Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 5-14%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting of maize germs and other grain fragments.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.5 100 % - 2.3 83.4 -98 258 3.7
Crude protein 12.6 14.1 % - 2.1 7.6 -17.8 255 2.3 8.7 -19.8 263
Crude fibre 5.2 5.8 % - 1.3 1.4 -9.5 219 1.4 1.6 -10.4 225
Crude fat 7.2 8 % - 2.2 5.1 -13.8 128 2.5 5.2 -19.2 134
Ash 3.9 4.3 % - 1.6 1.6 -8.4 136 1.8 1.8 -9.7 143
Insoluble ash 1.9 2.1 % - 2.1 -2.1 2
NDF 25.5 28.5 % - 10.7 13.2 -47.6 9 12 13.9 -53.5 13
ADF 6.8 7.7 % - 2.6 2.9 -11.9 9 2.9 3.4 -13 10
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 0.8 0.2 -2.3 5 0.8 0.2 -2.5 6
Water insoluble cell walls 25 27.9 % -
Starch 38.3 42.8 % - 7.1 13.8 -52.2 221 7.9 14.7 -60.7 220
Starch, enzymatic method 35.6 39.8 % -
Total sugars 4.8 5.4 % - 1.3 2.7 -7.7 16 1.4 3 -8.5 16
Gross energy (kcal) 4140 4630 kcal/kg - 310 4300 -5240 9
Gross energy (MJ) 17.3 19.4 MJ/kg - 1.3 18 -21.9 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.6 g/kg - 0.7 0.09 -1 10 0.8 0.1 -2.9 11
Phosphorus 7.6 8.5 g/kg - 2.8 3 -12.6 17 3.1 3.3 -13.2 19
Phytate phosphorus 5.3 6 g/kg 70 % P 1 4.7 -6.6 3 67-83 3
Magnesium 2.6 2.9 g/kg -
Potassium 6.9 7.7 g/kg -
Sodium 0.63 0.7 g/kg -
Chlorine 1 1.2 g/kg -
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 110 123 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 174 195 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg -
Zinc 45 50 mg/kg -
Copper 7 8 mg/kg -
Iron 140 157 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.1 6.8 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 1 1.2 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 15 16.7 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 34.1 38.2 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 5.7 6.4 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 5 5.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 6.5 7.2 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 8.1 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.1 2.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 10.9 12.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 46.7 52.2 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 8.2 9.1 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1148 1283 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.13 1.27 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.15 1.29 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 31 35 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 80 90 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 1 1 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.331 0.37 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2970 3320 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2000 2230 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2030 2260 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 72 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.15 1.29 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.18 1.32 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 27 30 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 78 87 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 3 3 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.09 1.22 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.1 1.23 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 85 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -4 -5 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.1 1.23 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.1 1.22 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.04 1.16 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 34 38 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 84 94 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 82 91 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2930 3270 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.2 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 13.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 72 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.2 5.8 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1095 1224 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1200 1341 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 74 83 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 9 11 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.2 4.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.5 1.7 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 75 83.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.32 3.71 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.75 1.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.65 1.84 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.85 2.06 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.25 1.4 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 31 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.7 8.7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 159 178 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3070 3440 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2970 3320 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2280 2550 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3400 3800 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3250 3630 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2470 2770 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13 14.5 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.9 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.5 14 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.4 13.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.6 10.8 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.6 10.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.3 16 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.2 15.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.6 15.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.4 11.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.4 11.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 74.2 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 82.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 77.3 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 84.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.8 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 84.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 72 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 66.2 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.6 1.8 g/kg 21 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.4 2.7 g/kg 32 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2620 2930 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2550 2850 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11 12.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 10.9 12.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.7 11.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.7 11.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
Available P cockerel 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 80.4 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.94 1.05 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 89 99 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3160 3530 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3060 3420 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.8 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.8 14.3 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.8 14.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 76.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 62.3 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2290 2560 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.6 10.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 55.4 %
N digestibility salmonids - 82.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1 2.9 -5.6 7 1.1 3.3 -6.1 7
Threonine 4.6 5.1 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.8 2.6 -4.9 5 0.9 3 -5.4 5 0.2 3.4-4 6
Methionine 2.2 2.4 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.4 1.3 -2.3 5 0.4 1.5 -2.6 5 0.5 0.9-2.2 6
Cystine 2.7 3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.1 2-2.3 5
Methionine + cystine 4.9 5.5 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.8 2.8 -5 5 0.9 3.2 -5.6 5 0.3 3.7-4.4 5
Tryptophan 0.8 0.9 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3-1 3
Isoleucine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.5 3.1-4.4 6
Valine 6.1 6.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 3.7 -6.5 5 1.1 4.2 -7.1 5 0.5 4.1-5.5 6
Leucine 11.5 12.9 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N 1.2 7.5-10.5 6
Phenylalanine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 3.6-4.7 6
Tyrosine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.7 2.4 -4.1 5 0.8 2.6 -4.5 5 0.4 2.7-4 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.7 9.7 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 1.2 6 -9.1 5 1.4 6.8 -10 5 0.4 6.8-7.8 6
Histidine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.4 2.3-3.3 6
Arginine 6.5 7.3 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1.4 4.1 -7.7 5 1.6 4.7 -8.4 5
Alanine 8.3 9.3 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.5 5.7-6.9 5
Aspartic acid 8.2 9.1 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.5 5.3 -9.2 5 1.7 6 -10.1 5
Glutamic acid 19.1 21.3 g/kg 15.2 g/16g N 1.2 13.3-16.6 5
Glycine 5.6 6.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.1 3.2 -6.2 5 1.2 3.7 -6.8 5 0.5 4.2-5.7 5
Serine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.1 3.1 -6.3 5 1.3 3.5 -6.9 5 0.3 4-4.8 5
Proline 7.6 8.5 g/kg 6 g/16g N 5.3 -8.6 3 6.1 -9.4 3
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.4 g/kg 65 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 65 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 86 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.1 g/kg 76 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 60 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 73 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 9.5 10.6 g/kg 83 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 84 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 88 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.3 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 74 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.3 g/kg 86 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.4 g/kg 79 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.5 g/kg 72 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 15.3 17.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.8 g/kg 62 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 76 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.6 g/kg 78 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4 g/kg 77 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 73 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 70 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 75 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.6 0.7 g/kg 76 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.2 g/kg 77 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.1 10.1 g/kg 79 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.5 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.6 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.2 g/kg 76 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 80 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.2 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.7 g/kg 74 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 15.5 17.3 g/kg 81 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 73 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 76 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.6 g/kg 78 %
CSVXLSXXML