Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil <5%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting of grain fragments and some maize germs.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89 100 % - 1.4 84 -91.2 65 2.2
Crude protein 13.8 15.5 % - 2.4 8.6 -16.8 68 2.7 8.3 -19.3 69
Crude fibre 7.1 8 % - 1.4 3.4 -9.2 56 1.6 3.9 -10.2 55
Crude fat 2.1 2.4 % - 1.1 0.2 -4.8 46 1.2 0.2 -5.3 50
Ash 4.5 5 % - 1.3 2.6 -6.5 33 1.5 1.3 -7.4 37
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 0.01 -0.1 4 0.01 -0.1 4
NDF 32.8 36.8 % -
ADF 8.9 10 % -
Lignin 1.4 1.6 % - 0.6 0.03 -1.5 5 0.6 0.04 -1.7 5
Water insoluble cell walls 31.8 35.8 % -
Starch 33 37.1 % - 7.3 23.4 -47.4 43 8.2 25.9 -56.4 42
Starch, enzymatic method 30.7 34.5 % -
Total sugars 6.1 6.8 % - 2.2 1.4 -9.2 13 2.5 1.6 -10.2 13
Gross energy (kcal) 3860 4340 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.2 18.2 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.3 1.5 g/kg - 0.9 0.3 -2.6 5 1.1 0.3 -2.9 5
Phosphorus 5.2 5.8 g/kg - 1.8 2.4 -7.9 8 2.1 2.7 -8.8 8
Phytate phosphorus 3.6 4.1 g/kg 70 % P
Magnesium 2.6 2.9 g/kg -
Potassium 6.8 7.7 g/kg -
Sodium 0.62 0.7 g/kg -
Chlorine 1 1.2 g/kg -
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 110 123 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 173 195 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg -
Zinc 45 50 mg/kg -
Copper 7 8 mg/kg -
Iron 139 157 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 4.5 5 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 10.2 11.4 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1.7 1.9 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 4.9 5.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 6.4 7.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.1 2.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 10.9 12.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 46.5 52.2 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 8.1 9.1 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1142 1283 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.98 1.11 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.98 1.1 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 34 39 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 83 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 10 11 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.329 0.37 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2620 2940 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1730 1950 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1730 1940 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.6 11.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7 7.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.9 7.7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 80.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 72 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.01 1.13 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 80 90 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 13 14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.95 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.94 1.05 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 42 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 89 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 4 5 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.96 1.08 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.93 1.04 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.95 1.06 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.9 1.02 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 37 42 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 92 104 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 86 96 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2600 2920 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.9 12.2 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.6 11.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.1 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 81.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 71.9 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 68.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.5 4 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 960 1080 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1037 1166 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 79 88 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 13 15 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.3 4.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 67.1 75.5 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3 3.37 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.69 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.42 1.59 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.63 1.83 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.07 1.2 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 31 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.8 7.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 149 167 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -2 -2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2590 2910 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2480 2790 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1810 2040 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3010 3380 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2840 3190 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2060 2310 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 10.8 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.7 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 14.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.6 9.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 67 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 77.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 70.5 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 80.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 61.9 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 80 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 72 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 22.2 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 21 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.6 1.8 g/kg 32 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2120 2380 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2070 2330 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.9 10 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.7 9.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75.1 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.89 1 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 95 106 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2880 3230 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2770 3120 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12 13.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.6 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 74.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 56.6 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2080 2330 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.7 9.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 53.7 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.9 5.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.5 2.8 -7.3 6 1.6 3.1 -8.1 6 1 2.7-4.8 6
Threonine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 3.9 -5.3 4 4.3 -5.8 4 3.3-4 4
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 1.8 -2.9 4 2 -3.2 4
Cystine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1.8 -3 4 2 -3.3 4
Methionine + cystine 5.3 5.9 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 3.6 -5.9 4 4 -6.5 4 3.5-4 4
Tryptophan 0.9 1.1 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N
Isoleucine 4.5 5 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 3.2 -4.7 4 3.5 -5.3 4
Valine 6.6 7.4 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 5 -7.9 4 5.5 -8.7 4 4.2-5.2 4
Leucine 12.1 13.6 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 8.2 -13.6 4 9.1 -15 4 7.5-9.2 4
Phenylalanine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 4.1 -6.5 4 4.6 -7.2 4 3.7-4.3 4
Tyrosine 3.9 4.3 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 2.4 -4.1 2 2.7 -4.5 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.2 10.4 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 6.6 -9.9 2 7.3 -10.9 2 6.7-6.7 2
Histidine 4 4.5 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 2.9 -6.7 4 3.2 -7.4 4 2.5-4.4 4
Arginine 6.9 7.8 g/kg 5 g/16g N 5.5 -12.8 4 6.2 -14.2 4 3.7-8.5 4
Alanine 9 10.1 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 6.2 -9.6 4 6.9 -10.8 4
Aspartic acid 8.7 9.7 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 7.6 -10.8 4 8.4 -12 4 5.6-7.7 4
Glutamic acid 20.4 23 g/kg 14.8 g/16g N 14.7 -22.4 4 16.3 -24.9 4 13.1-15.1 4
Glycine 6 6.8 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 5 -7.9 4 5.6 -8.7 4 3.8-5.2 4
Serine 5.8 6.6 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 4.5 -6.5 4 5 -7.3 4 3.8-4.6 4
Proline 8.7 9.8 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 65 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 65 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 86 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 76 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.6 g/kg 60 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 75 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.4 g/kg 73 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.2 g/kg 83 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 84 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.8 g/kg 88 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 8.9 g/kg 85 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 74 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.7 g/kg 86 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 79 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7 g/kg 72 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 16.4 18.5 g/kg 80 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 62 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 76 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.2 g/kg 74 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 62 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 67 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 85 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 64 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 73 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.7 0.8 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 3.9 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 78 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.4 11.7 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5 g/kg 83 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.5 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.5 g/kg 78 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.6 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.3 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.5 7.3 g/kg 75 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 19.3 g/kg 84 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 67 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 77 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7 7.8 g/kg 80 %
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