Oats

Oat grain (Avena sativa L.).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.6 100 % - 1.4 81.9 -93.1 851 2.3
Crude protein 9.4 10.8 % - 1.1 6.5 -13.4 988 1.3 7.7 -15.4 858
Crude fibre 11.5 13.1 % - 1.7 5.1 -17.3 896 1.9 5.9 -20.2 772
Crude fat 4.7 5.4 % - 0.8 2.5 -7 253 0.9 2.8 -7.8 230
Ash 2.5 2.9 % - 0.3 1.9 -3.8 186 0.4 2.2 -4.3 166
Insoluble ash 1 1.2 % - 0.5 0.3 -1.8 16 0.5 0.4 -2 16
NDF 31.3 35.7 % - 4.5 22.5 -42.8 193 5.1 23.6 -48.6 221
ADF 14.3 16.3 % - 2.7 8.7 -29.7 199 3 10 -32.2 226
Lignin 2.3 2.6 % - 0.8 0.8 -4.3 208 1 0.9 -5.5 227
Water insoluble cell walls 31.3 35.7 % - 3.4 21.4 -38.4 74 3.8 28 -44 62
Starch 36.8 42.1 % - 4.1 26.5 -52.4 474 4.7 30 -60.4 400
Starch, enzymatic method 34.9 39.9 % - 4.5 30.2 -48.8 26 5.1 33.7 -56.4 30
Total sugars 1.3 1.5 % - 0.4 0.1 -2.3 100 0.5 0.1 -2.7 101
Gross energy (kcal) 4070 4650 kcal/kg - 90 3840 -4220 50 60 4420 -4760 90
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.5 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.1 -17.7 50 0.3 18.5 -19.9 90
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.4 -2 264 0.4 0.5 -2.3 263
Phosphorus 3.1 3.6 g/kg - 0.4 2 -4.5 315 0.4 2.3 -4.9 311
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 60 % P 0.3 1.4 -2.6 25 0.4 1.6 -3 26 10 37-86 27
Magnesium 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.1 0.7 -1.2 31 0.1 0.8 -1.3 31
Potassium 4.5 5.1 g/kg - 0.9 2.7 -5.9 34 1 3 -7 34
Sodium 0.12 0.13 g/kg - 0.08 0 -0.38 33 0.09 0 -0.42 33
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.4 -1.3 9 0.3 0.5 -1.5 8
Sulfur 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 0.2 1.3 -1.7 6 0.2 1.5 -2 6
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.9 -1 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 99 112 mEq/kg -
Manganese 41 47 mg/kg - 17 19 -83 25 19 22 -98 27
Zinc 24 27 mg/kg - 4 16 -34 28 5 18 -37 29
Copper 3 4 mg/kg - 1 0.8 -8 28 1 1 -9 28
Iron 96 109 mg/kg - 49 38 -172 11 56 45 -198 11
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.08 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.8 0.9 mg/kg - 1 1
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.2-0.7 3
C16:0 palmitic acid 7 8 g/kg 16.5 % FA 2.1 5.6 -10.8 7 2.4 6.5 -12.2 7 1.3 14.9-18.9 8
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.1-0.3 3
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.2 % FA 0.3 0.3 -1.2 7 0.4 0.3 -1.4 7 0.3 0.7-1.8 8
C18:1 oleic acid 16.4 18.7 g/kg 38.6 % FA 6.2 12.7 -27.8 7 7.1 14.8 -31.4 7 2.9 35-43.4 8
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.4 19.9 g/kg 40.9 % FA 3.9 13 -24.8 7 4.5 15.1 -28 7 4.2 36.2-47 8
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 1.6 % FA 0.2 0.3 -1.1 7 0.3 0.4 -1.2 7 0.3 1-1.9 8
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.09-0.1 2
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.8-0.8 2
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.06 % FA 0.04-0.07 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.07 % FA 0.05-0.08 2
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.3 2
Fatty acids 4.3 4.9 g/kg 90 % fat 4 86-95 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 11.9 13.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 5.8 6.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.6 1.8 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 16.8 19.2 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 8.3 9.5 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Choline 975 1113 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 4.2 mL/g
Phytase activity 40 40 IU/kg - 10 -100 2 20 -120 3
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.87 1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.83 0.95 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 17 20 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 64 73 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -13 -14 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.271 0.31 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2400 2740 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1540 1750 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1470 1670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.1 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.4 7.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.1 7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 69.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 59 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.89 1.02 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.86 0.98 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 15 17 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 63 72 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -12 -14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.83 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.78 0.89 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 21 24 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 66 75 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -15 -17 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -1.01 5 0.09 0.93 -1.15 5
UFL INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg - 0.07 0.73 -0.96 21 0.08 0.86 -1.1 21
UFV INRA 2007 0.8 0.92 per kg - 0.1 0.76 -1 5 0.11 0.86 -1.14 5
UFV INRA 2007 0.8 0.92 per kg - 0.08 0.67 -0.94 21 0.09 0.79 -1.08 21
PDIA INRA 2007 16 18 g/kg - 2
PDIN INRA 2007 58 67 g/kg - 7 8 60 -83 6
PDIE INRA 2007 64 74 g/kg - 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2380 2720 kcal/kg - 200 1910 -2800 37 220 2310 -3250 37
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10 11.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10 11.4 MJ/kg - 0.8 8 -11.7 37 0.9 9.7 -13.6 37
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 72.6 % 5.5 68-82 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 70.7 % 5.4 59.7-82.2 38
N digestibility ruminants - 59.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 81 % 5 77-92 9
Immediately degradable N (a) - 63 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 29 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.1 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 93 % 1
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 67 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 33 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.215 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 62 % 57-72 4
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 50 % 44-65 2
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 26 % 17-51 4
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.05 h-1 0.02-0.07 2
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.4 2.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.1 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 851 972 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 880 1004 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 48 54 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -4 -5 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.6 4.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 69.7 79.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.05 3.48 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.56 1.78 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.47 1.68 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.67 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.11 1.27 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 18 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 20 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6 6.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 125 142 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2670 3050 kcal/kg - 140 2530 -2830 5 160 2860 -3310 8
ME growing pig (kcal) 2570 2930 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1930 2200 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2830 3230 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2690 3070 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2010 2300 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.8 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg - 0.6 10.6 -11.9 5 0.7 12 -13.8 8
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.8 12.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.1 9.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.1 9.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.4 9.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.4 9.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 65.6 % 3.5 61-70 8
Energy digestibility adult pig - 69.4 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.2 % 67.4-71 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 72.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 75.6 % 72.9-78.9 4
N digestibility adult pig - 85.6 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 76 % 4.8 67-81.2 10
Crude fat digestibility pig - 55.8 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.1 g/kg 32 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 48 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2360 2700 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2240 2550 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.9 11.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.9 11.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.7 0.8 g/kg 21 % P
Available P broiler 0.8 0.9 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 68.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.88 1 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 66 76 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2730 3110 kcal/kg - 2580 -2910 2 2890 -3310 4
ME rabbit (kcal) 2640 3020 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.4 13 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.4 13 MJ/kg - 1 12.1 -13.4 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67 % 64.4-69.6 3
N digestibility rabbit - 66.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2140 2440 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9 10.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 52.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 80.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4 4.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 3 -5.9 64 0.8 3.4 -6.6 65 0.3 3.6-5.1 68
Threonine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.6 2.5 -4.7 35 0.7 2.8 -5.9 37 0.3 3-4.1 40
Methionine 1.7 1.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.5 34 0.4 1.2 -2.7 36 0.2 1.3-2.2 39
Cystine 3.1 3.6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.4 2.3 -3.9 29 0.5 2.5 -4.7 28 0.3 2.3-3.4 33
Methionine + cystine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.5 -6.1 29 0.8 4 -7.3 28 0.4 3.9-5.3 33
Tryptophan 1.2 1.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.2 1 -1.9 22 0.3 1.2 -2.1 21 0.1 1.1-1.5 26
Isoleucine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.7 2.9 -5.5 34 0.8 3 -6.2 37 0.3 3.1-4.5 40
Valine 5 5.7 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 1.1 3.9 -7.3 34 1.2 4.5 -10 36 0.5 4.3-6.2 39
Leucine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 1.2 5.6 -9.9 33 1.4 5.9 -12.2 36 0.5 6.4-8.4 39
Phenylalanine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.9 3.8 -6.7 32 1 4 -8.6 35 0.4 4.4-5.8 38
Tyrosine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.7 2.4 -4.1 15 0.7 2.7 -5.1 16 0.5 2.3-4.1 20
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.1 9.2 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 1.6 6.7 -10.2 12 1.8 7.1 -12.6 13 0.7 7.6-9.9 17
Histidine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3.3 29 0.5 1.8 -3.8 31 0.3 2-3.1 34
Arginine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.3 5.2 -9.9 33 1.5 5.7 -10.7 35 0.6 5.8-8.3 38
Alanine 4.5 5.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.7 -6.3 32 0.8 4.1 -7.1 35 0.4 4.4-5.8 37
Aspartic acid 8.1 9.3 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 1.7 6.5 -11 30 1.9 6.5 -15.2 32 0.5 7.4-10.1 34
Glutamic acid 16.1 18.4 g/kg 17.1 g/16g N 3.8 14.4 -26.9 31 4.3 15.8 -33 34
Glycine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.8 4.1 -7.4 33 0.9 4.5 -8.3 34 0.4 4.2-5.7 39
Serine 4.6 5.3 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.8 3.7 -7 33 0.9 3.8 -7.8 36 0.4 4.3-5.9 38
Proline 5.8 6.6 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.1 3.8 -6.4 16 1.3 4.3 -8.8 19 0.8 4.4-6.7 21
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 73 % 1 1 6 60-82 10
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 69 % 1 1 6 57-75 10
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 84 % 1 1 2 80-87 10
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 75 % 1 1 3 68-80 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 78 % 1 1 2 74-82 10
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1.1 g/kg 78 % 5 71-84 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 79 % 1 1 5 71-84 10
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.4 g/kg 77 % 1 1 6 66-85 10
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 81 % 1 1 5 73-88 10
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 84 % 1 1 5 75-90 10
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 80 % 1 1 7 68-89 10
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.5 g/kg 82 % 1 1 5 73-90 10
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 83 % 1 1 5 74-89 10
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 88 % 1 1 4 81-93 10
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 69 % 1 1 6 58-76 10
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7.1 g/kg 76 % 1 1 5 66-82 10
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 13.9 15.8 g/kg 86 % 1 1 4 79-90 10
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 70 % 1 1 7 56-78 10
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 74 % 1 1 4 67-80 10
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 72 % 1 1 66-78 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 84 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 74 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 86 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 67 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 74 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 73 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 84 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 87 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.1 g/kg 80 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.7 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 79 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 76 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.2 15 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 76 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.9 g/kg 73 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.65 3.02 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.91 3.32 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 486 555 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0122 0.0139 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 53.64 61.23 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.83 3.23 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.91 3.32 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 496 566 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0123 0.014 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 53.89 61.52 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
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