Brewers yeast, dried

Dried byproduct of brewery, consisting of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) remaining in the fermentation vats of malt wort after removal of the fermented liquid. It is generally sold in dried form.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 92.8 100 % - 2.9 82.2 -98.2 144 4.4
Crude protein 44.2 47.6 % - 4.7 31.2 -54.4 187 4.9 32.4 -56.8 144
Crude fibre 1.8 1.9 % - 1.3 0.06 -6.4 64 1.4 0.06 -5.6 61
Crude fat 3.7 4 % - 3 0 -11 47 3.2 0 -11.6 43
Ash 6.5 7 % - 1.3 3.2 -10.4 114 1.3 3.4 -10.8 112
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.6 % - 0.2 -0.9 4 0.4 -0.8 2
NDF 7.7 8.3 % - 7.7 0.01 -18.8 8 8.3 0.01 -20.7 8
ADF 2.2 2.4 % - 2.2 0.01 -6.1 7 2.3 0.01 -5.7 7
Lignin 0.7 0.7 % - 0.6 0.01 -1.5 7 0.7 0.01 -1.7 7
Water insoluble cell walls 6.9 7.5 % -
Starch 8 8.6 % - 2.4 4.9 -10.4 7 2.5 5.2 -11 5
Starch, enzymatic method 6 6.5 % -
Total sugars 1.7 1.9 % - 0.3 -2.6 3 0.3 -2.8 3
Gross energy (kcal) 4400 4740 kcal/kg - 3860 -4660 3 4320 -4870 3
Gross energy (MJ) 18.4 19.8 MJ/kg - 16.1 -19.5 3 18.1 -20.4 3
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.8 3 g/kg - 1.3 0.9 -7.4 35 1.4 1 -7.7 34
Phosphorus 12.5 13.5 g/kg - 3.8 5.4 -24.4 39 4 5.8 -26.2 38
Phytate phosphorus 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Magnesium 2.2 2.4 g/kg - 1.7 -2.7 3 1.9 -2.4 2
Potassium 20.5 22 g/kg - 18.8 -22.1 2 1
Sodium 1.61 1.74 g/kg - 1.02 0.43 -3.4 8 1.1 0.45 -3.74 7
Chlorine 3.5 3.7 g/kg - 2.5 -5 3 3.1 -5.4 2
Sulfur 4.2 4.6 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 232 250 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 497 535 mEq/kg -
Manganese 31 34 mg/kg - 7 -37 3 7 -43 4
Zinc 96 103 mg/kg - 44 45 -146 5 47 49 -154 6
Copper 19 20 mg/kg - 28 0.8 -73 6 30 0.9 -80 6
Iron 87 94 mg/kg - 26 -129 4 27 -141 4
Selenium 0.06 0.06 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.5 0.6 mg/kg - 0.5 -0.5 2
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg -
Iodine 1 1 mg/kg - 1 -1 2
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 4.5 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 3 % FA 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 13.2 14.3 g/kg 44.2 % FA 1
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 5.1 5.5 g/kg 16.9 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 4.2 4.5 g/kg 13.9 % FA 1
C18:1 oleic acid 2.2 2.4 g/kg 7.3 % FA 1
C18:2 linoleic acid 0.9 0.9 g/kg 2.9 % FA 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3 3.2 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 2 2.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 84.9 91.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 39.5 42.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 33.5 36.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 7.4 7.98 µg/kg -
Niacin 445 480 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 110 119 mg/kg -
Folic acid 10.4 11.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 1.1 1.2 mg/kg -
Choline 3316 3574 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.09 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.08 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 81 87 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 132 143 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 258 278 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.138 0.148 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2920 3150 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1920 2070 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1910 2060 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.2 13.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.1 8.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 8.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.7 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 80 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.4 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.12 1.2 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.11 1.2 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 70 75 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 123 133 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 267 288 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.05 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.03 1.11 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 98 105 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 148 160 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 241 260 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.04 1.13 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.04 1.13 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.02 1.1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.02 1.1 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 69 75 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 279 301 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 128 137 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2850 3070 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.9 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.9 12.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 78.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 84 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 64 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 29 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.14 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 81 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 60 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 34 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.095 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 11.3 12.1 g/kg 90 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.5 1.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1043 1124 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1113 1199 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 117 126 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 273 294 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.8 5.2 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.5 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 78.7 84.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.92 4.22 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.09 2.25 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.98 2.13 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.23 2.4 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.56 1.69 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 15 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 17 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.4 8 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 201 217 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 39 42 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3740 4030 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3440 3700 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2210 2390 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3820 4120 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3470 3740 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2280 2450 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.6 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.6 16.