Wheat bran, durum

Byproduct of wheat flour or semolina production obtained by the milling of durum wheat grains (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain from which the greater part of the endosperm has been removed.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.6 100 % - 1.2 83.9 -92.2 130 2
Crude protein 14.9 17.2 % - 0.8 12.5 -17.1 172 0.9 14.9 -19.7 132
Crude fibre 9.3 10.8 % - 1.1 5.4 -12.5 147 1.3 6.4 -14.1 115
Crude fat 4.5 5.2 % - 1 1.7 -9.6 206 1.2 1.9 -10.6 206
Ash 4.5 5.2 % - 0.4 2.9 -5.7 112 0.4 4.1 -6.6 85
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 1 1
NDF 40.2 46.5 % - 1 1
ADF 12 13.8 % - 1 1
Lignin 3.4 3.9 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 39.5 45.6 % -
Starch 21.6 24.9 % - 4.2 12.1 -34.1 159 4.8 14.4 -40.6 122
Starch, enzymatic method 18.3 21.1 % -
Total sugars 6.7 7.8 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3990 4600 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.7 19.3 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.3 0.8 -2.1 21 0.4 0.9 -2.4 21
Phosphorus 9 10.4 g/kg - 0.6 8.9 -11.4 18 0.6 10.2 -12.8 18
Phytate phosphorus 7.2 8.4 g/kg 80 % P 50-86 3
Magnesium 2.7 3.1 g/kg - 1 1
Potassium 11.2 12.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sodium 0.13 0.15 g/kg - 0.08 0.04 -0.24 7 0.09 0.05 -0.26 7
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 1 1
Sulfur 1.9 2.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 154 177 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 270 312 mEq/kg -
Manganese 111 128 mg/kg -
Zinc 76 87 mg/kg -
Copper 11 13 mg/kg -
Iron 143 165 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.08 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.4 7.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 5.4 6.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 20.1 23.2 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.1 2.4 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.6 4.1 % 80 % fat 3 75-84 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 14.8 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.5 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.8 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 191 221 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 27.9 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 741 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 1760 2030 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.8 0.93 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.75 0.87 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 76 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.262 0.303 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2230 2580 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1410 1630 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1330 1530 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.3 10.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.9 6.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.5 6.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 68.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 67.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 73 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 60 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.82 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.78 0.9 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 74 85 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 30 35 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.76 0.88 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.7 0.81 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 37 43 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 81 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 22 25 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.79 0.91 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.79 0.91 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.73 0.85 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.73 0.85 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 34 39 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 95 110 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 77 89 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2230 2580 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.3 10.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.3 10.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 70.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 68.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 66.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 80 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 15 13-55 7
Potentially degradable N (b) - 54 % 15 41-78 7
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.165 h-1 0.09 0.083-0.307 7
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 78 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 22 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.205 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 % 8 23-43 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 42 % 14 34-64 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.09 h-1 0.016 0.067-0.108 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.8 7.8 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 788 910 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 802 926 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 60 70 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 35 40 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.3 3.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.2 1.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 61.7 71.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.79 3.22 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.39 1.61 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.31 1.52 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.73 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.96 1.11 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 24 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 28 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.6 6.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 134 155 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 2 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2230 2570 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2120 2440 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1540 1770 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2460 2840 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2320 2670 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1660 1920 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 9.3 10.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 8.9 10.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.4 7.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 9.7 11.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 55.8 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 61.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 59.7 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 65.5 %
N digestibility growing pig - 64.1 %
N digestibility adult pig - 73.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.4 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.3 2.6 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4.5 5.2 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1670 1930 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1590 1840 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7 8.1 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 6.7 7.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2.3 2.6 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.3 2.6 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 69.6 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.79 0.91 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 100 115 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2740 3160 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2640 3050 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.5 13.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 68.6 %
N digestibility rabbit - 47.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2230 2570 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.3 10.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 83.6 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.9 6.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 5.5 6.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 1.9 2.2 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Isoleucine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 6.7 7.8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.1 10.5 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 6 6.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.9 11.4 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Histidine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 9.3 10.8 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 6.6 7.6 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 9.7 11.2 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 30.1 34.7 g/kg 20.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 7.2 8.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 6.4 7.4 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 9.9 11.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 68 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 65 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 2 g/kg 76 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 71 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 73 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 75 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4.1 g/kg 74 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.6 g/kg 72 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.9 g/kg 75 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 79 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 9 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 78 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 9 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 5 g/kg 65 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.9 g/kg 70 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 25.8 29.8 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.3 g/kg 64 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 73 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.2 g/kg 81 % 11 56-92 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.2 g/kg 76 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 71 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2.1 g/kg 80 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 74 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.9 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 76 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 79 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.8 g/kg 75 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 8.1 g/kg 77 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 78 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 75 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.4 g/kg 74 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.4 g/kg 78 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 74 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.4 g/kg 75 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 25.9 29.9 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 71 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.5 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.8 g/kg 77 %
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