Rye

Rye grain (Secale cereale L.).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.7 100 % - 1.2 79.7 -91.9 563 2
Crude protein 8.5 9.8 % - 0.9 7 -11.5 114 1 8 -13.2 79
Crude fibre 2 2.3 % - 0.3 1.3 -2.7 172 0.3 1.5 -3.1 196
Crude fat 1.2 1.4 % - 0.2 0.8 -1.8 122 0.2 0.9 -2 125
Ash 1.8 2 % - 0.2 1.2 -2.3 121 0.3 1.5 -2.6 125
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 1 1
NDF 12.9 14.8 % - 1.9 10.7 -15.6 15 2.2 9.5 -18 17
ADF 2.8 3.3 % - 0.5 2.1 -3.9 20 0.6 2.4 -4.4 22
Lignin 0.9 1.1 % - 0.2 0.7 -1.4 17 0.3 0.8 -1.6 18
Water insoluble cell walls 12.8 14.7 % - 11.3 -13.6 4 13.5 -15.8 3
Starch 53.7 62 % - 2.1 49.1 -58.1 221 2.3 57.3 -66.9 238
Starch, enzymatic method 49.3 56.9 % -
Total sugars 3.1 3.6 % - 1.1 2.5 -5.4 7 1.2 2.8 -6.3 8
Gross energy (kcal) 3720 4290 kcal/kg - 70 3670 -3910 6
Gross energy (MJ) 15.6 18 MJ/kg - 0.3 15.4 -16.4 6
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -1.1 18 0.3 0.2 -1.3 18
Phosphorus 3 3.5 g/kg - 0.3 2.5 -3.7 26 0.3 2.8 -4.1 27
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 65 % P 1 1
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 4.5 5.2 g/kg -
Sodium 0.03 0.04 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.7 -0.7 2
Sulfur 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 22 25 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 100 115 mEq/kg -
Manganese 46 53 mg/kg - 1
Zinc 22 25 mg/kg - 1
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 57 65 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.03 0.03 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.08 0.09 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.1-0.3 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.4 1.6 g/kg 14.9 % FA 14.8-15 2
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.4-1.2 2
C18:0 stearic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.8-0.8 2
C18:1 oleic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 18.1 % FA 17.1-19.2 2
C18:2 linoleic acid 5.3 6.1 g/kg 57.7 % FA 57.6-57.7 2
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 7.1 % FA 6.8-7.4 2
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.7 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 0.9 1.1 % 75 % fat 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.01 0.01 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 10 11.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3.4 3.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.1 2.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 2.9 3.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 29.9 34.5 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 14 16.1 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 304 351 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 21 mL/g
Phytase activity 5320 6130 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.04 1.19 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.06 1.22 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 17 20 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 70 81 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -30 -34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.132 0.153 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2700 3120 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1820 2100 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1860 2140 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.6 8.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 88.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.05 1.21 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.08 1.24 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 14 16 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 69 79 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -29 -33 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1 1.16 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.01 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 21 24 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 73 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -33 -38 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.01 1.16 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.02 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.01 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.03 1.19 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 19 22 g/kg - 19 -28 3
PDIN INRA 2007 55 64 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 83 96 g/kg - 96 -104 3
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2710 3120 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.3 13.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.4 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 68.1 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 10 63-89 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 27 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 69 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 96 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 % 62-90 3
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 51 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 41 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.15 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 59.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.2 2.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.1 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1023 1180 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1131 1304 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 79 92 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -43 -49 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5.6 6.5 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.9 2.2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 73.2 84.4 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.18 3.67 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.64 1.89 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.54 1.78 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.77 2.04 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.2 1.38 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 21 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.2 8.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 138 159 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -8 -10 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3190 3680 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3100 3570 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2390 2750 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3260 3760 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3140 3620 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2430 2800 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.4 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13 15 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10 11.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.2 11.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85.9 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 87.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 88.7 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 90.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.9 % 69.7-72.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 75.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 77 % 1.5 75.4-79.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 11 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2730 3150 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2330 2690 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.4 13.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.8 11.3 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.4 1.6 g/kg 47 % P
Available P broiler 1.4 1.6 g/kg 47 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 84.6 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.99 1.15 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 60 69 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3130 3610 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3050 3510 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 84.1 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 68.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1860 2150 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.8 9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 50 %
N digestibility salmonids - 79.2 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.4 3.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.3 3 -4.2 29 0.4 3.3 -4.8 34 0.3 3.2-4.4 38
Threonine 2.9 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.3 2.6 -3.5 13 0.4 2.8 -4.1 18 0.2 3.1-3.8 22
Methionine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.3 1.2 -2 15 0.3 1.1 -2.4 19 0.2 1.3-2.1 22
Cystine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -2.2 13 0.4 2 -3.5 17 0.2 2-2.8 21
Methionine + cystine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.5 2.9 -3.6 13 0.5 3.3 -5.3 16 0.3 3.6-4.7 19
Tryptophan 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.2 0.8 -1.1 10 0.2 0.9 -1.6 9 0.1 0.9-1.4 13
Isoleucine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.4 -3.7 13 0.4 2.8 -4.4 18 0.2 3.1-4 22
Valine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.5 3.9 -5.9 17 0.3 4.3-5.2 21
Leucine 5.2 6 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.6 4.7 -5.3 11 0.7 4.9 -7.5 16 0.3 5.7-6.8 20
Phenylalanine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.6 3.2 -4.5 12 0.7 3.2 -5.7 17 0.3 4-5 21
Tyrosine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.3 1.9 -2.3 6 0.4 2 -3.3 10 0.3 1.9-3 14
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.9 6.9 g/kg 7 g/16g N 1 5.1 -6.2 6 1.2 5.3 -8.8 10 0.5 6.3-7.7 14
Histidine 1.8 2.1 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.2 1.7 -2.2 13 0.3 1.7 -2.7 18 0.2 2-2.8 22
Arginine 4.3 5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.2 -5.5 13 0.8 3.6 -6.4 18 0.5 4-6 22
Alanine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.4 3.5 -4.4 12 0.4 3.7 -5.2 17 0.3 3.9-4.8 20
Aspartic acid 6.5 7.5 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 0.7 5.7 -7.1 13 0.8 6.3 -8.7 18 0.5 6.7-8.5 21
Glutamic acid 19.2 22.1 g/kg 22.6 g/16g N 3.9 16.6 -24.6 12 4.5 16.5 -33.8 18 2 19.9-27.3 20
Glycine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.4 3.5 -4.3 13 0.5 3.7 -5.2 18 0.2 4.2-4.9 22
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.5 3.2 -4.4 13 0.6 3.4 -5.7 18 0.2 4-4.8 21
Proline 8.5 9.8 g/kg 10 g/16g N 2.6 6.5 -9.4 6 3.1 6.7 -16.4 11 1.8 8-13.3 13
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 72 % 4 67-78 8
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 71 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 64-77 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.3 g/kg 81 % 1 -1.1 2 1.2 -1.3 2 3 76-84 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 84 % 4 76-88 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 83 % 3 77-86 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 76 % 3 72-79 5
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 77 % 1 75-78 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 75 % 3 71-81 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.7 g/kg 78 % 2 75-82 8
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 82 % 2 80-85 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 77 % 2 73-79 8
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 80 % 1 78-83 8
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.7 g/kg 79 % 3 74-83 8
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 80 % 3.3 -3.6 2 3.8 -4.1 2 3 74-83 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 3 g/kg 69 % 2.9 -3.1 2 3 66-75 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.8 g/kg 77 % 4.7 -5.3 2 5.4 -6 2 3 72-83 8
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 17 19.6 g/kg 89 % 14.9 -17.4 2 17.1 -19.7 2 1 87-90 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 72 % 2.5 -2.8 2 2.8 -3.2 2 4 64-77 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.4 g/kg 78 % 2.8 -3 2 3.1 -3.4 2 3 72-83 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.8 g/kg 90 % 88-92 3
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 71 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 54 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.3 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.3 g/kg 56 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 67 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 51 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 67 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.1 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 71 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.2 g/kg 73 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 65 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 70 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 65 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.6 g/kg 59 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.4 g/kg 45 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 15.7 18.1 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 40 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.4 g/kg 54 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 69 %
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