Sunflower hulls

Byproduct of the processing of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) for the manufacture of sunflower oil and other sunflower-based products, consisting of the outer envelopes obtained after the dehulling step of the process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.7 100 % - 2.7 87.4 -94.4 81 2.4
Crude protein 5.2 5.7 % - 1.1 3.5 -8.6 74 1.2 3.8 -9.6 78
Crude fibre 50 55.2 % - 4.3 35.9 -57.8 78 4.6 39.7 -62.7 84
Crude fat 4.2 4.6 % - 1.1 1.8 -10.7 29 1.2 2.5 -6.9 27
Ash 3 3.3 % - 0.5 2.1 -4.1 61 0.5 2.3 -4.6 68
NDF 73 80.4 % - 4.8 56.9 -80.5 33 5.1 63.3 -90.2 39
ADF 56 61.7 % - 3.9 47.3 -66.2 35 4.2 52.6 -72.4 43
Lignin 20.1 22.1 % - 2.2 14.6 -25.1 36 2.4 16.2 -27.5 42
Water insoluble cell walls 76.6 84.4 % - 1 78.8 -90.1 2
Starch 1.9 2.1 % - 1.1 0.7 -3.9 6 1.2 0.8 -4.3 7
Total sugars 1.4 1.5 % - 0.3 -4.2 3 0.3 -4.5 4
Gross energy (kcal) 4340 4780 kcal/kg - 170 4250 -4530 7 170 4670 -5230 8
Gross energy (MJ) 18.2 20 MJ/kg - 0.7 17.8 -18.9 7 0.7 19.5 -21.9 8
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 3.7 4.1 g/kg - 1 2.1 -6.6 32 1.1 2.3 -7.3 32
Phosphorus 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.3 0.3 -2 28 0.4 0.3 -2.2 28
Phytate phosphorus 0.7 0.7 g/kg 85 % P
Magnesium 2.4 2.6 g/kg - 1.3 -3.4 2 1.4 -3.8 2
Potassium 9.8 10.8 g/kg - 2 6.9 -14.5 24 2.2 7.7 -16.1 24
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg - 0.03 0.03 -0.17 24 0.04 0.03 -0.19 24
Chlorine 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.2 0.6 -1.2 21 0.2 0.7 -1.3 21
Sulfur 3.5 3.9 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 11 12 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 230 253 mEq/kg -
Manganese 14 16 mg/kg - 4 -23 2 5 -26 2
Zinc 21 23 mg/kg - 11 -30 2 13 -33 2
Copper 9 10 mg/kg - 5 -13 2 5 -14 2
Iron 124 137 mg/kg - 121 -126 2 134 -140 2
Selenium 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.7 0.8 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 2 2.2 g/kg 6.3 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 1.4 1.5 g/kg 4.3 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 6.4 7.1 g/kg 20.3 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 20.5 22.6 g/kg 64.9 % FA 1 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.2 3.5 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 12 13 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 34 38 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 3 4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 13 14 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 202 222 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 10 11 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Biotin 1 1 mg/kg -
Choline 2520 2778 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 0 0 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.14 0.15 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.05 0.06 per kg -
PDIA Systali 11 12 g/kg -
PDI Systali 38 42 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -16 -18 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.356 0.392 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 460 510 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 240 270 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 90 100 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 1.9 2.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 1 1.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 0.4 0.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 16.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 15.1 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 51 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.5 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.16 0.18 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.07 0.08 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 10 11 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 38 42 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -17 -18 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.09 0.1 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.03 0.03 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 13 15 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 40 44 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -18 -20 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.17 0.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.07 0.08 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 11 12 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 33 37 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 21 23 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 570 630 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 2.4 2.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 18.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 16.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 35.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 84 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 49.2 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 51 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 22 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 46 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.105 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 66 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 2.1 2.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 720 790 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 640 700 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 290 320 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 1280 1410 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 1140 1250 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 540 600 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 3 3.3 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 2.7 2.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 1.2 1.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 5.4 5.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 4.8 5.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 2.3 2.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 16.5 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 29.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 22.6 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 36 %
N digestibility growing pig - 47 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 100 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 81 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 32.2 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.1 0.2 g/kg 19 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 820 900 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 770 850 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 3.4 3.8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 3.2 3.6 MJ/kg -
Available P broiler 0.1 0.1 g/kg 17 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 42 %
Energy digestibility horse - 41.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.29 0.32 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 0 0 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 920 1010 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 880 970 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 3.8 4.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 3.7 4.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 21.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 51.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.9 3.2 g/kg 5.6 g/16g N 4.3-5.7 3
Threonine 2.3 2.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.7 -3 2 1.9 -3.3 2 3.9-7 2
Methionine 1.2 1.4 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.7 -1.4 3 0.8 -1.6 3 1.6-3.1 3
Cystine 1 1.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.7 -1.2 2 0.8 -1.3 2 1.6-2.8 2
Methionine + cystine 2.3 2.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.4 -2.4 2 1.5 -2.7 2 3.1-5.7 2
Tryptophan 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Isoleucine 1.8 2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 3.4-3.9 2
Valine 1.8 2 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.4 -2 2 1.6 -2.2 2 3.4-4.5 2
Leucine 2.6 2.9 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 2 2.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Tyrosine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 3 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N
Histidine 1.4 1.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Arginine 2.3 2.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N
Alanine 2.5 2.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 2.9 3.2 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 4.5 4.9 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N
Glycine 3.1 3.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 2 2.2 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
CSVXLSXXML