Corn gluten feed

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch obtained from maize grain (Zea mays L.) by wet milling. It is composed of bran and gluten, to which steeping liquor and germs, deoiled or not, may be added. The values below are given for dried corn gluten feed but this product is also sold in humid form. Other name: maize gluten feed.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 2.9 79.5 -96.3 542 2.7
Crude protein 18.9 21.5 % - 1.4 14.7 -24.4 691 1.5 16.1 -28.2 532
Crude fibre 7.9 9 % - 0.8 5.8 -10.2 582 0.8 6.9 -11.6 408
Crude fat 2.5 2.8 % - 0.8 1 -6.5 282 0.9 1.2 -7 210
Ash 5.7 6.5 % - 0.8 2.5 -9.2 328 0.9 4.8 -10.1 231
Insoluble ash 1 1.1 % - 0.4 0.4 -1.5 8 0.4 0.5 -1.7 7
NDF 35 39.9 % - 4.7 24.3 -46.8 186 5.3 27.6 -51.8 213
ADF 9.3 10.6 % - 1.3 7.4 -12.7 183 1.5 8.1 -14.6 204
Lignin 1.1 1.3 % - 0.5 0.4 -3.1 298 0.6 0.4 -3.4 314
Water insoluble cell walls 34.5 39.3 % - 2.6 19 -37.4 15 2.9 34.8 -43 13
Starch 18 20.5 % - 3.5 8.4 -30 673 4 9.8 -34.5 500
Total sugars 1.7 1.9 % - 1 0.1 -6.2 183 1.2 0.1 -7.2 186
Gross energy (kcal) 3930 4470 kcal/kg - 110 3780 -4350 20 90 4320 -4730 33
Gross energy (MJ) 16.4 18.7 MJ/kg - 0.5 15.8 -18.2 20 0.4 18.1 -19.8 33
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.4 1.6 g/kg - 1 0.2 -5 867 1.1 0.2 -5.8 854
Phosphorus 8.6 9.8 g/kg - 1.5 4.5 -14.4 960 1.8 5.1 -16.4 944
Phytate phosphorus 5.6 6.4 g/kg 65 % P 2 -6.1 2 2.3 -7.1 4 23-77 4
Magnesium 3.7 4.2 g/kg - 0.5 2.9 -5.2 31 0.6 2.8 -5.7 39
Potassium 13.5 15.3 g/kg - 2.5 8.8 -19.4 60 2.9 9.5 -22.2 64
Sodium 3.07 3.5 g/kg - 2.39 0.07 -9.22 171 2.73 0.08 -10.49 176
Chlorine 2.1 2.4 g/kg - 0.8 1.4 -6.4 32 1 0.9 -7.2 38
Sulfur 2.8 3.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 247 281 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 419 477 mEq/kg -
Manganese 19 22 mg/kg - 6 13 -33 13 7 8 -35 19
Zinc 56 64 mg/kg - 19 10 -115 20 21 11 -120 26
Copper 6 7 mg/kg - 4 2 -12 26 4 2 -19 22
Iron 187 213 mg/kg - 140 87 -537 16 159 80 -593 20
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.1 0 -0.3 7 0.1 0 -0.3 6
Cobalt 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg - 0.6 0.7 -2 14
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 0.08 0 -0.3 6 0.09 0.1 -0.3 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.3 2.6 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.4 1.8-2.7 5
C18:1 oleic acid 5.7 6.4 g/kg 26.1 % FA 0.9 4.7 -6.7 5 1 5.3 -7.4 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 12.9 14.7 g/kg 59.5 % FA 2.5 12.2 -17.7 5 2.8 13.8 -19.6 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.2 2.5 g/kg 88 % fat 2 86-90 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.6 3 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 10 12 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 13 14 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 64 73 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 17 19 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.1 0.2 mg/kg -
Choline 1481 1687 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 17 20 mg/kg - 4 5 -55 27 5 9 -28 21
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 0 0 IU/kg - 0 -400 3
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.92 1.04 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.89 1.02 per kg -
PDIA Systali 46 53 g/kg -
PDI Systali 94 107 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 48 54 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.272 0.309 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2480 2820 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1610 1840 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1570 1790 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.7 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.6 7.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 77.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 75.9 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 71 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 82 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 60 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 9.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.92 1.05 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 40 46 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 90 102 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 52 59 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.88 1 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.85 0.96 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 55 62 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 101 116 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 39 45 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.02 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.86 0.98 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 47 54 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 124 141 g/kg - 134 -154 3
PDIE INRA 2007 98 112 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2450 2800 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 79.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 77.3 %
N digestibility ruminants - 73 % 4 67.6-80 7
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 85 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 74 % 4 62-74 7
Immediately degradable N (a) - 49 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 43 % 37-44 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.08 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 85 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 56 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 44 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.115 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 % 10 54-80 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 33 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 60 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.05 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 70.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.9 6.7 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.8 0.9 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.4 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2500 2840 kcal/kg - 270 2410 -3170 7 300 2520 -3560 10
ME growing pig (kcal) 2350 2680 kcal/kg - 2240 -2720 2 2330 -3170 2
NE growing pig (kcal) 1570 1790 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2950 3360 kcal/kg - 3310 -4160 3
ME adult pig (kcal) 2730 3110 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1850 2110 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.9 MJ/kg - 1.1 10.1 -13.3 7 1.3 10.5 -14.9 10
ME growing pig (MJ) 9.8 11.2 MJ/kg - 9.4 -11.4 2 9.8 -13.3 2
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.6 7.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.3 14.1 MJ/kg - 13.8 -17.4 3
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.4 13 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.8 8.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 63.6 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 75.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 67.1 % 0.9 66-68 5
OM digestibility adult pig - 78 % 78-80 2
N digestibility growing pig - 58.9 %
N digestibility adult pig - 73.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 69 % 3.4 63.4-74.8 13
Crude fat digestibility pig - 28.7 % 21 10-66 6
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.9 2.2 g/kg 22 % 20-22 2
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1780 2030 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1740 1980 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70 % 66-71 2
Energy digestibility horse - 67.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.74 0.84 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 137 156 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2810 3200 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 2670 3040 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 71.6 %
N digestibility rabbit - 58.5 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1140 1300 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 4.8 5.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 29 %
N digestibility salmonids - 92 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6 6.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 3.3 -9.3 102 1.1 3.5 -9.1 94 0.5 2-4 93
Threonine 6.5 7.4 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -9.6 80 0.8 3.7 -8.9 71 0.2 2.9-4.1 71
Methionine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.4 1.9 -4.4 85 0.5 2 -4.9 74 0.2 1.2-1.9 73
Cystine 3.5 4 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.6 1.9 -5.5 80 0.7 2 -5.8 70 0.2 1.3-2.6 69
Methionine + cystine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.9 3.8 -9.4 77 1 4.1 -10.6 66 0.3 2.9-4.4 65
Tryptophan 1.3 1.5 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.2 0.8 -1.8 42 0.3 0.9 -2 31 0.1 0.5-1 32
Isoleucine 5.9 6.8 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.6 -8.2 81 0.8 3.9 -9.2 72 0.3 2.4-3.7 73
Valine 8.8 10.1 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 1.2 4.6 -11.8 77 1.4 4.9 -13.8 67 0.4 3.8-5.2 68
Leucine 15.2 17.3 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.9 9.9 -21.2 77 2.2 10.7 -23.6 69 0.7 6.1-9.3 69
Phenylalanine 6.8 7.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.9 4.2 -9.6 80 1.1 4.5 -10.8 72 0.3 2.7-4.1 72
Tyrosine 4.8 5.4 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 1 2.9 -7.3 69 1.1 3.2 -8.2 60 0.4 1.7-3.3 60
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.6 13.2 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 1.7 7.2 -15.3 66 1.9 7.7 -17.9 57 0.6 4.6-7 57
Histidine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.8 2.4 -7.7 76 0.9 2.6 -7.9 68 0.3 2.3-3.6 69
Arginine 9.1 10.4 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1.7 4.3 -11.7 76 2 4.9 -13.1 68 0.7 2.7-5.7 69
Alanine 11.8 13.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.6 7.3 -17 74 1.8 7.9 -18.6 66 0.5 5.1-7.5 66
Aspartic acid 10.8 12.3 g/kg 5.7 g/16g N 1.2 6.8 -13.9 77 1.4 7.3 -14.5 69 0.5 4.5-6.4 69
Glutamic acid 26.4 30 g/kg 14 g/16g N 3 15.7 -35.7 75 3.4 16.9 -40.3 67 0.8 12.4-16.2 67
Glycine 8.1 9.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.1 4.1 -10.3 77 1.2 4.4 -12 69 0.4 3-4.8 70
Serine 7.7 8.8 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.9 4.5 -10.4 77 1 4.8 -11.7 69 0.3 3.5-4.5 69
Proline 11.9 13.5 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 66 % 3.7 -4.8 4 4.2 -5.5 4 5 57-74 13
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.2 g/kg 70 % 4.4 -5 4 5 -5.8 4 3 67-75 13
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 84 % 3 79-88 13
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 69 % 2.2 -3.1 3 2.5 -3.5 3 5 61-76 12
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.8 g/kg 76 % 4.8 -5.6 3 5.5 -6.4 3 3 71-81 11
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 1 g/kg 66 % 0.7 -1 4 0.8 -1.1 4 8 60-88 12
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.2 g/kg 78 % 4.2 -5.3 4 4.8 -6.1 4 4 73-85 13
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.5 g/kg 75 % 4 69-83 13
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 12.7 14.5 g/kg 84 % 12.6 -15.6 4 14.1 -18 4 3 79-90 13
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.5 g/kg 84 % 5.4 -6.5 4 6.1 -7.4 4 4 77-91 13
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 % 5 70-92 13
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 9.7 11 g/kg 83 % 4 74-92 12
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 70 % 3.5 -4.8 4 4 -5.5 4 9 54-81 13
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.9 g/kg 86 % 5.8 -8.2 4 6.7 -9.4 4 3 81-90 13
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.5 10.8 g/kg 80 % 8.9 -11.8 4 10 -13.5 4 3 75-86 13
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.7 g/kg 70 % 7 -9.4 4 8 -10.7 4 4 65-76 13
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 20.8 23.6 g/kg 79 % 19.8 -25.2 4 22.3 -28.9 4 3 73-83 13
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 65 % 5.1 -5.7 4 5.8 -6.5 4 5 58-76 13
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.9 6.7 g/kg 77 % 5.6 -6.3 4 6.2 -7.3 4 2 73-81 13
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 10.1 g/kg 75 % 7 64-83 5
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 72 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 76 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 82 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 70 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 76 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.1 1.2 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 83 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 85 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.7 15.6 g/kg 90 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 86 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.8 11.2 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.1 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11.6 g/kg 86 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.4 g/kg 76 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 22.9 26.1 g/kg 87 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 71 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 10 11.4 g/kg 84 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 22.31 25.41 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 6.78 7.72 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 1902 2166 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0359 0.0409 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 14.29 16.28 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.16 2.46 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML