Wheat flour "Gruau D", durum

Byproduct of semolina production obtained by the processing of durum wheat grains (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). It consists principally of particles of endosperm with fine fragments of the outer skins. Gruau D is the technical name of this product in the French semolina process.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.6 100 % - 0.8 84.8 -88.9 132 1.3
Crude protein 16.1 18.5 % - 1.7 12.3 -19.6 204 1.9 14.2 -22.5 134
Crude fibre 1.1 1.3 % - 0.5 0 -2.6 121 0.6 0 -2.4 73
Crude fat 3.3 3.8 % - 0.5 1.6 -4.4 111 0.6 1.8 -4.9 77
Ash 2.3 2.7 % - 0.4 0.8 -3.2 122 0.5 0.9 -3.7 75
Insoluble ash 0.06 0.07 % -
NDF 7.7 8.9 % -
ADF 1.7 1.9 % -
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 7.1 8.2 % -
Starch 54.6 63.1 % - 4.1 44.7 -65.3 198 4.7 51.7 -74.7 128
Starch, enzymatic method 48.8 56.4 % -
Total sugars 5.1 5.9 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3960 4580 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.6 19.2 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.8 1 g/kg -
Phosphorus 5.3 6.1 g/kg -
Phytate phosphorus 4.2 4.9 g/kg 80 % P
Magnesium 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
Potassium 7 8.1 g/kg -
Sodium 0.06 0.07 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.6 0.7 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.4 1.7 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 75 87 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 165 191 mEq/kg -
Manganese 8 9 mg/kg -
Zinc 8 9 mg/kg -
Copper 5 6 mg/kg -
Iron 13 15 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.04 0.05 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.7 5.4 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4 4.6 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 14.8 17.1 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.5 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.6 3 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 5 5.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 1.9 2.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 14.6 16.9 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 5 5.8 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 104 120 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3020 3490 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.05 1.22 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.06 1.23 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 36 42 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 85 99 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 31 36 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.127 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2780 3210 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1860 2140 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1870 2160 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.3 14.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.4 9.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.6 9.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.07 1.24 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.26 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 31 36 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 82 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 34 39 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 43 50 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 91 106 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 25 29 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.03 1.19 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.03 1.19 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.12 1.3 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 38 44 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 106 123 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 96 111 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2770 3190 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.2 14.1 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.6 13.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.6 %
N digestibility ruminants - 73.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 68 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 27 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.235 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 3.9 4.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.5 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1032 1192 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1126 1301 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 87 101 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 27 32 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.8 5.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.6 1.9 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 76.9 88.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.45 3.98 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.81 2.1 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.72 1.98 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2.25 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.35 1.56 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.3 8.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 159 183 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 0.3 0.3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3650 4210 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3520 4070 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2680 3090 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3680 4250 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3540 4090 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2700 3120 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.2 17.6 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 15.3 17.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 17 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14.7 17 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.3 17.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.4 17.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.8 17.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.8 17.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 92 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 93 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 94 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 94.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 86.7 %
N digestibility adult pig - 88 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 94.6 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 58.8 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 2 2.3 g/kg 38 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2980 3440 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2870 3320 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.4 14.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.5 14.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.9 13.8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12 13.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.3 1.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.5 %
Energy digestibility horse - 85.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.09 1.26 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 128 148 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3310 3830 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3150 3640 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.9 16 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.8 16 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.2 15.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.7 %
N digestibility rabbit - 79.4 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2220 2560 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.3 10.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 56 %
N digestibility salmonids - 84 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.5 7.5 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 5.2 6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.5 2.9 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 5.7 6.6 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 2.1 2.5 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.2 6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 7.2 8.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.7 11.2 g/kg 6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 6.3 7.3 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.4 12 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 4.2 4.9 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 10.5 12.1 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 7.2 8.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 10.8 12.5 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 31.7 36.6 g/kg 19.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 7.8 9 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 6.9 8 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 10.7 12.3 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7 g/kg 94 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 91 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 96 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.5 g/kg 93 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.2 g/kg 94 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 92 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.6 g/kg 95 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 6.7 7.7 g/kg 93 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.8 g/kg 96 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7.1 g/kg 97 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 95 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.6 g/kg 96 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.8 g/kg 97 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 10.2 11.7 g/kg 97 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.4 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.9 11.4 g/kg 91 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 31.1 35.9 g/kg 98 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.3 8.4 g/kg 93 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.6 g/kg 95 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 10.4 12 g/kg 97 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 83 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 84 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.6 g/kg 90 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.2 g/kg 85 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.8 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 88 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.4 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.4 g/kg 88 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 10 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.7 g/kg 92 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 87 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.4 10.8 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.2 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.9 10.3 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.9 g/kg 83 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.9 10.3 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.6 35.3 g/kg 97 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.8 g/kg 87 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.2 g/kg 90 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 10.4 12 g/kg 97 %
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