Sunflower seed, whole

Whole sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus L.). Other name: full fat sunflower seed.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92.8 100 % - 1 89.5 -95.8 221 1.5
Crude protein 14.8 16 % - 1.2 12.1 -20.9 291 1.3 12.9 -22.3 201
Crude fibre 15.9 17.1 % - 1.8 11.2 -25.6 464 1.9 11.9 -22.6 397
Crude fat 44.5 48 % - 2.4 37.7 -50 391 2.5 41 -53.7 331
Ash 3.2 3.4 % - 0.5 2.4 -4.7 141 0.5 2.5 -5.2 117
Insoluble ash 0.04 0.04 % - 0.03 0.01 -0.1 10 0.03 0.01 -0.1 10
NDF 28.8 31 % - 3.3 19.2 -31.7 16 3.6 20.4 -33.7 17
ADF 19 20.5 % - 2.1 12.2 -20.5 17 2.3 13 -21.8 19
Lignin 6 6.4 % - 0.8 4.1 -7.8 132 0.8 4.4 -8.6 132
Water insoluble cell walls 23.4 25.2 % - 5.1 13.3 -28.4 14 5.5 14 -29.9 14
Starch 1.2 1.3 % - 0.4 0.8 -1.6 8 0.5 0.2 -1.7 9
Starch, enzymatic method 0.4 0.4 % -
Total sugars 2.5 2.7 % - 0.3 2.3 -3.7 8 0.3 2.4 -3.3 8
Gross energy (kcal) 6350 6850 kcal/kg - 240 5890 -6880 8 250 6340 -7160 9
Gross energy (MJ) 26.6 28.7 MJ/kg - 1 24.7 -28.8 8 1.1 26.5 -30 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.5 2.7 g/kg - 1 1 -5.8 32 1.1 1.1 -6.2 33
Phosphorus 5.3 5.7 g/kg - 0.8 3.3 -7.2 41 0.9 3.5 -7.7 41
Phytate phosphorus 4.5 4.9 g/kg 85 % P
Magnesium 2.7 2.9 g/kg - 0.3 2.1 -3.1 13 0.3 2.4 -3.4 12
Potassium 7.8 8.4 g/kg - 1.2 5.8 -10.3 16 1.3 6.3 -11.2 12
Sodium 0.07 0.07 g/kg - 0.07 0 -0.23 16 0.08 0 -0.24 12
Chlorine 0.7 0.7 g/kg - 0.2 0.07 -1.1 10
Sulfur 2 2.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 61 65 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 183 198 mEq/kg -
Manganese 17 18 mg/kg - 14 -19 4
Zinc 48 52 mg/kg - 45 -53 4
Copper 16 17 mg/kg - 13 -18 4
Iron 59 64 mg/kg - 47 -78 4
Selenium 0.08 0.09 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.01 % FA 0-0.02 3
C14:0 myristic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.08 % FA 0.04 0-0.1 8
C16:0 palmitic acid 27.1 29.3 g/kg 6.4 % FA 1.5 24.9 -28.9 5 1.5 27.1 -31.1 5 0.4 5.9-7.2 11
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.8 0.8 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-0.6 4
C18:0 stearic acid 18.2 19.6 g/kg 4.3 % FA 2.8 14.9 -22.3 5 3.1 16.5 -24 5 0.8 2.8-5.4 11
C18:1 oleic acid 85.6 92.2 g/kg 20.2 % FA 3.3 15.3-28 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 275 297 g/kg 65.2 % FA 15.6 243 -288 5 16.5 263 -309 5 4.7 59.3-73.6 18
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.4 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3 1.2 -1.8 5 0.3 1.3 -1.9 5 0.3 0-1 11
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 1.9 2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.6 0.2-1.7 7
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.2 2
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:0 behenic acid 1.3 1.4 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0-0.6 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 0.2 % FA 1
Fatty acids 42.3 45.6 % 95 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.05 0.05 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 423 456 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 19.8 21.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.6 1.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 12.4 13.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 48 51.7 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 8.3 8.9 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 14 15.1 mg/kg -
Choline 551 594 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.57 1.69 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.55 1.68 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 21 23 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 64 69 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 42 46 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.227 0.245 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 4200 4530 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2760 2980 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2740 2950 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 17.8 19.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.8 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.7 12.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 70.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.62 1.74 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.61 1.74 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 19 21 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 63 68 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 43 46 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.49 1.6 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.45 1.57 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 25 27 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 67 72 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 39 42 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.46 1.57 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.44 1.55 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.41 1.52 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.38 1.49 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 15 16 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 90 97 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 32 34 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3960 4260 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 16.8 18.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 16.6 17.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 71.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 67.4 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 80 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 63.8 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 % 29-90 2
Immediately degradable N (a) - 77 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 13 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.605 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 70 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 60 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 18 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.075 h-1 0.056-0.097 2
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 78.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.9 4.2 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.4 1.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1434 1545 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1512 1629 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 12 13 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 103 111 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 0.6 0.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0.4 0.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 116 125 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 5.06 5.45 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 3.24 3.5 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 3.09 3.33 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.95 3.18 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.14 2.31 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 11 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 11 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 10.1 10.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 202 218 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -9 -9 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4480 4830 kcal/kg - 440 3830 -5010 5 470 4020 -5470 6
ME growing pig (kcal) 4360 4700 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 3660 3950 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4680 5050 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4520 4880 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 3740 4030 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 18.8 20.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 18.2 19.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 15.3 16.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 19.6 21.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.9 20.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 15.7 16.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 70.6 % 7 61.7-81.4 6
Energy digestibility adult pig - 73.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 68.9 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 73.4 %
N digestibility growing pig - 78.8 % 2.9 75.5-82.4 5
