Maize flour byproduct, protein 8-18%, oil 5-14%

Byproduct of flour or grits manufacture from maize grain (Zea mays L.), consisting of maize germs and other grain fragments.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.5 100 % - 4 83.4 -98 258 3.7
Crude protein 12.6 14.1 % - 2.1 7.6 -17.8 255 2.3 8.7 -19.8 263
Crude fibre 5.2 5.8 % - 1.3 1.4 -9.5 219 1.4 1.6 -10.4 225
Crude fat 7.2 8 % - 2.2 5.1 -13.8 128 2.5 5.2 -19.2 134
Ash 3.9 4.3 % - 1.6 1.6 -8.4 136 1.8 1.8 -9.7 143
Insoluble ash 1.9 2.1 % - 2.1 -2.1 2
NDF 25.5 28.5 % - 10.7 13.2 -47.6 9 12 13.9 -53.5 13
ADF 6.8 7.7 % - 2.6 2.9 -11.9 9 2.9 3.4 -13 10
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 0.8 0.2 -2.3 5 0.8 0.2 -2.5 6
Water insoluble cell walls 25 27.9 % -
Starch 38.1 42.6 % - 7.1 13.8 -52.2 221 7.9 14.7 -60.7 220
Total sugars 4.8 5.4 % - 1.3 2.7 -7.7 16 1.4 3 -8.5 16
Gross energy (kcal) 4140 4630 kcal/kg - 310 4300 -5240 9
Gross energy (MJ) 17.3 19.4 MJ/kg - 1.3 18 -21.9 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.6 g/kg - 0.7 0.09 -1 10 0.8 0.1 -2.9 11
Phosphorus 7.6 8.5 g/kg - 2.8 3 -12.6 17 3.1 3.3 -13.2 19
Phytate phosphorus 5.3 6 g/kg 70 % P 1 4.7 -6.6 3 67-83 3
Magnesium 2.6 2.9 g/kg -
Potassium 6.9 7.7 g/kg -
Sodium 0.63 0.7 g/kg -
Chlorine 1 1.2 g/kg -
Sulfur 1 1.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 110 123 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 174 195 mEq/kg -
Manganese 21 24 mg/kg -
Zinc 45 50 mg/kg -
Copper 7 8 mg/kg -
Iron 140 157 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 6 6.8 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 1 1.2 g/kg 1.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 15 16.7 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 34.1 38.1 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 5.7 6.4 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 5 5.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 6 7 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 11 12 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 47 52 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 8 9 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1148 1283 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.08 1.21 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.09 1.21 per kg -
PDIA Systali 31 35 g/kg -
PDI Systali 79 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 3 3 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.331 0.37 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2860 3200 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1900 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1910 2140 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 12 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 8 8.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 82.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 81 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 72 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 55 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 66 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.1 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.11 1.24 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 27 30 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 77 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 5 6 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.04 1.16 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.03 1.16 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 84 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -2 -2 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.04 1.16 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 34 38 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 84 94 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 80 89 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2830 3160 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.8 13.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 82.3 %
N digestibility ruminants - 70.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 % 1
Immediately degradable N (a) - 36 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 59 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.095 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 39 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 61 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 52 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 6 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 83 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 76 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.2 5.8 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3110 3470 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3000 3350 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2300 2570 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3420 3820 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3270 3650 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2490 2780 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13 14.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.5 14 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.6 10.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.3 16 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.4 11.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 75 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 82.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 78 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 85 %
N digestibility growing pig - 68.8 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 83.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 72 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 66.2 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.6 1.8 g/kg 21 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2610 2920 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2550 2850 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 10.9 12.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.7 11.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 80 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.93 1.04 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 89 99 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3160 3530 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3060 3420 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.8 14.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 76.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 62.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4.7 5.2 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1 2.9 -5.6 7 1.1 3.3 -6.1 7
Threonine 4.6 5.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.8 2.6 -4.9 5 0.9 3 -5.4 5 0.2 3.4-4 6
Methionine 2.2 2.4 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.4 1.3 -2.3 5 0.4 1.5 -2.6 5 0.5 0.9-2.2 6
Cystine 2.7 3 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.1 2-2.3 5
Methionine + cystine 4.9 5.5 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.8 2.8 -5 5 0.9 3.2 -5.6 5 0.3 3.7-4.4 5
Tryptophan 0.8 0.9 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3-1 3
Isoleucine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.5 3.1-4.4 6
Valine 6 6.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 3.7 -6.5 5 1.1 4.2 -7.1 5 0.5 4.1-5.5 6
Leucine 11.5 12.9 g/kg 9.1 g/16g N 1.2 7.5-10.5 6
Phenylalanine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 3.6-4.7 6
Tyrosine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.7 2.4 -4.1 5 0.8 2.6 -4.5 5 0.4 2.7-4 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.7 9.7 g/kg 6.9 g/16g N 1.2 6 -9.1 5 1.4 6.8 -10 5 0.4 6.8-7.8 6
Histidine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 3 g/16g N 0.4 2.3-3.3 6
Arginine 6.5 7.3 g/kg 5.2 g/16g N 1.4 4.1 -7.7 5 1.6 4.7 -8.4 5
Alanine 8.3 9.3 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.5 5.7-6.9 5
Aspartic acid 8.2 9.1 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.5 5.3 -9.2 5 1.7 6 -10.1 5
Glutamic acid 19.1 21.3 g/kg 15.2 g/16g N 1.2 13.3-16.6 5
Glycine 5.6 6.2 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1.1 3.2 -6.2 5 1.2 3.7 -6.8 5 0.5 4.2-5.7 5
Serine 5.4 6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.1 3.1 -6.3 5 1.3 3.5 -6.9 5 0.3 4-4.8 5
Proline 7.6 8.5 g/kg 6 g/16g N 5.3 -8.6 3 6.1 -9.4 3
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.4 g/kg 65 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 65 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.1 g/kg 86 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 67 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.1 g/kg 76 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 60 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 73 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 9.5 10.6 g/kg 83 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 84 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.6 g/kg 88 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.3 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.1 g/kg 74 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.3 g/kg 86 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.4 g/kg 79 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.5 g/kg 72 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 15.3 17.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.8 g/kg 62 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 76 % 1
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