Triticale

Triticale grain (Triticum x Secale).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.8 100 % - 2.3 79.4 -91.2 2086 2.2
Crude protein 10 11.5 % - 0.9 7.2 -15.7 2583 1 8.1 -17.8 2080
Crude fibre 2.5 2.9 % - 0.4 1.4 -4.1 644 0.5 1.6 -4.5 540
Crude fat 1.2 1.4 % - 0.2 0.6 -2.2 486 0.3 0.7 -2.5 400
Ash 1.8 2 % - 0.2 1.3 -2.7 504 0.2 1.5 -3 414
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 0.05 0 -0.2 14 0.06 0 -0.2 14
NDF 13 15 % - 1.3 10.1 -16.4 181 1.5 11.6 -18.5 129
ADF 3.3 3.9 % - 0.4 2.4 -4.7 178 0.5 2.7 -5.3 127
Lignin 1 1.2 % - 0.2 0.6 -1.9 181 0.3 0.7 -2.1 131
Water insoluble cell walls 11 12.6 % - 1.1 8.9 -14.1 182 1.2 10.2 -16.2 131
Starch 58.8 67.7 % - 1.9 51.4 -64.9 1894 1.9 59.2 -73.4 1619
Total sugars 3 3.5 % - 0.7 1.6 -5.2 153 0.9 1.8 -5.8 128
Gross energy (kcal) 3750 4320 kcal/kg - 80 3660 -3990 32 60 4220 -4480 70
Gross energy (MJ) 15.7 18.1 MJ/kg - 0.3 15.3 -16.7 32 0.2 17.7 -18.8 70
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.4 1.6 g/kg - 3.6 0.1 -1.5 232 4.2 0.1 -46.8 232
Phosphorus 3.3 3.9 g/kg - 0.4 2.3 -4.4 118 0.5 2.6 -5.2 88
Phytate phosphorus 2.6 3 g/kg 78 % P 7 65-92 10
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.3 0.3 -1.7 20 0.3 0.4 -2 22
Potassium 5 5.7 g/kg - 0.8 3.7 -6.9 17 0.9 4.3 -7.9 18
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg - 0.06 0.01 -0.2 33 0.06 0.01 -0.23 34
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.1 0.3 -0.8 27 0.1 0.3 -0.8 15
Sulfur 1.4 1.7 g/kg - 0.3 0.9 -1.7 5 0.3 1.1 -1.9 5
Dietary cation-anion difference 23 27 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 113 131 mEq/kg -
Manganese 20 24 mg/kg - 12 10 -60 16 14 11 -69 17
Zinc 24 28 mg/kg - 10 13 -44 18 11 15 -50 18
Copper 5 6 mg/kg - 3 2 -14 18 3 3 -16 17
Iron 40 46 mg/kg - 13 22 -69 10 15 26 -66 7
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.08 -0.09 2 0.1 -0.1 2
Molybdenum 0.5 0.6 mg/kg - 0.2 0.3 -0.7 5 0.2 0.3 -0.8 5
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.08 -0.09 2 0.1 -0.1 2
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 1.2 % FA 1 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 1.5 1.7 g/kg 16.5 % FA 1.7 14.2-18.9 5
C18:0 stearic acid 0.08 0.1 g/kg 0.9 % FA 0.04 0.07 -0.2 6 0.05 0.08 -0.2 6 0.4 0.6-1.5 5
C18:1 oleic acid 1.3 1.5 g/kg 14 % FA 1.3 12.4-15.8 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 5.5 6.3 g/kg 60.6 % FA 3.3 56.6-64.6 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 7.9 % FA 0.4 7.3-8.3 5
Fatty acids 0.9 1 g/kg 75 % fat 4 69-79 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg -
Niacin 18 21 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 6 7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Choline 445 513 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 760 880 IU/kg - 520 -1220 4 830 -1500 4
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.02 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.03 1.19 per kg -
PDIA Systali 21 24 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 73 85 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -18 -21 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.151 0.174 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2670 3080 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1790 2060 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1810 2090 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.6 8.7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 92 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.03 1.19 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.05 1.21 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 18 21 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 73 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -18 -21 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.98 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.99 1.14 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 24 28 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 76 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -20 -23 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1 1.16 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.01 1.16 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 22 25 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 65 75 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 84 97 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2670 3080 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.1 %
N digestibility ruminants - 69 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 78 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 34 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 56 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.23 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 45 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 55 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.585 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 77 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 46 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 47 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.12 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 59.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.9 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.8 0.9 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3210 3700 kcal/kg - 80 3040 -3330 11 80 3530 -3850 22
ME growing pig (kcal) 3120 3590 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2440 2810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3270 3770 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3160 3640 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2460 2840 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.4 15.5 MJ/kg - 0.4 12.7 -13.9 11 0.3 14.8 -16.1 22
ME growing pig (MJ) 13 15 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.2 11.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.2 15.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85.7 % 2.1 80.5-88.1 21
Energy digestibility adult pig - 87.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 88.4 % 2.5 82.8-91.5 11
OM digestibility adult pig - 90 %
N digestibility growing pig - 83 % 3.6 77.3-91.7 20
N digestibility adult pig - 86.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 87 % 2.4 84.2-91 13
Crude fat digestibility pig - 10 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.2 g/kg 30 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.6 1.8 g/kg 48 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2920 3370 kcal/kg - 80 2890 -3050 7 80 3300 -3500 7
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2800 3220 kcal/kg - 2510 -2950 3 2900 -3390 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.2 14.1 MJ/kg - 0.3 12.1 -12.8 7 0.3 13.8 -14.6 7
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.7 13.5 MJ/kg - 10.5 -12.4 3 12.1 -14.2 3
Available P broiler 2.2 2.5 g/kg 66 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.05 1.21 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 70 81 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3110 3590 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3020 3480 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13 15 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.6 14.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 71 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2260 2610 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.5 10.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 60.4 %
N digestibility salmonids - 80.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.5 2.6 -5.4 111 0.6 2.8 -6.1 103 0.3 2.6-4.1 134
Threonine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.6 2.5 -5.8 77 0.7 2.7 -6.5 70 0.2 2.7-3.5 101
Methionine 1.7 2 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.3 1.4 -2.6 76 0.3 1.6 -2.9 69 0.1 1.3-2 100
Cystine 2.6 3 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2.1 -4.1 72 0.5 2.4 -4.6 65 0.2 1.9-2.8 96
Methionine + cystine 4.4 5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.7 3.4 -6.7 71 0.8 3.9 -7.5 64 0.3 3.3-4.7 95
Tryptophan 1.3 1.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.2 0.9 -1.8 49 0.3 1 -2 37 0.1 0.8-1.3 68
Isoleucine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.9 2.3 -6.6 73 1 2.5 -7.6 67 0.3 2.7-4 99
Valine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 3.5 -8.1 72 1.1 3.8 -9.3 65 0.3 3.7-5.1 97
Leucine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.4 5.1 -11.3 73 1.6 5.6 -12.7 67 0.3 5.4-7.2 99
Phenylalanine 4.3 5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.2 2.8 -8 71 1.3 3.1 -9.3 64 0.3 3.1-5.2 96
Tyrosine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.7 2.2 -4.7 62 0.8 2.5 -5.6 56 0.3 2.2-3.3 88
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 7.4 8.5 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 1.8 5.1 -12.5 55 2.1 5.6 -14.8 47 0.5 5.6-8.2 79
Histidine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.5 1.8 -3.9 73 0.6 2 -4.5 67 0.1 1.8-2.7 99
Arginine 5.3 6.1 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 0.8 4.7 -7.9 70 0.9 5.5 -9.1 64 0.4 4.3-6.1 96
Alanine 4.2 4.9 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.7 3.9 -6.8 54 0.8 4.6 -7.7 47 0.2 3.4-4.5 79
Aspartic acid 6.6 7.6 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 5.7 -9.6 55 1.2 6.5 -11.4 49 0.4 5.2-7.1 81
Glutamic acid 24 27.7 g/kg 24.1 g/16g N 6.7 19.7 -46.5 58 7.7 22.7 -52.4 49 1.6 20.5-28.6 81
Glycine 4.4 5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.8 3.8 -7.1 60 0.9 4.4 -8 53 0.2 3.7-4.5 85
Serine 4.5 5.2 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.9 3.7 -7.8 60 1.1 4.3 -8.8 54 0.2 4.2-5.2 86
Proline 8.7 10.1 g/kg 8.8 g/16g N 2.5 6.1 -12.7 37 2.8 7.1 -16.9 27 0.7 6.3-10.1 59
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 83 % 1 1 3 80-88 13
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 82 % 1 1 2 80-87 13
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 90 % 1 1 1 89-92 12
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 91 % 1 1 1 90-93 12
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 91 % 1 1 1 90-92 12
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.1 1.3 g/kg 88 % 2 85-90 11
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 87 % 1 1 1 85-90 13
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 86 % 1 1 2 83-90 13
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.5 g/kg 88 % 1 1 2 87-92 13
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 90 % 1 1 2 88-94 12
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.2 g/kg 90 % 1 1 2 86-93 12
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.7 g/kg 90 % 1 1 2 88-93 12
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.1 2.4 g/kg 89 % 1 1 2 85-93 12
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.6 g/kg 91 % 1 1 2 88-94 13
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 80 % 1 1 4 77-88 13
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.5 g/kg 85 % 1 1 2 81-90 13
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 22.7 26.2 g/kg 95 % 1 1 0.7 94-96 13
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.3 g/kg 85 % 1 1 2 79-89 12
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 88 % 1 1 2 86-91 13
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.5 g/kg 94 % 1 1 1
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 82 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 91 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 75 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4.1 g/kg 81 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1.2 g/kg 83 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 83 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 85 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 87 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.2 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 80 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 80 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.9 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 22.3 25.7 g/kg 93 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 79 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.4 g/kg 84 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 9 g/kg 89 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.76 3.18 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.21 2.54 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 483 557 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0086 0.01 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.51 6.35 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.84 2.12 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.94 3.39 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.21 2.54 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 493 568 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0087 0.01 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.52 6.36 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.84 2.12 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML