Wheat flour "Gruau D", durum

Byproduct of semolina production obtained by the processing of durum wheat grains (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins. Gruau D is the technical name of this product in the French semolina process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.4 100 % - 1.2 84.8 -88.1 114 1.2
Crude protein 16.2 18.8 % - 1.6 12.4 -19.6 187 1.9 14.2 -22.5 117
Crude fibre 1.2 1.4 % - 0.4 0 -2.6 111 0.5 0 -2.4 63
Crude fat 3.3 3.8 % - 0.5 1.6 -4.4 111 0.6 1.8 -4.9 77
Ash 2.4 2.7 % - 0.4 0.8 -3.2 113 0.5 0.9 -3.7 66
NDF 8 9.3 % -
ADF 1.8 2.1 % -
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 7.5 8.6 % -
Starch 54.3 62.8 % - 4 44.7 -64 181 4.6 51.7 -74.4 111
Total sugars 5.1 5.9 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3960 4580 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 19.2 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.8 1 g/kg -
Phosphorus 5.3 6.1 g/kg -
Phytate phosphorus 4.2 4.9 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 7 8.1 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.4 1.7 g/kg -
Manganese 49 57 mg/kg -
Zinc 39 45 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.7 5.4 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4 4.6 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 14.8 17.1 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.5 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.6 3 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin B1 thiamin 22 26 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg -
Niacin 41 48 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Choline 1507 1743 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3020 3490 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.14 1.32 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.17 1.35 per kg -
PDIA Systali 36 42 g/kg -
PDI Systali 88 101 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 29 34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.127 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2950 3410 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2000 2320 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2050 2380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 12.3 14.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 8.4 9.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 8.6 9.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 89.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 88 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 84 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.16 1.34 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.19 1.38 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 31 36 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 85 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 32 37 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.1 1.27 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.12 1.3 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 44 51 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 94 108 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 23 27 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.12 1.3 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 39 45 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 107 124 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 100 116 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2920 3380 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.2 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 91.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 89.4 %
N digestibility ruminants - 75.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 4 4.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3630 4200 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3500 4050 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2660 3080 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3670 4240 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3530 4080 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2690 3110 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.2 17.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 17 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.3 17.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.8 17.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 91.6 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 92.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 93.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 95 %
N digestibility growing pig - 86.4 %
N digestibility adult pig - 87.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 94.3 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 58.6 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2960 3420 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2850 3300 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.4 14.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.9 13.8 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89 %
Energy digestibility horse - 85.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.09 1.26 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 129 149 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3300 3820 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3140 3630 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 16 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.3 %
N digestibility rabbit - 79.5 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.6 7.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 5.3 6.1 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.5 2.9 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 5.8 6.7 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 2.2 2.5 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.2 6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 7.3 8.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.8 11.3 g/kg 6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 6.4 7.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4.1 4.8 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.5 12.2 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 10.6 12.3 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 7.3 8.5 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 11 12.7 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 31.7 36.6 g/kg 19.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 7.9 9.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 7 8 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 10.8 12.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7.1 g/kg 93 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.6 g/kg 91 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 96 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.5 g/kg 93 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.3 g/kg 94 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 91 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.7 g/kg 94 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.8 g/kg 92 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 9.4 10.8 g/kg 96 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7.1 g/kg 97 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 95 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 10.1 11.7 g/kg 96 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.8 g/kg 97 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 10.3 11.9 g/kg 97 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.5 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.6 g/kg 91 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 31 35.9 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.3 8.5 g/kg 93 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.6 g/kg 95 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 12.1 g/kg 97 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.3 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 84 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.6 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.8 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 88 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.4 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.4 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 10.1 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.7 g/kg 91 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 87 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.4 10.9 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.2 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9 10.4 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.1 7 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 9 10.4 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.5 35.3 g/kg 96 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.9 g/kg 87 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.2 g/kg 90 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 10.5 12.1 g/kg 97 %
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