Wheat middlings, durum

By-product of durum wheat processing. It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain from which less of the endosperm has been removed than in wheat bran.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.1 100 % - 1.7 84.2 -90.3 893 1.6
Crude protein 15.6 17.9 % - 1 13.1 -19.8 910 1.2 15 -22.1 877
Crude fibre 7 8 % - 1.6 1.3 -11.7 753 1.9 1.5 -13.3 732
Crude fat 4.2 4.8 % - 0.6 1.4 -7.9 426 0.7 1.5 -9 418
Ash 3.9 4.5 % - 0.5 2.1 -6.2 389 0.6 2.4 -7.2 379
NDF 31 35.6 % -
ADF 9 10.4 % -
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.3 1.7 -2.7 9 0.4 1.9 -3.1 8
Water insoluble cell walls 30.3 34.8 % -
Starch 31.1 35.7 % - 7.4 18.1 -60.3 843 8.5 20.8 -68.8 831
Total sugars 6.3 7.2 % - 2 5 -10.2 7 2.3 5.8 -11.6 7
Gross energy (kcal) 4010 4600 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.3 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.5 0.4 -2.3 18 0.6 0.4 -2.6 12
Phosphorus 8 9.1 g/kg - 0.7 5.7 -8.1 17
Phytate phosphorus 6.4 7.3 g/kg 80 % P
Potassium 10 11.4 g/kg -
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg - 0.05 0.03 -0.19 7 0.06 0.03 -0.21 7
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 1 1
Electrolyte balance 238 273 mEq/kg -
Manganese 102 117 mg/kg - 1 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 6 6.8 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 5.1 5.8 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.9 21.7 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 2 2.3 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.3 3.8 g/kg 80 % fat
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.91 1.04 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.88 1.01 per kg -
PDIA Systali 33 38 g/kg -
PDI Systali 80 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 31 36 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.236 0.271 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2470 2830 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1590 1830 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1540 1770 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.7 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 75 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 73.3 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 7.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.93 1.06 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.9 1.03 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 77 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 34 39 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.87 0.99 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.83 0.95 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 40 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 86 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 25 28 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.02 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 35 40 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 101 116 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 84 97 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2450 2820 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 69.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6 6.9 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2660 3050 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2540 2920 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1880 2160 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2840 3260 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2690 3090 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1980 2270 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.6 12.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.9 9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.3 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.6 %
N digestibility adult pig - 77.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 52.6 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4 4.6 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2060 2370 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1970 2270 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.6 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75 %
Energy digestibility horse - 72.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.88 1.01 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 110 127 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2910 3340 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2790 3200 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 60 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Threonine 5 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 4.6 -5.4 2 5.3 -6.2 2 3-3.2 2
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N
Cystine 3.1 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 3 -3.8 2 3.5 -4.3 2 2-2.3 2
Methionine + cystine 5.5 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 5.4 -7.3 2 6.2 -8.3 2 3.5-4.4 2
Tryptophan 2 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Valine 7 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N
Leucine 9.5 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.2 11.7 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Histidine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N
Arginine 10 11.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 9.5 -10 2 11 -11.4 2
Alanine 6.9 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 10.3 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 31.4 36 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N
Glycine 7.5 8.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Serine 9.5 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Proline 10.4 11.9 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 75 % 4 -4.9 2 4.6 -5.6 2
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.2 g/kg 72 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 78 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 80 % 1.4 -1.7 2 1.6 -1.9 2
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 78 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 6 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.9 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 4 g/kg 84 % 3 -3.8 2 3.5 -4.3 2
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 10 g/kg 88 % 8.5 -9.5 2 9.8 -10.8 2
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.8 g/kg 72 % 4.9 -5.9 2 5.7 -6.7 2
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 9 g/kg 76 % 7.3 -8.7 2 8.4 -9.9 2
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.1 32.2 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 73 % 5.4 -6.3 2 6.2 -7.2 2
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.6 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 10.1 11.5 g/kg 97 % 95-99 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.3 g/kg 75 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 78 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.3 g/kg 79 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.8 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.8 g/kg 82 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.3 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.2 g/kg 80 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28 32.1 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.6 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 79 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.8 g/kg 83 %
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