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.3 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.4 15.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.3 10 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9 9.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16 17.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 16 17.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.5 15.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.4 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.5 10.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 87 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 86 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 88 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 86.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 69 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 80 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 6.3 6.7 g/kg 50 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 9.4 10.1 g/kg 75 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2930 3160 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2930 3160 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.3 13.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.2 13.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.3 13.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.2 13.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
Available P cockerel 3.1 3.4 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 3.1 3.4 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 85.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.98 1.06 per kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3800 4100 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3370 3630 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 15.9 17.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 14.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 86.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 81 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 3170 3420 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 13.3 14.3 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 13.3 14.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 72.1 % 62.6-76.8 2
N digestibility salmonids - 81.7 % 63.2-91 2
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 27 29.1 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 3.5 6 -35.7 45 3.6 22.7 -34 13 1.7 1.2-7.9 23
Threonine 19.1 20.6 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 2.9 5 -23.3 13 3.1 16.7 -25 5 1.2 1-5.6 15
Methionine 6.6 7.1 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1.3 2.2 -9.3 41 1.4 5.3 -10 9 0.3 0.5-2.2 19
Cystine 2.8 3 g/kg 0.6 g/16g N 1.5 2.6 -6.5 14 1.6 2.9 -6.9 5 0.4 0.5-1.9 14
Methionine + cystine 9.4 10.1 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 5.2 -12.9 14 1 9.7 -12.3 5 0.5 1.1-3.4 14
Tryptophan 4.6 5 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 2.5 -6.5 12 4 -5.7 4 0.3 0.5-1.4 14
Isoleucine 18.9 20.4 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 2.8 4.9 -23 13 2.9 14.7 -22 5 1.1 1-6.1 15
Valine 20.9 22.5 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.7 7.3 -24.9 13 2.8 16.9 -23.7 5 1.1 1.5-5.8 15
Leucine 26.2 28.3 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 3.3 9.2 -34.4 13 3.5 22.8 -32 5 1.4 1.8-7.5 15
Phenylalanine 15.3 16.5 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 1.6 6.3 -20.8 13 1.7 14.1 -18.6 5 0.8 1.3-4.5 15
Tyrosine 11.7 12.7 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 3.2 4.9 -17.3 11 9.7 -14.3 3 0.7 1-3.8 13
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 27 29.1 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 6.9 11.2 -38.1 11 23.8 -31.5 3 1.5 2.3-8.3 13
Histidine 9.3 10 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 2.2 3.9 -12.1 13 2.3 6.6 -13 5 0.4 0.8-2.9 15
Arginine 19.6 21.1 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 5.6 9.9 -26.7 13 6 12.8 -29.5 5 0.9 2-5.2 15
Alanine 28.5 30.7 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 7.2 7.3 -33.1 12 15.4 -35.1 4 1.6 1.5-6.9 13
Aspartic acid 35 37.7 g/kg 7.9 g/16g N 9.9 10.3 -43.3 12 2.6 2.1-12.2 13
Glutamic acid 63 67.9 g/kg 14.3 g/16g N 20.6 31 -110 12 56.5 -80.2 4 3.4 6.2-20.3 13
Glycine 17 18.3 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 3.4 7.7 -20.6 12 15.4 -20.8 4 0.8 1.5-4.4 13
Serine 18.4 19.8 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 4.3 6.5 -22.9 12 16.3 -21.7 4 1 1.3-5.3 13
Proline 39.3 42.4 g/kg 8.9 g/16g N 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 20.1 21.6 g/kg 74 % 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 12.6 13.6 g/kg 66 % 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5 g/kg 69 % 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.5 g/kg 49 % 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.4 g/kg 63 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.7 g/kg 55 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 13.6 14.7 g/kg 72 % 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 13.8 14.9 g/kg 66 % 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 19.1 20.6 g/kg 73 % 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.1 10.9 g/kg 66 % 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.1 g/kg 64 % 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 17.6 19 g/kg 65 % 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 7.7 g/kg 77 % 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 15.3 16.5 g/kg 78 % 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 21 22.6 g/kg 74 % 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 26.3 28.3 g/kg 75 % 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 48.3 52 g/kg 77 % 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 11.4 12.2 g/kg 67 % 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 12.7 13.6 g/kg 69 % 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 8.5 g/kg 20 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 24.3 26.2 g/kg 90 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.5 16.7 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 80 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.4 g/kg 83 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.3 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 16.1 17.3 g/kg 85 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.5 18.9 g/kg 84 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 22.3 24 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.1 14.2 g/kg 86 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11 g/kg 87 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 23.4 25.2 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.2 g/kg 82 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 18.6 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.1 27.1 g/kg 88 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 29.7 32 g/kg 85 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 55.4 59.8 g/kg 88 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.4 15.5 g/kg 85 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.1 16.2 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 33.4 36 g/kg 85 %
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