N digestibility adult pig - 86.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 82 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 85 % 82.8-91.7 4
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.6 1.7 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2.4 2.6 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 4360 4700 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel, ground (kcal) 4360 4700 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel, pelleted (kcal) 4530 4880 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 4110 4430 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler, ground (kcal) 4110 4430 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler, pelleted (kcal) 4280 4610 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 18.2 19.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 17.2 18.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.3 1.4 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.3 1.4 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 68.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.25 1.35 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 106 114 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 5070 5460 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 4920 5300 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 21.2 22.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 20.6 22.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 79.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 73.3 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4270 4600 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 17.9 19.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 67.2 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83.2 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6 6.5 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.7 5.5 -8.3 13 0.4 3.2-4.7 15
Threonine 5.7 6.1 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Methionine 3.4 3.6 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 3 -4 11 0.3 3.3 -4.3 10 0.4 1.6-2.6 11
Cystine 2.6 2.8 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.3 1.6-2.3 10
Methionine + cystine 6 6.4 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.9 -7.6 9 0.5 3.2-4.9 9
Tryptophan 2 2.2 g/kg 1.4 g/16g N 1.3-1.7 3
Isoleucine 5.9 6.3 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.3 3.5-4.3 7
Valine 6.8 7.3 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.4 4-5 7
Leucine 8.7 9.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 0.5 5.2-6.5 7
Phenylalanine 6.3 6.8 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.2 4.1-4.6 7
Tyrosine 3.7 4 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 2 3.6 -8.5 5 3.9 -8.8 4 0.8 1.6-4 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10 10.8 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 0.8 6.2-8.6 6
Histidine 3.7 4 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.9 3.5 -6.2 6 1 3.8 -6.4 5 0.3 2.1-2.9 7
Arginine 10.7 11.6 g/kg 7.2 g/16g N 1.4 6.8-10 7
Alanine 6.5 7 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 4.1-5.9 4
Aspartic acid 11.9 12.8 g/kg 8 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 24.6 26.5 g/kg 16.6 g/16g N
Glycine 8.5 9.1 g/kg 5.7 g/16g N 0.3 5.1-5.7 5
Serine 6.4 6.9 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.3 3.6-4.5 5
Proline 6.1 6.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 3.9-4.9 4
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 4.9 g/kg 75 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5 g/kg 82 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 90 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.4 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.7 g/kg 88 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.4 g/kg 86 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.1 g/kg 84 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6 g/kg 87 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 83 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.2 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.4 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 9.8 10.5 g/kg 91 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.5 g/kg 78 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 10.1 10.9 g/kg 85 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 22.1 23.8 g/kg 90 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 6.8 g/kg 75 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 5.7 g/kg 83 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3 g/kg 46 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 4.9 g/kg 76 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.4 g/kg 72 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 81 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 70 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 4.9 g/kg 76 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.6 g/kg 76 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 4.9 g/kg 78 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.6 g/kg 76 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.3 g/kg 78 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.4 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3 g/kg 75 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.4 g/kg 78 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3 g/kg 76 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.5 9.2 g/kg 79 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.4 g/kg 76 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.3 g/kg 73 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19.7 21.3 g/kg 80 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.1 6.6 g/kg 73 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.2 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5 g/kg 77 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.2 4.53 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.48 5.91 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 536 577 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0106 0.0114 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 45.83 49.39 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0006 0.0007 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, organic fertilizers, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.2 2.37 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.03 0.03 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 378 407 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0108 0.0116 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 48.66 52.44 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0008 0.0008 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, cover cropping, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.87 4.17 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.62 6.06 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 448 483 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0065 0.007 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 27.45 29.59 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0008 0.0009 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, protein crop, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.35 3.61 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 6.37 6.87 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 473 510 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.008 0.0086 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 34.15 36.8 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0008 0.0009 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, average, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.3 3.56 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.57 6 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 469 506 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.008 0.0086 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 34.11 36.76 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0008 0.0009 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.96 4.27 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.48 5.91 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 523 564 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0105 0.0113 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 45.56 49.1 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0006 0.0007 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML