Brewers grains, dried

Dried byproduct of brewery, consisting of the spent grains left after the production of beer and other malt products (malt extracts and malt vinegar). Though beer can be made with other grains, such as sorghum or rice, the values indicated below are only for brewers grains obtained from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Alternative spellings: brewer's grains, brewers' grains.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.9 100 % - 6.2 80.4 -97.6 70 5.6
Crude protein 23.9 26.3 % - 3.6 17.1 -33.6 77 3.8 19 -37.5 126
Crude fibre 14.2 15.6 % - 2.5 8.6 -19.1 52 2.7 9.3 -21.5 62
Crude fat 5.9 6.5 % - 2.4 1.4 -8.6 52 2.6 1.6 -10.1 65
Crude fat, hydrolysis 7.8 8.6 % - 1.7 6.5 -11.9 9
Ash 4.1 4.5 % - 0.8 2.7 -6 52 0.8 2.9 -6.8 101
Insoluble ash 0.8 0.9 % - 0.09 -1.6 2 0.1 -1.7 2
NDF 51.8 57 % - 7.4 32.5 -64.4 20 7.8 34.4 -75.4 81
ADF 20 22 % - 3.4 14.1 -26.1 18 3.7 14.8 -31.4 79
Lignin 5.1 5.6 % - 2.2 2.1 -5.9 16 2.4 2.2 -12.4 71
Starch 5.8 6.4 % - 3.6 2.1 -13.1 22 3.9 2.3 -14.5 20
Total sugars 1.2 1.3 % - 0.4 -2.9 3 0.4 -3.1 3
Gross energy (kcal) 4410 4850 kcal/kg - 370 3910 -4830 5 350 4230 -5000 7
Gross energy (MJ) 18.4 20.3 MJ/kg - 1.5 16.4 -20.2 5 1.5 17.7 -20.9 7
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.3 2.5 g/kg - 0.9 0.7 -4.4 24 1 0.8 -4.8 29
Phosphorus 5.3 5.9 g/kg - 1.4 0.8 -13.9 23 1.5 1 -8.8 28
Phytate phosphorus 3.2 3.5 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 0.2 1.7 -2.4 5 0.2 1.8 -2.6 16
Potassium 4.5 5 g/kg -
Sodium 0.24 0.27 g/kg - 0.13 0.18 -0.65 5 0.14 0.2 -0.7 16
Chlorine 1 1.1 g/kg - 1 0.4 0.2 -1.9 12
Sulfur 2.2 2.4 g/kg - 0.1 0.1 2.2 -2.5 11
Dietary cation-anion difference -37 -41 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 98 108 mEq/kg -
Manganese 43 47 mg/kg - 11 15 -56 5 12 16 -71 16
Zinc 81 89 mg/kg - 28 2 -106 5 31 2 -161 16
Copper 18 19 mg/kg - 5 16 -32 4 5 15 -35 15
Iron 118 130 mg/kg - 22 96 -162 4 23 103 -174 14
Selenium 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.2 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 7.8 8.6 g/kg 22.2 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.5 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.2 4.7 g/kg 12 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 19.5 21.5 g/kg 55.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 2 2.2 g/kg 5.6 % FA
Fatty acids 3.5 3.9 g/kg 45 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 28 31 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1 1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 4 4 µg/kg -
Niacin 43 47 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 9 10 mg/kg -
Folic acid 5 5 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1627 1791 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.75 0.83 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.67 0.74 per kg -
PDIA Systali 110 121 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 151 166 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 31 34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.464 0.511 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2150 2370 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1330 1460 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1180 1300 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.5 6.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5 5.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 60.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 60.5 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 45 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 78 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 38 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.8 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.78 0.86 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.7 0.77 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 102 112 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 144 158 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 39 43 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.71 0.78 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.62 0.68 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 121 133 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 161 177 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 19 21 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.75 0.83 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.67 0.73 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 125 137 g/kg - 1 137 -154 3
PDIN INRA 2007 177 194 g/kg - 1 193 -227 3
PDIE INRA 2007 157 173 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2180 2390 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 62 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 62.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 70.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 84 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 % 1
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 % 16 21-79 26
Immediately degradable N (a) - 18 % 15 8-49 13
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 16 25-77 13
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.05 h-1 0.041 0.041-0.191 13
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 77 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 23 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.025 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 36 % 13 17-65 21
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 12 % 14 4-43 13
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 57 % 7 38-58 13
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.045 h-1 0.015 0.027-0.074 13
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 4.2 4.6 g/kg 78 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.2 1.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.7 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2370 2610 kcal/kg - 2210 -2610 2 2450 -2700 2
ME growing pig (kcal) 2190 2410 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1500 1650 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2590 2850 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2360 2590 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1610 1770 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 9.9 10.9 MJ/kg - 9.2 -10.9 2 10.2 -11.3 2
ME growing pig (MJ) 9.2 10.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.3 6.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 10.9 11.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 9.9 10.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.7 7.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 53.8 % 49-55.8 2
Energy digestibility adult pig - 58.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 57.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 62 %
N digestibility growing pig - 77.9 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 83.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 78 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 60.7 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 32 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1940 2130 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1890 2080 kcal/kg - 1660 -2460 3 1790 -2690 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.1 8.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.9 8.7 MJ/kg - 6.9 -10.3 3 7.5 -11.3 3
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 60 %
Energy digestibility horse - 58 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.66 0.73 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 165 182 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2750 3020 kcal/kg - 2240 -2870 2 2400 -3300 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 2580 2840 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.5 12.7 MJ/kg - 9.4 -12 2 10.1 -13.8 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.8 11.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 62.3 % 44.9-66 2
N digestibility rabbit - 54.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 8.2 9 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.1 6.3 -9 5 1.2 5.9 -9.6 8 0.7 2.1-3.7 9
Threonine 8.1 9 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.2 6.5 -9.9 4 1.2 7.2 -10.3 7 0.3 2.6-3.5 8
Methionine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 3.2 -5 5 1.1 2.4 -5.5 7 0.3 1-1.9 8
Cystine 3.8 4.2 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 2.8 -4.7 3 2.8 -5.2 3 1-2.5 3
Methionine + cystine 7.4 8.1 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 8 -9.1 3 2.7-4.4 3
Tryptophan 2.7 2.9 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 1.1-1.3 2
Isoleucine 8.6 9.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.5 7.6 -11.7 6 0.8 2.9-5.4 7
Valine 11.5 12.6 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.2 9.4 -12.2 4 1.2 10 -13.2 6 0.8 3.8-5.8 7
Leucine 16.5 18.1 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 5.1 13.6 -27.7 4 5.5 14.8 -29.3 7 1 6.4-9.7 8
Phenylalanine 10.5 11.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 2.1 10.4 -15.4 4 2.3 11.3 -17.4 7
Tyrosine 6.9 7.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.4 6.8 -9.3 3 1.5 7.5 -11.7 6 0.4 2.9-4.1 7
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 17.4 19.2 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N
Histidine 5.1 5.6 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 3 -6.6 4 1.1 3.2 -6.8 7 0.4 1.2-2.3 8
Arginine 10.9 12 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.4 8.4 -12.6 4 1.5 9.2 -13 6 0.7 3.6-5.5 7
Alanine 11.2 12.3 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.5 8.9 -16.1 4 2.7 9.9 -16.7 7 0.5 4.2-5.7 7
Aspartic acid 16.1 17.7 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 3.3 11.3 -19.2 4 3.6 10.1 -20.4 7 1.2 4-7.7 7
Glutamic acid 43.4 47.7 g/kg 18.2 g/16g N 8.5 41.8 -52 4 9.1 43.5 -71 7 2.9 14.8-22.4 7
Glycine 9 9.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1.4 7.1 -10.4 4 1.5 6.6 -10.8 7 0.6 2.4-3.9 7
Serine 9.4 10.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 2.1 7.7 -11.8 4 2.3 8.6 -15.3 7 0.4 3.4-4.8 7
Proline 19.8 21.8 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N 1 8.1-10 4
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 6.7 7.4 g/kg 82 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.3 g/kg 81 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.5 g/kg 89 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 77 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 6.7 g/kg 83 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.5 g/kg 83 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.3 g/kg 89 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 10.8 g/kg 86 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 14.5 16 g/kg 88 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 10.5 g/kg 91 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.2 g/kg 94 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 16.1 17.7 g/kg 92 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.7 g/kg 85 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 11.4 g/kg 95 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10 g/kg 81 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12.8 14.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 38.8 42.7 g/kg 90 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 7.9 g/kg 80 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 8.9 g/kg 86 % 1
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