Rye

Rye grain (Secale cereale L.).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.7 100 % - 2.1 79.7 -91.9 559 2
Crude protein 8.5 9.8 % - 0.9 7 -11.5 103 1 8 -13.2 76
Crude fibre 2.3 2.6 % - 2.5 1.3 -2.7 171 2.9 1.5 -32.6 198
Crude fat 1.3 1.4 % - 0.3 0.8 -1.8 121 0.4 0.9 -3.5 127
Ash 1.8 2.1 % - 0.7 1.2 -2.3 120 0.8 1.5 -7.7 127
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 1 1
NDF 13.3 15.4 % - 1.9 10.7 -15.6 15 2.2 9.5 -18 17
ADF 3.2 3.6 % - 0.5 2.1 -3.9 20 0.6 2.4 -4.4 22
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 0.2 0.7 -1.4 17 0.3 0.8 -1.6 18
Water insoluble cell walls 12.8 14.8 % - 11.3 -13.6 4 13.5 -15.8 3
Starch 53.3 61.5 % - 2.1 49.1 -58.1 218 2.3 57.3 -66.9 235
Total sugars 3.1 3.6 % - 1.1 2.5 -5.4 7 1.2 2.8 -6.3 8
Gross energy (kcal) 3720 4290 kcal/kg - 60 3670 -3850 5
Gross energy (MJ) 15.6 18 MJ/kg - 0.2 15.4 -16.1 5
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2 2.3 g/kg - 4.8 0.2 -17 20
Phosphorus 3 3.5 g/kg - 0.3 2.5 -3.7 26 0.4 2.8 -4.7 29
Phytate phosphorus 2 2.3 g/kg 65 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 4.5 5.2 g/kg -
Sodium 0.03 0.04 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.7 -0.7 2
Sulfur 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 22 25 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 100 115 mEq/kg -
Manganese 46 53 mg/kg - 1
Zinc 22 25 mg/kg - 1
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 57 65 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.03 0.03 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.08 0.09 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.3 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 16.6 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.7 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 1 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 18.7 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 4.9 5.7 g/kg 52.3 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 6.1 % FA
Fatty acids 0.9 1.1 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 14 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4 4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 2 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 18 21 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 11 13 mg/kg -
Folic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Choline 413 476 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 21 mL/g
Phytase activity 5320 6130 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.02 1.17 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.03 1.19 per kg -
PDIA Systali 17 20 g/kg -
PDI Systali 70 80 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -29 -34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.132 0.153 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2670 3080 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1790 2070 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1820 2100 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.6 8.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 86.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 84 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 77 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 77 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 7 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.03 1.19 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.05 1.21 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 14 16 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 68 79 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -28 -33 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.98 1.14 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.99 1.14 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 21 24 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 73 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -32 -37 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.01 1.16 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.01 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 19 22 g/kg - 19 -28 3
PDIN INRA 2007 55 64 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 82 95 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2670 3080 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.3 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 67.1 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 88 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 10 63-89 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 27 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 69 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 96 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 % 62-90 3
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 51 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 41 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.15 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 59.8 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.3 2.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.1 1.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.1 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3120 3600 kcal/kg - 3080 -3160 3 3580 -3660 3
ME growing pig (kcal) 3020 3490 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2340 2700 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3200 3690 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3080 3550 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2390 2750 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13 15 MJ/kg - 12.9 -13.2 3 15 -15.3 3
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.7 14.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.8 11.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.4 15.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.9 14.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10 11.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 83.8 % 82.6-85 3
Energy digestibility adult pig - 86 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 86.7 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 89 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.5 % 69.7-72.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 76.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 77 % 1.5 75.4-79.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 12.2 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.9 1 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2710 3130 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2320 2680 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.4 13.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.7 11.2 MJ/kg -
Available P broiler 1.4 1.6 g/kg 47 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 84 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.99 1.14 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 59 69 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3110 3590 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3030 3490 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13 15 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.6 %
N digestibility rabbit - 67.6 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.4 3.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.3 3 -4.2 29 0.4 3.3 -4.8 34 0.3 3.2-4.4 38
Threonine 2.9 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.3 2.6 -3.5 13 0.4 2.8 -4.1 18 0.2 3.1-3.8 22
Methionine 1.4 1.6 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.3 1.2 -2 15 0.3 1.1 -2.4 19 0.2 1.3-2.1 22
Cystine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -2.2 13 0.4 2 -3.5 17 0.2 2-2.8 21
Methionine + cystine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.5 2.9 -3.6 13 0.5 3.3 -5.3 16 0.3 3.6-4.7 19
Tryptophan 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.2 0.8 -1.1 10 0.2 0.9 -1.6 9 0.1 0.9-1.4 13
Isoleucine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.4 -3.7 13 0.4 2.8 -4.4 18 0.2 3.1-4 22
Valine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.5 3.9 -5.9 17 0.3 4.3-5.2 21
Leucine 5.2 6 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.6 4.7 -5.3 11 0.7 4.9 -7.5 16 0.3 5.7-6.8 20
Phenylalanine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.6 3.2 -4.5 12 0.7 3.2 -5.7 17 0.3 4-5 21
Tyrosine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.3 1.9 -2.3 6 0.4 2 -3.3 10 0.3 1.9-3 14
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.9 6.8 g/kg 7 g/16g N 1 5.1 -6.2 6 1.2 5.3 -8.8 10 0.5 6.3-7.7 14
Histidine 1.8 2.1 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.2 1.7 -2.2 13 0.3 1.7 -2.7 18 0.2 2-2.8 22
Arginine 4.3 5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.2 -5.5 13 0.8 3.6 -6.4 18 0.5 4-6 22
Alanine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.4 3.5 -4.4 12 0.4 3.7 -5.2 17 0.3 3.9-4.8 20
Aspartic acid 6.5 7.5 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 0.7 5.7 -7.1 13 0.8 6.3 -8.7 18 0.5 6.7-8.5 21
Glutamic acid 19.1 22.1 g/kg 22.5 g/16g N 3.9 16.6 -24.6 12 4.5 16.5 -33.8 18 2 19.9-27.3 20
Glycine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.4 3.5 -4.3 13 0.5 3.7 -5.2 18 0.2 4.2-4.9 22
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.5 3.2 -4.4 13 0.6 3.4 -5.7 18 0.2 4-4.8 21
Proline 8.5 9.8 g/kg 10 g/16g N 2.6 6.5 -9.4 6 3.1 6.7 -16.4 11 1.8 8-13.3 13
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 72 % 4 67-78 8
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 71 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 64-77 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.3 g/kg 81 % 1 -1.1 2 1.2 -1.3 2 3 76-84 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 84 % 4 76-88 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 83 % 3 77-86 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.6 0.7 g/kg 76 % 3 72-79 5
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 77 % 1 75-78 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 75 % 3 71-81 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.7 g/kg 78 % 2 75-82 8
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 82 % 2 80-85 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 77 % 2 73-79 8
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 80 % 1 78-83 8
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.7 g/kg 79 % 3 74-83 8
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 80 % 3.3 -3.6 2 3.8 -4.1 2 3 74-83 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.6 3 g/kg 69 % 2.9 -3.1 2 3 66-75 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.8 g/kg 77 % 4.7 -5.3 2 5.4 -6 2 3 72-83 8
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 17 19.6 g/kg 89 % 14.9 -17.4 2 17.1 -19.7 2 1 87-90 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 72 % 2.5 -2.8 2 2.8 -3.2 2 4 64-77 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.4 g/kg 78 % 2.8 -3 2 3.1 -3.4 2 3 72-83 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.8 g/kg 90 % 88-92 3
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 71 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 54 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.3 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.3 g/kg 56 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.5 g/kg 67 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 51 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 67 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.1 g/kg 64 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 71 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.2 g/kg 73 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 65 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 70 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.2 1.4 g/kg 65 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 66 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.6 g/kg 59 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.4 g/kg 45 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 15.7 18.1 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 40 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.4 g/kg 54 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.7 g/kg 69 %
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