Brewers grains, dried

Dried byproduct of brewery, consisting of the spent grains left after the production of beer and other malt products (malt extracts and malt vinegar). Though beer can be made with other grains, such as sorghum or rice, the values indicated below are only for brewers grains obtained from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Alternative spellings: brewer's grains, brewers' grains.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.9 100 % - 3.6 80.4 -97.6 72 5.5
Crude protein 23.9 26.2 % - 3.6 17.1 -33.6 79 3.8 19 -37.5 128
Crude fibre 14.2 15.7 % - 2.5 8.6 -19.1 53 2.7 9.3 -21.5 63
Crude fat 7.8 8.6 % - 2.4 1.4 -8.6 53 2.6 1.6 -10.1 66
Ash 4.1 4.5 % - 0.8 2.7 -6 54 0.8 2.9 -6.8 103
Insoluble ash 0.8 0.9 % - 0.09 -1.6 2 0.1 -1.7 2
NDF 52.1 57.3 % - 7.6 32.5 -67.4 21 8 34.4 -75.4 82
ADF 20.1 22.1 % - 3.5 14.1 -26.3 19 3.8 14.8 -31.4 80
Lignin 5.1 5.6 % - 2.2 2.1 -5.9 17 2.4 2.2 -12.4 72
Water insoluble cell walls 48.7 53.6 % -
Starch 6.4 7 % - 3.6 2.1 -13.1 22 3.9 2.3 -14.5 20
Starch, enzymatic method 6.2 6.8 % - 1
Total sugars 1.2 1.3 % - 0.4 -2.9 3 0.4 -3.1 3
Gross energy (kcal) 4510 4960 kcal/kg - 400 3910 -4930 6 390 4230 -5230 8
Gross energy (MJ) 18.9 20.7 MJ/kg - 1.7 16.4 -20.6 6 1.6 17.7 -21.9 8
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.3 2.5 g/kg - 0.9 0.7 -4.4 24 1 0.8 -4.8 29
Phosphorus 5.3 5.9 g/kg - 1.4 0.8 -13.9 23 1.5 1 -8.8 28
Phytate phosphorus 3.2 3.5 g/kg 60 % P
Magnesium 2.2 2.5 g/kg - 0.2 1.7 -2.4 5 0.2 1.8 -2.6 16
Potassium 4.6 5 g/kg -
Sodium 0.24 0.27 g/kg - 0.13 0.18 -0.65 5 0.14 0.2 -0.7 16
Chlorine 1 1.1 g/kg - 1 0.4 0.2 -1.9 12
Sulfur 2.2 2.4 g/kg - 0.1 0.1 2.2 -2.5 11
Dietary cation-anion difference -36 -40 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 99 108 mEq/kg -
Manganese 43 47 mg/kg - 11 15 -56 5 12 16 -71 16
Zinc 81 89 mg/kg - 28 2 -106 5 31 2 -161 16
Copper 18 19 mg/kg - 5 16 -32 4 5 15 -35 15
Iron 118 130 mg/kg - 22 96 -162 4 23 103 -174 14
Selenium 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.3-0.5 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 7.5 8.2 g/kg 21.2 % FA 2 19-26.9 13
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.1 % FA 0.5 0.6-2.3 12
C18:1 oleic acid 4.7 5.2 g/kg 13.4 % FA 2.2 11.4-17.8 12
C18:2 linoleic acid 19.7 21.7 g/kg 55.9 % FA 1.2 53-57.5 12
C18:3 linolenic acid 3.1 3.4 g/kg 8.7 % FA 2.3 4.4-11.6 12
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.9 % FA 1
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.5 3.9 % 45 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 28.2 31 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.3 1.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 3.95 4.35 µg/kg -
Niacin 43 47.3 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 8.7 9.5 mg/kg -
Folic acid 4.8 5.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1628 1791 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.91 1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.85 0.94 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 110 121 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 154 169 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 26 29 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.464 0.511 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2530 2780 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1600 1760 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1500 1660 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9 9.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.5 6.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5 5.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 68.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 68.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 45 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 38 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 78 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.8 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.94 1.03 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.89 0.97 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 102 112 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 147 161 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 34 38 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.86 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.8 0.88 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 121 133 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 164 180 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 15 16 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.88 0.97 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.75 0.83 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.81 0.9 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.67 0.73 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 125 137 g/kg - 1 137 -154 3
PDIN INRA 2007 177 194 g/kg - 1 193 -227 3
PDIE INRA 2007 161 177 g/kg - 1 173 -191 3
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2490 2740 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.1 10 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.4 11.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 69.5 % 62-69.9 3
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 69.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 72.7 % 70.5-83.3 3
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 84 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 % 1
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 % 16 21-79 27
Immediately degradable N (a) - 18 % 15 8-49 13
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 16 25-77 13
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.05 h-1 0.041 0.041-0.191 13
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 77 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 23 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.025 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 36 % 13 17-65 21
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 12 % 14 4-43 13
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 57 % 7 38-58 13
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.045 h-1 0.015 0.027-0.074 13
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 4.2 4.6 g/kg 78 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.2 1.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.7 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 879 967 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 892 981 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 140 154 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 34 38 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.4 3.8 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 57.1 62.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.7 2.97 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.34 1.47 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.26 1.39 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.41 1.55 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.87 0.95 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 54 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 59 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.2 6.8 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 222 245 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 3 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2430 2680 kcal/kg - 2210 -2610 2 2450 -2700 2
ME growing pig (kcal) 2250 2480 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1530 1680 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2650 2920 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2420 2660 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1640 1800 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 10.2 11.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 9.4 10.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.4 7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.1 12.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 10.1 11.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.9 7.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 54 % 49-55.8 2
Energy digestibility adult pig - 58.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 57.4 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 62.5 %
N digestibility growing pig - 75 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 80.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 78 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 60.6 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 32 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.6 2.8 g/kg 48 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2120 2330 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2060 2270 kcal/kg - 1660 -2460 3 1790 -2690 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.9 9.8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.6 9.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 60.1 %
Energy digestibility horse - 58.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.68 0.75 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 165 181 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2810 3090 kcal/kg - 2240 -2960 3 2400 -3300 4
ME rabbit (kcal) 2650 2910 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.8 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 62.4 % 44.9-66 3
N digestibility rabbit - 54.6 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2770 3050 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.6 12.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 61.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 85.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 8.2 9 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.1 6.3 -9 5 1.2 5.9 -9.6 8 0.7 2.1-3.7 9
Threonine 8.1 8.9 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1.2 6.5 -9.9 4 1.2 7.2 -10.3 7 0.3 2.6-3.5 8
Methionine 3.6 3.9 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 3.2 -5 5 1.1 2.4 -5.5 7 0.3 1-1.9 8
Cystine 3.8 4.2 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 2.8 -4.7 3 2.8 -5.2 3 1-2.5 3
Methionine + cystine 7.4 8.1 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 8 -9.1 3 2.7-4.4 3
Tryptophan 2.7 2.9 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 1.1-1.3 2
Isoleucine 8.5 9.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.5 7.6 -11.7 6 0.8 2.9-5.4 7
Valine 11.4 12.6 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.2 9.4 -12.2 4 1.2 10 -13.2 6 0.8 3.8-5.8 7
Leucine 16.5 18.1 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 5.1 13.6 -27.7 4 5.5 14.8 -29.3 7 1 6.4-9.7 8
Phenylalanine 10.5 11.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 2.1 10.4 -15.4 4 2.3 11.3 -17.4 7
Tyrosine 6.9 7.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.4 6.8 -9.3 3 1.5 7.5 -11.7 6 0.4 2.9-4.1 7
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 17.4 19.2 g/kg 7.3 g/16g N
Histidine 5.1 5.6 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 3 -6.6 4 1.1 3.2 -6.8 7 0.4 1.2-2.3 8
Arginine 10.9 12 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.4 8.4 -12.6 4 1.5 9.2 -13 6 0.7 3.6-5.5 7
Alanine 11.2 12.3 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.5 8.9 -16.1 4 2.7 9.9 -16.7 7 0.5 4.2-5.7 7
Aspartic acid 16.1 17.7 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 3.3 11.3 -19.2 4 3.6 10.1 -20.4 7 1.2 4-7.7 7
Glutamic acid 43.4 47.7 g/kg 18.2 g/16g N 8.5 41.8 -52 4 9.1 43.5 -71 7 2.9 14.8-22.4 7
Glycine 9 9.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1.4 7.1 -10.4 4 1.5 6.6 -10.8 7 0.6 2.4-3.9 7
Serine 9.4 10.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 2.1 7.7 -11.8 4 2.3 8.6 -15.3 7 0.4 3.4-4.8 7
Proline 19.8 21.8 g/kg 8.3 g/16g N 1 8.1-10 4
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 6.7 7.4 g/kg 82 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.3 g/kg 81 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.5 g/kg 89 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 77 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 6.7 g/kg 83 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.4 g/kg 83 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.3 g/kg 89 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 10.8 g/kg 86 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 14.5 16 g/kg 88 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 10.5 g/kg 91 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.2 g/kg 94 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 16.1 17.7 g/kg 92 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.7 g/kg 85 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 11.4 g/kg 95 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10 g/kg 81 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12.8 14.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 38.8 42.7 g/kg 90 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 7.9 g/kg 80 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 8.9 g/kg 86 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 12.8 14.1 g/kg 65 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 62 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.6 g/kg 63 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3 g/kg 77 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.2 g/kg 75 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 76 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 67 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.5 g/kg 80 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.9 9.8 g/kg 78 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.5 14.9 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.1 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 4.9 g/kg 64 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.8 14 g/kg 73 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 73 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.9 7.6 g/kg 63 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.3 g/kg 68 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 10.5 11.5 g/kg 65 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 31.3 34.4 g/kg 72 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 63 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 6.9 g/kg 67 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 13.7 15.1 g/kg 69 %
CSVXLSXXML