.2 g/kg 61 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 61 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.4 g/kg 64 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 55 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 60 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 59 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.6 g/kg 64 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.6 g/kg 60 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.8 g/kg 59 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.2 g/kg 65 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.8 g/kg 54 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 60 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.4 g/kg 62 %
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