Wheat middlings, durum

By-product of durum wheat processing. It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain from which less of the endosperm has been removed than in wheat bran.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.1 100 % - 1 84.2 -90.7 901 1.6
Crude protein 15.7 18 % - 1.4 13.5 -19.8 103 1.6 15.6 -22.1 97
Crude fibre 7 8 % - 1.6 1.3 -11.7 757 1.9 1.5 -13.3 736
Crude fat 4.2 4.8 % - 0.6 1.4 -7.9 430 0.7 1.5 -9 422
Ash 3.9 4.5 % - 0.5 2.1 -6.2 389 0.6 2.4 -7.2 379
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % -
NDF 30.9 35.5 % -
ADF 9 10.4 % -
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.3 1.7 -2.7 9 0.4 1.9 -3.1 8
Water insoluble cell walls 30.2 34.7 % -
Starch 31.2 35.8 % - 7.4 18.1 -60.3 851 8.5 20.8 -68.8 839
Starch, enzymatic method 27.1 31.1 % -
Total sugars 6.3 7.2 % - 2 5 -10.2 7 2.3 5.8 -11.6 7
Gross energy (kcal) 4010 4610 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.3 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.5 0.4 -2.3 18 0.6 0.4 -2.6 12
Phosphorus 8 9.1 g/kg - 0.7 5.7 -8.1 17
Phytate phosphorus 6.4 7.3 g/kg 80 % P 78-80 3
Magnesium 3.5 4 g/kg -
Potassium 10 11.4 g/kg -
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg - 0.05 0.03 -0.19 7 0.06 0.03 -0.21 7
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 1.7 1.9 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 132 151 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 238 273 mEq/kg -
Manganese 102 117 mg/kg - 1 1
Zinc 88 101 mg/kg -
Copper 13 14 mg/kg -
Iron 146 167 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.05 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 6 6.8 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 5.1 5.8 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.9 21.7 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 2 2.3 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.3 3.8 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 14.8 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.6 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.8 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 192 221 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 28.1 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 746 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2560 2940 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.88 1.01 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.85 0.97 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 33 38 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 79 91 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 33 38 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.252 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2410 2770 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1550 1780 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1490 1710 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.7 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 86 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.9 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.87 1 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 76 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 36 42 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.84 0.97 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.8 0.92 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 40 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 85 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 27 31 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.02 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.86 0.99 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.82 0.94 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 35 41 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 102 117 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 83 96 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2400 2760 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.1 11.6 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 73.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 68.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 % 15 27-74 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 % 8 21-46 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.052 0.004-0.145 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6 6.9 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 863 991 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 899 1032 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 68 78 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 38 44 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.7 4.3 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 66.4 76.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3 3.44 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.53 1.75 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.44 1.65 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.64 1.88 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.08 1.25 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.1 7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 142 163 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 2 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2660 3060 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2550 2920 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1880 2160 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2840 3260 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2700 3100 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1980 2270 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.6 12.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.9 9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.9 9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.4 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.7 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.7 %
N digestibility adult pig - 77.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 52.6 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2 2.3 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4 4.6 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2060 2370 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1980 2270 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.6 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.6 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2 2.3 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2 2.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.88 1.02 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 112 128 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2910 3340 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2790 3200 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.4 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 60.2 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1790 2050 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Threonine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 4.6 -5.4 2 5.3 -6.2 2 3-3.2 2
Methionine 2.4 2.8 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 2.4 -3.5 2
Cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 3 -3.8 2 3.5 -4.3 2 2-2.3 2
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 5.4 -7.3 2 6.2 -8.3 2 3.5-4.4 2
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Valine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N
Leucine 9.5 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.3 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Histidine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Arginine 10.1 11.6 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N
Alanine 7 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 10.4 12 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 31.6 36.3 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N
Glycine 7.6 8.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Serine 6.7 7.7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 6.3 -7.6 2 7.3 -8.7 2 4.1-4.5 2
Proline 10.4 12 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 75 % 4 -4.9 2 4.6 -5.6 2
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 72 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5.1 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 1.4 -1.7 2 1.6 -1.9 2
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 78 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.9 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 6 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.9 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 84 % 3 -3.8 2 3.5 -4.3 2
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10.1 g/kg 88 % 8.5 -9.5 2 9.8 -10.8 2
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.8 g/kg 72 % 4.9 -5.9 2 5.7 -6.7 2
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 76 % 7.3 -8.7 2 8.4 -9.9 2
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.3 32.5 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 73 % 5.4 -6.3 2 6.2 -7.2 2
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.2 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 10.1 11.6 g/kg 97 % 95-99 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 75 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 79 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 82 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.4 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.3 g/kg 80 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.2 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.2 32.4 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 79 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.9 g/kg 83 %
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