Barley

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.). This feed includes two-row and six-row barleys but not hulless ("naked") varieties.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.2 100 % - 2.3 80.2 -93.2 6275 2.2
Crude protein 9.8 11.2 % - 0.9 6.7 -14.6 8737 1 7.9 -16.7 6212
Crude fibre 4.7 5.4 % - 0.6 2 -8.3 6338 0.7 2.3 -8.2 5402
Crude fat 1.7 1.9 % - 0.3 1 -2.7 1251 0.3 1.2 -3.1 1089
Ash 2.2 2.5 % - 0.2 1.5 -3.4 1578 0.2 1.7 -3.7 1269
Insoluble ash 0.4 0.5 % - 0.1 0.2 -0.6 23 0.1 0.2 -0.7 23
NDF 18.7 21.5 % - 1.9 11.6 -24.2 509 2.2 13.3 -27.8 378
ADF 5.6 6.5 % - 0.8 3.7 -8.1 503 0.9 4.3 -9.2 372
Lignin 1.1 1.2 % - 0.3 0.5 -1.9 479 0.3 0.5 -2.1 347
Water insoluble cell walls 15.3 17.5 % - 1.4 12.4 -21.2 440 1.5 14.1 -22.3 328
Starch 52.4 60 % - 1.8 45.1 -61.1 4011 1.8 50.9 -67.1 3291
Total sugars 2.1 2.5 % - 0.6 0.7 -4.3 199 0.7 1.1 -4.8 144
Gross energy (kcal) 3820 4380 kcal/kg - 70 3490 -4090 108 50 4200 -4590 334
Gross energy (MJ) 16 18.3 MJ/kg - 0.3 14.6 -17.1 108 0.2 17.6 -19.2 334
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.6 0.1 -2.9 1099 0.7 0.1 -17.9 1071
Phosphorus 3.4 3.9 g/kg - 0.3 2.4 -4.2 479 0.3 2.9 -4.6 312
Phytate phosphorus 1.8 2.1 g/kg 55 % P 0.5 1.2 -3 42 0.5 1.3 -3.4 71 8 40-79 71
Magnesium 1.1 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 0.8 -1.9 64 0.2 0.9 -2.1 68
Potassium 4.9 5.6 g/kg - 0.6 3.2 -6.4 111 0.7 3.4 -7.4 90
Sodium 0.1 0.11 g/kg - 0.08 0 -0.52 279 0.09 0 -0.59 252
Chlorine 1 1.2 g/kg - 0.3 0.3 -2.1 76 0.4 0.4 -2.5 52
Sulfur 1.3 1.5 g/kg - 0.3 0.9 -2.1 13 0.3 1.1 -2.3 14
Dietary cation-anion difference 21 24 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 100 115 mEq/kg -
Manganese 15 17 mg/kg - 5 7 -23 48 6 9 -37 47
Zinc 30 35 mg/kg - 8 16 -86 51 9 22 -62 49
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 5 1 -27 52 6 1 -30 45
Iron 108 124 mg/kg - 123 27 -502 60 141 32 -557 42
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 0.4 0.01 -2 20
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Molybdenum 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 1
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.03 0.08 -0.2 10 0.03 0.1 -0.2 10
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.2 % FA 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.9 3.3 g/kg 22.2 % FA 0.4 2.5 -4 13 0.5 2.8 -4.4 13 2.1 19-26.9 12
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.5 % FA 0.08 0.08 -0.4 13 0.1 0.1 -0.4 13 0.5 0.6-2.3 11
C18:1 oleic acid 1.5 1.8 g/kg 12 % FA 1.7 11.4-17.8 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 7.1 8.2 g/kg 55.4 % FA 0.9 6.9 -9.6 13 1 7.9 -10.6 13 1.2 53-57.5 11
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 5.6 % FA 0.4 0.6 -1.7 13 0.4 0.6 -2 13
Fatty acids 1.3 1.5 g/kg 77 % fat 2 74-79 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.2 2.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 16 19 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4 5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4 5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 53 61 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 7 9 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.4 0.4 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.2 mg/kg - 0.01 0.1 -0.2 5
Choline 1014 1162 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 4.2 mL/g
Phytase activity 590 670 IU/kg - 180 210 -1080 30 200 250 -1260 28
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.95 1.09 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.94 1.08 per kg -
PDIA Systali 26 29 g/kg -
PDI Systali 75 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -20 -23 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.169 0.194 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2540 2920 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1680 1920 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1660 1910 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.6 12.2 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 80.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 78.3 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 71 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 86 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 73 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.97 1.11 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.97 1.11 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 22 25 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 73 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -19 -21 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.92 1.05 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.9 1.03 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 31 36 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 79 91 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -23 -27 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.94 1.08 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.06 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 29 33 g/kg - 8 27 -31 2 9 14 -49 13
PDIN INRA 2007 67 77 g/kg - 8 63 -73 2 9 65 -98 13
PDIE INRA 2007 87 99 g/kg - 8 86 -118 13
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2550 2920 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 82.3 % 12.1 60.1-89.5 9
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 79.7 %
N digestibility ruminants - 65.1 % 63.6-91 4
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 91 % 42.7-95.5 2
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 71 % 10 52-90 35
Immediately degradable N (a) - 29 % 19 7-55 8
Potentially degradable N (b) - 65 % 19 29-87 8
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.11 h-1 0.105 0.097-0.345 8
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 % 88-91 3
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 52 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 48 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.205 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 % 14 31-84 16
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 45 % 15 45-87 7
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.135 h-1 0.175 0.027-0.55 7
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 65.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.6 2.9 g/kg 76 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3070 3520 kcal/kg - 130 2830 -3210 19 140 3000 -3670 33
ME growing pig (kcal) 2970 3410 kcal/kg - 70 2870 -3020 6 60 3310 -3470 6
NE growing pig (kcal) 2280 2610 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3150 3620 kcal/kg - 1 3410 -3710 3
ME adult pig (kcal) 3030 3480 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2330 2670 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.8 14.7 MJ/kg - 0.5 11.8 -13.4 19 0.6 12.5 -15.3 33
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.4 14.3 MJ/kg - 0.3 12 -12.6 6 0.2 13.8 -14.5 6
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.5 10.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.2 15.1 MJ/kg - 1 14.3 -15.5 3
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.7 14.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.7 11.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 80.3 % 2.3 74.4-84 29
Energy digestibility adult pig - 82.5 % 80.5-83.5 2
OM digestibility growing pig - 83.3 % 40.5-85.7 4
OM digestibility adult pig - 85 % 83-86 2
N digestibility growing pig - 74.6 % 9.4 52.4-87 12
N digestibility adult pig - 79.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 80 % 5.3 68.3-86.1 16
Crude fat digestibility pig - 23.6 % 23.4-81.5 2
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 32 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.4 1.6 g/kg 41 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2740 3140 kcal/kg - 160 2660 -2990 15 170 3010 -3650 15
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2600 2980 kcal/kg - 100 2400 -2810 11 110 2660 -3130 27
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg - 0.6 11.2 -12.5 15 0.7 12.6 -15.3 15
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.9 12.5 MJ/kg - 0.4 10 -11.8 11 0.5 11.1 -13.1 27
Available P broiler 2 2.3 g/kg 59 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 83 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 79.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.99 1.14 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 69 79 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3020 3460 kcal/kg - 1 3330 -3560 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 2930 3360 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.6 14.5 MJ/kg - 1 13.9 -14.9 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.2 14 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 79 % 75.7-79.1 2
N digestibility rabbit - 68.6 % 53.3-75 3
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 600 690 kcal/kg - 320 -1090 4 350 -1180 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 2.5 2.9 MJ/kg - 1.4 -4.6 4 1.5 -4.9 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 15.7 % 8-26.8 4
N digestibility salmonids - 73.2 % 53-100 4
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -5.3 98 0.5 3.5 -5.4 26 0.3 2.7-4.1 93
Threonine 3.4 3.9 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.5 2.5 -4.5 97 0.5 3 -4.9 26 0.1 2.7-3.6 93
Methionine 1.7 1.9 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.2 98 0.3 1.2 -2.4 26 0.2 0.9-2.1 93
Cystine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.7 -3.1 196 0.3 1.9 -3.5 130 0.2 1.7-2.8 201
Methionine + cystine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 2.9 -5.3 188 0.6 3.3 -6.1 122 0.3 3.3-4.8 193
Tryptophan 1.2 1.4 g/kg 1.2 g/16g N 0.2 1 -1.9 111 0.2 1.1 -1.9 49 0.08 1.1-1.4 118
Isoleucine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.5 2.5 -4.9 97 0.6 3 -5.5 26 0.2 2.8-3.9 93
Valine 5 5.7 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.6 -6.7 97 0.8 4.4 -7.4 26 0.2 4-5.3 93
Leucine 6.7 7.7 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 4.9 -9.6 97 1.2 5.8 -10.4 26 0.3 5.3-7 93
Phenylalanine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.8 3.2 -8 199 0.9 3.9 -8.5 139 0.3 3.9-5.7 210
Tyrosine 2.8 3.2 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.6 1.6 -4.2 113 0.7 2.2 -4.8 65 0.4 2-3.6 126
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 7.6 8.7 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 1.4 5.3 -12.2 89 1.5 6.7 -13.1 38 0.5 6.2-9.1 99
Histidine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.6 -3 97 0.4 1.9 -3.4 26 0.1 1.7-2.4 93
Arginine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.8 -7.4 97 0.9 4.4 -8 26 0.2 4.3-5.4 93
Alanine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.5 3.3 -5.5 97 0.5 3.9 -5.9 26 0.2 3.3-4.5 93
Aspartic acid 5.8 6.7 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 0.7 4.6 -8.1 187 0.7 5.4 -9.1 125 0.4 4.7-6.7 194
Glutamic acid 22.2 25.5 g/kg 22.7 g/16g N 3.8 15 -36.3 183 4.4 17.6 -39.7 123 1.7 17.3-27.1 192
Glycine 4 4.6 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.5 3.2 -5.3 97 0.5 3.8 -5.7 26 0.3 3-4.6 93
Serine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 3.1 -5.7 97 0.8 3.6 -6.5 26 0.2 3.5-4.6 93
Proline 10.3 11.8 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N 2.3 6.4 -16.5 97 2.7 7.4 -16.8 26 0.8 7.8-11.8 93
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 75 % 5 69-85 18
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 75 % 6 65-87 18
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 84 % 0.1 1.4 -1.6 4 0.2 1.6 -2 5 3 77-88 14
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 84 % 0.4 1.6 -2.5 4 0.4 1.9 -2.9 5 5 76-91 14
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 84 % 3 -4 4 3.4 -4.6 4 4 78-88 12
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1 1.1 g/kg 79 % 1 1 10 57-87 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 81 % 4 74-87 15
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 % 4 75-88 15
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.4 g/kg 83 % 4 73-88 15
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 84 % 5 76-90 14
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 83 % 6 69-90 14
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.2 g/kg 83 % 5 74-90 12
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2.1 g/kg 81 % 0.2 1.7 -2.2 4 0.3 1.9 -2.6 5 8 57-89 14
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 % 3 79-87 15
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 71 % 5 64-84 15
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5.1 g/kg 76 % 5 69-83 15
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 19.6 22.5 g/kg 88 % 4 81-94 15
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.5 g/kg 76 % 0.2 2.9 -3.5 4 0.3 3.3 -3.9 5 7 65-84 14
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 81 % 5 71-88 15
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.9 g/kg 84 % 1.4 8.5 -11.2 4 1.6 9.8 -13.8 5 4 78-90 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 81 % 5 75-89 12
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 2.9 g/kg 75 % 70-81 3
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 91 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 2 g/kg 76 % 74-84 3
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 82 % 76-86 3
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1 1.1 g/kg 79 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 82 % 79-85 3
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.5 g/kg 80 % 78-84 3
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 81 % 81-85 3
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.5 g/kg 81 % 80-91 3
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 75 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.8 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2 g/kg 79 % 77-90 3
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 78 % 77-80 3
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 75 % 73-78 2
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 72 % 72-78 2
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 19.4 22.2 g/kg 87 % 86-88 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 72 % 71-77 3
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 80 % 75-82 3
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.5 9.7 g/kg 83 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.33 2.67 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.84 3.26 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 366 420 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0091 0.0104 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.86 4.42 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.48 1.69 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.51 2.88 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.84 3.26 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 376 431 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0092 0.0105 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.87 4.43 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.48 1.7 m²yr/kg -
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